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Digitized by the Internet Archive 
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Counties, Towns, Mountains, 

Parishes, 'Villages, J v Valleys, &c. 

Islands, Lakes, of that 

Cities, J Rivers, 1 Kingdom. 

in account of the Political Conjiitution — Hi/lory — Extent — Boundaries- 
State of Agriculture — Population — Natural Hijlory — Buildings — 
Seats of the Nobility and Gentry — Roads — i^c. 









18 3. 




GOTLAND, or that part of the ifland of Great Britain, which lies to the 
N. of the river Tweed, is bounded on all fides by the fea, except on the S. E., 
where it is joined to England. The Orkney and Shetland ifies, and the 
northern coaft of the mainland of Scotland, oppofe themfelves to the waves 
of the great North Sea; the eaftern mores are bounded by the German 
Ocean ; the ifiands and rugged cliffs, on its weftern coaft, repel the waves of 
the great Atlantic Ocean ; and the fouthern ihores are wafhed by the waves 
of the Irifh Sea, and the Solway Frith. Scotland extends about 280 miles in 
length, from the Mull of Galloway to Cape Wrath ; and, at the greateft 
breadth, from the Point or Ru of Ardnamurchan to Buchannefs, 1S0 miles; 
but the land is fo indented by arms ©f the fea, that the breadth is exceed- 
ingly various, and no part is diftant above 40 miles from the coaft. Scotland 
lies in 54? N. latitude; but the ifiands pertaining to it lie much farther N. ; 
the extreme ifland of Shetland being in 61° ia'N.; nearly the fame latitude as 

Bergen in Norway. 


In defcribing the coafts of Scotland, we lhati begin at the S. E. angle of the 
country. From Berwick, the fhore bends towards the N W., till it ter- 
minates in the Frith of Forth, which penetrates many miles inland, affording 
fafe anchorage and fh'elter the whole extent. The promontory of Fife jutting 
out into the Ocean, forms a divifion between the Frith of Forth and the 
ieftuary of the Toy. From the Frith of Tay to Peterhead or Buchannefs, the 
Coaft flopes in a waving direction to the N. E, Proceeding northward, there 
is a vaft bay or opening, fomewhat of the form of an equilateral triangle ; 
the fide of which is about So miles in length. The fouthern part of this 

A % 


great opening is termed the Moray Frith, and extends inland as far as Inver- 
nefs. The N. coaft of this gap is indented by the Friths of Cromarty and 
Dornoch, both fafe ftations ; the former being the Portus Salutis of the an- 
cient geographers. From the Frith of Dornoch, the fhore tends toward the 
N. E., terminating at the promontory of Dungifbay, or Duncanfbay-head,- 
the extreme point of the N. E. coaft of Scotland. The northern coafts are in 
general bold and dangerous, jutting out into formidable rocky promontories, 
and divided from the Orkneys by a narrow and tempeftuous fea, named the 
Pentland Frith. Proceeding ibuthward from Cape Wrath, the N. W. promon- 
tory, the whole of the weftern fhore feems torn and mattered by the fury of 
the waves, and is every where indented by extenfive arms of the fea ; while, 
in every part, innumerable iflands are feen, which appear as if they had been 
detached or torn from the mainland by fome convulfion of nature. About 
30 or, 40 miles W. from the mainland of Scotland, a range of iflands, fome- 
times called the Long IJland, ftretches from N. to S. above 100 miles. Nearer 
the coaft is the large ifle of Sky ; and towards the S. is the ill and of Mull, 
feparated by a narrow found. Still farther S. are the great ifles of Hay and 
Jura, with other fmaller ifles. Near the found of Mull is the great and na- 
vigable arm of the fea Loch Linnhe, which extends N. E. as far as Fort Wil- 
liam, approaching within 50 miles of the extremity of the Moray Frith, 
Southwards from this great opening, the coaft of Argyllfhire runs out into 
the long and narrow peninfula of Kintyre, the Mull or Point of which is only 
so miles diftant from the Irifh coaft. Between the promontory of the Mull 
of Kintyre, and the coaft of Ayrfhire, is the grand entrance to the Frith of 
Clyde ; in which are the ifles of Arran, Bute, and the fmaller iflands, the 
Cambrays, and Inch-marnock. This asftuary divides, at the ifle of Bute, into 
two great openings ; the firft, Loch Fyne, extending into Argyllfhire upwards 
of 40 miles ; the fecond, the Frith of Clyde, extending eaftward till within 
30 miles of the Frith of Forth, and connected with that arm of the fea by a 
navigable canal. From the Frith of Clyde the coaft takes a direction towards 
the S., to the promontory of the Mull of Galloway, the S. W. point of Scot- 
land. From thence the coaft tends eaftward, bounded by the Solway Frith. 
From the head of the Solway Frith, a natural boundary with the Englifh 
border, is nearly completed by the river Liddal, the Cheviot hills, and the 
river Tweed. 


Scotland is eftimated to contain an area of 279794 miles; which, by the 
report lately made to the Board of Agriculture, comprehended ia ; iji,47i 


acres of cultivated, and 14,218,224 acres of uncultivated lands. The remain- 
der of the furface is occupied by lakes and rivers. Scotland is naturally di- 
vided into the two great divifions of Highlands and Lowlands, of which 
particular accounts are given under thefe articles in the Gazetteer, in the 
order of the alphabet. But, it is alfo divided into three parts, which we call 
the north, the middle, and the /out A divifions. The boundaries of thefe are as 
irrongly marked by nature, as the divifion into Highland and Lowland. The , 
firft or northern divifion, is cut off from the middle, by the chain of lakes 
occupying the middle of the Glenmore-na-b l 'a'.abin, ftretching from the Moray 
Frith to Loch Linnhe. The fecond or middle divifion is feparated from the 
fouthern, by the Friths of Forth and Clyde, and the great Canal. In the 
northern divifion, the face of the country prefents nothing to the eye but an 
afTemblage of vaft mountains ; bordered, however, on the N., N. E., and E. 
coafts with vaka and level trails, of confiderable fertility. The middle divifion 
contains alfo many great ranges of mountains, particularly the Grampians, 
which extend from Aberdeenlliire in a S. W. direction to the Atlantic. This 
ridge forms the boundary between the hilly and the flat country, which here, 
as well as in the former divifion, occupies the northern and the eaftern coafts. 
In thefe two divifions, which comprehend more than two-thirds of Scotland, 
the arable ground bears but a fmall proportion to the mountainous regions ; 
of which the ruggednefs and fterility will ever, in a great meafure, defy the 
efforts of human induftry. The country, on the eaftern ccafts of the middle 
divifion, and in a great part of the fouthern, bears more refemblance to Eng- 
land ; and the proportions of the cultivated to the uncultivated lands are al- 
tered. In the fouthern divifion, we find every fort of rural variety. " In fom-e 
parts," fays a late author, " are feen verdant plains watered by copious 
ilreams, and covered with innumerable cattle. In others, the pleaSng viciSi- 
tudes of gently riling hills and bending vales, fertile in corn, waving with 
wood, and interfperfed with meadows, offer the mod delightful landfcape of 
rural opulence and beauty. Some tracts abound with profpecls of the moil 
romantic kind, — lofty mountains, craggy rocks, deep narrow dells, and 
tumbling torrents ; nor are there wanting, as a contrail to fo many agreeable 
fcenes, the gloomy pictures of black barren muirs, and wild uncultivated 


The principal ridges of mountains in Scotland are the Grampian bills ; the 
Penttand hills, in Lothian ; the mountains of Rofs-fiiire, called Ardrafs ; the 


Lammermuir hills, in Berwickfhire ; the great ridge of hills, between LanarS 
and Dumfries-fhires, from whence the great rivers of the S. of Scotland taki 
their rife ; the Ochils, in Fife and Perthfliires ; and the Cheviot hills, on the 
Englifti border. Of the individual mountains, the moft remarkable are noted 
below, with their elevation.* 


The lakes or lochs of Scotland are very numerous and extenfive. 1 Any at- 
tempt to defcribe, or even to enumerate them, would greatly exceed the 
limits of an Introduction ; but fuch is their picturefque beauty, and fo admir= 
able is the fine fcenery with which they are furrounded, that fcarcely are the 
happieft ftrokes of the moft Ikilful pencil, or the warmeft glow of poetic ert- 
thufiafm, adequate to convey a full idea of the profpedts they afford. The 
chief are, Loch Lomond, Loch Aiu.ov Ow, Loch Toy, Loch Nefs, Loch Shinj 
Loch Lochaj, Loch Naver, Loch Lcven, &e. 


The rivers of Scotland are numerous ; and, defcending from fo elevated a 
country to the fea, are in general rapid and precipitous. In a country of fo 
fmall extent, and at the fame time fo mountainous, we cannot, indeed, expect 
to find rivers equal to the Rhine or the Danube ; but when their rapidity, 
and the ihortnefs of their courfe are kept in view, the Scottifh rivers are by 
no means inconfiderable. In a level country like Germany, half the water 
they difcharge would make very broad and deep rivers. Their rapid courfe 
renders their banks very pidturefque ; the falls and innumerable cafcades 
every where heightening the fcenery. In the northern divifion there are many 
considerable rivers, particularly the Beaulie, Naver, Canon, &c. : but thefe are 
by no means equal to thofe of the middle divifion, where' we have the Spey 

* Bennevis, 43 70". 

Cairngorm, 4030 

Benlawers, ..... 4015 

Benmore, 3907 

Benglo, ....... 3725 [ 

Shechallion, .... 3564 

Beindeirg, 3550 J>feet above the level of the fea„- 

Benvoirlich, .... 3300 
Benlomond, .... 326a 

Benledi, 3009 

Benivenow, ...... 3000 

Benchochan^ .... 3000 

&c. &c. j 


rising in the mountainous diftrict of Lochaber, and rufhing furioufly into the 
Eaftern Sea. The Toy difcharges into the Ocean, below Dundee, a greater 
quantity of water than perhaps any river of Britain. In this diftrid:, too, the 
Dee and Don, and the E/ks, very large rivers, pour into the fea a great volume 
of water. In the fouthern diftricl, we have the Forth, the Clyde, and the 
Tweed ; and the numerous rivers which empty themfelves into the Irifh Sea 
and Solway Frith ; the Ayr, the Girvatip the Southern Dee, the Nith, tlj& 
Annan, and the Liddah 


The ancient forefts of Scotland have been greatly diminifhed in extent, 
i while our improvident anceftors never thought of replacing them by planta- 
tions. Of the ancient Sylva Caledonia, or Caledonian foreft, the moft confi- 
derable remains are in the diftricts of Marr and Glentanar ; in Rannoch ; in 
Glenmore and Strathfpey ; and in Alfarig, in Rofs-fhire. The fir is the moft 
common wood; but the oak and other deciduous trees are not wanting. 
Thefe forefts, fome of which extend no lefs than 30 or 40 miles in length, 
would, doubtlefs, be a fource of great riches to the proprietors, and to the 
country at large, did not the want of roads, and the diftance from the fea, 
preclude the pofiibility of land carriage ; and the plan of floating down the 
rivers is not fo practicable, owing to the rifk. of being fhivered by the frequent 
and high falls. Notwithstanding thefe obftacles, however, feveral companies 
have fucceeded in floating upon the Spey and Dee, by cutting canals where 
the falls are fo high as to injure the wood. 


Situated in the midft of a great ocean, and in fuch a northern latitude, 
Scotland cannot boaft of a regular climate. In different places the climate 
varies confiderably. From its infular fituation, however, the cold in winter is 
not fo intenfe as in fimilar latitudes on the Continent ; and in fummer, the 
heat, efpecially on the coaft, is moderated by the fea breezes. In winter, the 
thermometer feldom finks fo low as it does in the S. of England ; but the 
length of that feafon is generally more protracted. Like other mountainous 
countries, it is much fubject to rain ; and the mountains being generally 
higheft on the W. coaft, and declining towards the E., has been thought to 
be the caufe why the weftern coaft is moft rainy. We are inclined to believe 
this, owing to the prevalence of the weft wind, which brings humidity from 


the Atlantic ocean. Clouds of the fea are fraught with vapour, in proportion 
to the extent of the fea over 'which they pafs ; becaufe they are continually 
abforbing the exhalations from its furface. Hence it follows that the fame 
tract of windy weather, and the fame quantity of hoar or fog imported from 
the ocean, will not produce fo much rain on the E. as on the W. coafts. 
During the fpring months, however, the W. coafts have the advantage ; for 
the eafterly winds in that feafon are generally frofty, by which vegetation is 
retarded, and the E. coafts are almoft deprived of the moft pleafant feafon of 
the year. As Scotland pofTcffes few or fcarcely any marfhy diftridts, the 
climate is more falubrious than in the low and fenny counties of England. 
Since the greater part of the marlhy grounds have been drained, agues and 
other difeafes, arifing from putrid or marfh miafmata y have almoft difappeared. 


The foil con nils of every variety, in nature ; but its general character is in- 
ferior in point of fertility to that of England. Perhaps the latenefs of the 
feafon, owing to a more northern latitude, may have given rife to this idea ; 
for there are many valleys and ftraths, as they are called, which, in early 
feafons, are as produ&ive as the moft favoured fields of Effex. With regard 
to the foil of the hilly country, an author, eminent for his agricultural abi- 
lities, makes a comparifon with the muirlands of Yorkfhire, and the hills of 
the Highlands, which we fhall give in his own words. " The foil of the hills, 
in the Highlands of Scotland, compared with that of the muirlands of York- 
fhire, has a decided preference. Unlefs upon the fummitsof the higher moun- 
tains, and where the rock breaks out at the furface, or where this is encum- 
bered with loofe ftones or fragments of rock, the hills of the Highlands enjoy 
fome portion of foil or earthy ftratum, beneath a thin coat of muir ; while on 
the Yorkfhire hills, the muiry earth, generally of greater thicknefs, lies on a 
dead fand or an unfertile rubble, without any intervening foil. From the fort 
of general knowledge which I muft necefTarily have of both diftricls, I am of 
opinion that the Highland hills [apart from the fummits of the higher moun- 
tains] are three or four times the value of the eaftern muirlands of Yorkfhire ? 
more efpecially of the central or fouthern fwells : the narrow tracl: that hangs 
to the N., between Gainfborough and Whitby, is of a better quality ; very 
Jimilar in foil to the lower hills of the Highlands."* Of late, a great number 
of nobility and gentry have formed themfelves into a fociety, named the 

* Marshall's Survey of the Central Highlands of Scotland. 


Highland 'Society of Scotland, who offer premiums for the improvement of 
wafte lands, the melioration of the breeds of black cattle and fheep, and 
other agricultural fubjects, which will no doubt be attended with the beft 


After the defcription already given of the lakes and rivers, which diverfify 
the furface of Scotland, we haVe no need to be particular on this article. In 
almoft every part of the country, particularly the hilly diftrict, water is not 
only plenteous, but of the fineft quality, defcending from fprings, in the face 
of the mountains or rocks, in ftreams pure as cryftal; and there are few places 
where excellent water is not to be found by digging, at a fmal! depth from 
the furface. 


Under this head, perhaps, a fuccinct account might be given of the ftate of 
agriculture and farming ; but fuch a difquilition would too far extend our* 
limits, and lead us from the general plan of the work : fuffice it to fay, that 
the laudable example of the greater proprietors has contributed much to the 
improvement of the country. Still, from the well known principle of human 
nature, the reluctance to change old cuftoms, and to relinquifh habits fanc- 
tioned and eftablilhed by time, an almoft infuperable obftacle is prefented to 
general improvement. This averfion to new plans, or, as they are termed, 
innovations of eftablifned cuftoms, is now wearing off; and, it is hoped, from 
the improvements already introduced, and the exertions of the Board of Agri- 
culture lately eftablilhed, that a fpirit of improvement will be diffufed, which 
will furmount any obftinacy that remains, and make the practical farmers 
open their eyes to their true interefts. Let them be taught, that the number 
of citizens, and not the extent of territory, is the true criterion of national 
wealth ; and that the increafe of population can be fupported only by re- 
fources drawn from their own territory, raifed and augmented by the im- 
provement of agriculture. In fpeaking of this fubject, we could almoft adopt 
the words of a late author, in a furvey of a county given in to the Board of 
Agriculture. " Had I," fays this almoft enthufiaftic writer, " the powers of 
perfuafion, equal to the conviction I have of the importance of this maxim, I 
would proclaim it to my country, from the point of Shetland to th'e Land's 

y- introduction: 

End of England, until it were heard, and underftood, and felt by every mart 1 
that eateth bread, that he who makes two ears of corn grow where only' 
one grew before, does more good to mankind than the whole race of politi- 
cians together."* The foil of Scotland produces wheat, rye, barley, oats,- 
peafe and beans, flax, hemp, hay, potatoes, turnips, carrots ; and, in general, 
all the forts of crops which are raifed in the fouthern part of the ifland. Hor- 
ticulture is making rapid increafe in every part ;' but it muft be confeffed that 
' this fpecies of improvement is more attainable, under a more fettled and more 
ferene fky than Scotland poffeffes. Apples and other fruits are produced in 
great abundance, particularly in the fouthern diftriel, and are generally efteem- 
ed to equal, or perhaps excel, the Englifh fruits of the fame kind, in rich- 
nefs of flavour. We have already noticed the extenfive tracls covered with 
natural wood, the remains of the great Caledonian foreft. Of late, many ex- 
tenfive tracts of wafte land have been planted ; and the fuccefs attending this 
fpecies of improvement evinces, that the foil and climate are well adapted for 
rearing foreft trees. In every diftrict the candid obferver will find proofs of 
the illiberality of Dr. Johnfon's account of Scots trees, which has certainly 
Been founded in ignorance, dictated with prejudice, and written without con- 
federation. The Scots fir (pinus rubra) is the moft common pine in the 
Sccttifh plantations ; the larch (larix) has been lately introduced, and is a 
valuable acquifition, not only from the value of the wood, but alfo for its more 
rapid growth. Afh, elm, plane, beech, oak, laburnum, and a great variety 
of other kinds, are intermixed in the plantations, and have a fine effect, by di- 
verfifying the fhades, and relieving the eye from the dull famenefs which al- 
ways difgufts. The juniper fhrub grpws naturally on the hills; and the 
ivhortle Or blae berries (the ■vaccinia nigra of Virgil) grow en the higheft 
mountains in the greateft abundance. Analogous to vegetable productions is 
the alga marina or fea weed, which grows in great luxuriance on the rocky 
coafts, and conftitutes a valuable article of commerce, from the burning of 


Scotland cannot at prefent boaft of mines of the more precious metals; but 
confiderable quantities of gold and filver have been found at different times. 
When James V. married the Erench king's daughter, a number of covered. 

* Dr. Robertfon's Survey of Perthfhire. 


fiifnes, containing coins of Scottifh gold, were prefented to the guefts by way 
of defert ; and it appears by the public records, that in one year there was 
coined in the mint of Scotland 48,0001. fterling of Scottifh gold. No mines 
•are now wrought folely for filver ; but the lead mines are exceedingly rich in 
that metal. In the laft century, a rich filver mine was wrought in the Ocbil 
i>ills, jn the pariih of Alva. Ironftone, iron ore, and feptaria ironftone, arc 
abundant. Copper has been difcovered in many places. Of late, a very rich 
mine of antimony has been opened in Wefterkirk, in Dumfries-mire, fuppofed 
£0 be richer than any at prefent known in the world. The other metallic fub- 
ftances, hitherto difcovered, are cobalt, bifmuth, manganeze 3 wolfram, plum- 
bago, and mercury ; the latter in very fmall quantities. It is more than pro- 
bable, that much metallic wealth ftill remains hid, as very few of the metals 
are found in a pure ftate : they are in general in\the liate of an o'xyd, like 
earth in appearance, without any metallic luftre, and hence they do not rea- 
dily attract notice 5 and it is certain, that the difcovery of mines has been in 
moft inftances merely accidental. Coal is abundant in the fouthern and mid- 
dle diftricts ; but little or none has been yet difcovered N. of the Tay. Lime- 
itone, freeftone or fandftone, and flate, are found in every diftricT: in the 
greateft abundance. Of late, too, fome attention has been paid to the mar- 
bles, which prove no way inferior in colour or polifh to thofe of Italy. Moft 
of the gems and precious ftones have been found in Scotland, the diamond 
excepted. Pearls are found in the great horfe mufcle (the mytilus cygnius and 
anatimu), a native of the northern rivers; they are alfo found in the common 
oyfters and common mufcles, though of fmall fize. The fapphire is found 
in feveral places, of different fhades, from a deep red to a tranfparent white, 
and of equal hardnefs with the oriental. The topaz is found in many of the 
Highland mountains, particularly the Cairngorm, and in Goatfield in Arran : 
they are generally named Cairngorm Jlones, from the former mountain, and 
are of various hues, and generally in hexahedral cryftals. The ruby and 
hyacinth are found near Ely, in Fifefhire, mixed with the fand on the fea 
fhore, and adhering to the rocks : they are in general of inferior luftre, and 
of fmall fixe. Emeralds are found in feveral places ; and artiethyfts are pretty 
frequently met with, particularly in the mountain of Locbnagaraidb in Aber- 
deenfhire : fome of thefe are an inch in diameter, of good colour, and valued 
at 30 or 40 guineas each. Garnets are found in many places of the Highlands, 
of good fizes, and in confiderable quantities. Agates, carnelians or Scots 
pebbles, are abundant, and well known : they are no where equalled in beauty 
or variety. Jafpers of various kinds are met with in almoft every diftricl ; 

b 3 


fome of them of great beauty and value. Chalcedony is found in Fife, equal 
in hardnefs and water to the oriental. Moft of the northern and fouthern 
mountains are compofed of granite : that of Betinevis is faid to be equally 
beautiful with the Egyptian. At Portfoy is found that lingular kind of gra- 
nite called Mofes' Tables, which, when polifhed, refembles the Hebrew cha- 
racters, on a white ground. Befide^ thefe, there are innumerable rare and 
curious foffils; to enumerate which, would alone make a long article.* Before 
we leave this article, we nay mention the frequent marks of volcanic fire 
whi^ 1 - many of the mountains exhibit, particularly the bafaltic columns of 
Staffa, the mountains near Beregonium in Argyllfhire, &c. 


In a country fo abounding with metallic ores, many of the fprings mufl 
neceffarily have a mineral impregnation. The chalybeate fprings are almoft 
innumerable ; particularly at Moffat, Peterhead, Dunfe, Aberbrothock, &c. 
Sulphureous fprings are alfo found at Moffat, and at St. Bernard's Well near 
Edinburgh. Many of the fprings affo hold fbme neutral fait diflolved ; e. g» 
at Pitcaithly. Wherever the fpring proceeds from a bed of limeftone, it ac- 
quires a petrifying property, of which there are numerous examples, at the 
Dropping-Cave of Slains in Aberdeen/hire, and in many places in Lanark 
and Ayrfhires, Sec. 


The wild animals of Scotland are the fox, the badger, the otter, the Hag, 
the wild roe, the hare, and the rabbit ; the wild-cat, the hedge-hog, the 
weafel, the mole, and other frnall quadrupeds. But there is proof that fome 
others have been inhabitants of the country, which are now extinguished ; 
viz. the bifon or wild ex, the wolf, and the beaver. The domeftic animals 
are the fame as thofe of England ; but the native breed of black cattle and 
iheep is confiderably different, being much fmaller in fize, and reputed to af- 
ford more delicious food. As one of the domeftic animals peculiar to Scot- 

* For further particulars concerning the mineralogy of Scotland, we refer 
the reader to the Gazetteer, where particular notice is taken of every arti- 
cle under the name of the place where it is found ; and, for more full inform- 
ation, to Jamiefon's Mineralogy of the Scottifh ifles ; Williams's Mineralogy, 
of Scotland; and Travels in Scotland, &c, by Mons. Faujas de St. Fonda 


land, we may mention the colley, or true Shepherd's dog, of which there are 
many of an unmixed breed. Of the feathered tribe, pheafants are to be found 
in the woods, though fcarce ; alfo that beautiful bird called the capercailzie, 
or cock of the wood, which is now become exceeding rare; the ptarmigan, 
th. black game, and groufe, are abundant in the heathy mountains; and in 
the ,low grounds i'.re partridges, fnipes, plovers, &c. Scotland has alfo moft 
of the Englifh hnging birds, except the nightingale. The aquatic fowls, as 
being more common in the iflands, are enumerated in the Gazetteer under 
tr : article Orkney. The domeftic fowls are the fame as thofe of England. 
1 he fifti ?re the fame which are ufually found in the North Sea ; fuch as her- 
rings, mackarel, haddocks, fturgeon, cod, whitings, turbot, fkate, &c. The 
rive", teem with abundance of trout, falmon, eels, &c. ; and the lakes abound 
with pike ana perch'. The coafts are abundantly flocked with fhell-fifh ; a§ 
lobfters. oyfters, &c. all of which form a confiderable fource of wealth, from 
exportation or home consumption. Whales are fometimes thrown upon the 
coafts of Orkney, Shetland, and the Hebrides ; and, befides other fiih which 
are caught for their oil, we may mention the cearban or fun-fifh, the fifhery 
pi which Is profecuted with confiderable fuccefs on the weStern coafts. 


The line of divifion into Highlands and Lowlands, forms alfo a diftinc- 
tion in the language, drefs, manners, and cuftoms of the inhabitants of the 
two divifions. While the Lowlanders partly refemble the Englifh and the 
French, the Highlanders have a country of their own, totally different from 
the other in manners, cuftoms, and language ; a particular account of which 
is given under the article Highlands of the Gazetteer. The chief peculiar- 
ities which the Lowlanders retain, are the amufements of golf and curlings 
which are the Standing Summer and winter diverfions of the Scots. Tlie 
former game, which has been known and pradifed in Scotland for upwards 
of four hundred years, is now fo univerfal'y introduced into almoft every part 
of the world, that any defcription of it is unneceffary. The latter requires 
confiderable Strength, and is performed with large Scones from twenty to one 
hundred weight, which the competitors hurl from a common Stand to a mark 
at a certain diftance, and whoever is neareft the mark is the viclor. Dancing 
is alfo a favourite amufement of this country ; and particularly reels, adapted 
to the Strathfpeys, and other pieces of national mafic. 



It is generally believed, upon the authority of the ancient Scottifh hiftorians, 
jthe venerable Bede, and other writers, that Chriftianity was firft taught in 
Scotland by one of the difciples of St. John the Apoftle, who fled to avoid 
the perfecution of the Emperor Domitian ; but it was never publicly pre- 
ferred till the third century, when one of the Scottifh monarchs, and his 
family, were folemnly baptized. Chriftianity was further confirmed by the 
emigrations from South Britain, during the perfecutions of Aurelius and Dio- 
clefian ; and by the fettlement of St. Columba in I-colm-kill, from which 
ifland it fpread over all Scotland, and became the eftablifhed religion, under 
the management of the difciples of Columba, who were called Culdees, and 
were a regular clergy, differing from the church of Rome in the tonfure, the 
obfervance of Eafter, and many other refpects. Thus we; Chriftianity eftab- 
lifhed as a national Scottifh church, independent of the chuich of Rome, and 
fiouxifhed in its native ftmplicity till the fifth century, when Palladius, the 
firft bifhop fent over by the Pope, found mean6 to introduce the teneti and 
ceremonies of the Romifh church ; which, in the end, involved Scotland in 
, the fame darknefs that overfpread Europe for many ages. The CuldeeS;, 
however, notwithftanding the oppreffion of the Romifh clergy, long retained 
their original manners, and remained a diftincl; order fo late as the fourteenth 
century, when they entirely difappe'ared ; and the Romifh religion reigned 
paramount in Scotland until the period of the Reformation. The depend- 
ence, however, of the people upon the Pope was very [lender, compared 'with 
the blind fubjection and implicit belief of other nations ; and no fooner were 
the doctrines of Calvin and Luther promulgated, than they were adopted by 
the greater part of the Scottifh nation ; and the reformation in that kingdom 
was completed by the preaching of John Knox, who had adopted the tenets 
of Calvin. The eftablifhed religion of Scotland is the Prefbyterian, as fettled 
at the Revolution, and confirmed by the Union. It would much exceed our 
limits to enter at large into the doctrinal and economical part of the Scottifh 
church : fuffice it to fay, that it agrees with other reformed churches abroad 
in its oppofition to Popery ; that it is modelled principally after the Calvin- 
iftical plan eftablifhed at Geneva, and on a general principle of an equality of 
ecclefiaftical authority among its prefbyters. On this laft principle, the re- 
venues of the clergy are nearly equal ; none of the ftipends being more than 
aool. fterling, and none lefs than 50I. fterling per annum. The ecclefiaftical 
courts are fpur in number, viz. the General JJembly, Provincial Synods 



Pre/by terles, and Kirk Sejfions. ift, The General AJfembly is the higheft ec^ 
Gleiiaftical court in Scotland, and may with propriety be termed the Ecclejiaf- 
thai Parliament. It confifts of commiffioners, fome of which are laymen, 
under the name of ruling elders, from prefbyteries, royal boroughs, and uni- 
verfities. The King prelides by his Commiffioner [who is generally a no- 
bleman of high rank], in the afiembly, which meets once a year. A moderator 
is chofen from their own number, who prefides and regulates the proceed- 
ings. To this court appeals lie from the other ecclefiaftical courts, and its 
decifion is final, and, Provincial Synods are nest in authority. : they are com= 
pofed of a number of the adjacent prefbyteries, over which they have a power* 
3d, Prejbyteries are compofed of a number of contiguous parifhes : they in- 
fpect into the behaviour of the minifters and elders of their refpective bounds, 
ordain paftors, examine and licenfe fchoolmafters, Sec. 4th, The Kirk Sejion^ 
compofed of the minifter, elders, and deacons of every parifh, form the lowefi: 
ecclefiaftical court of Scotland : they have the fuperintendence of the poor* 
vifit the lick, and affift the clergyman in his clerical function. Several of the 
parifh churches of Scotland are collegiate, that is, have more than one clergy =• 
man ; but the number of thefe is only 31 in 877, the total number of parochial 
diftridts. The following is a view of the ecclefiaftical eftablifhment of Scot- 
land, as divided into fynods and prefbyteries, with the number of minifters irt 
each fynod, 


Synod of Lothian and Tweeddale, 

Merfe and Teviotda'le, . 



Glafgow and Ayr, . . 

Perth and Stirling, . . 
. Fife, 

Angus and Mearns, . . 

Aberdeen, ..... 

Moray, ....... 


Sutherland and Caithnefs, 


, Glenelg, 

. Orkney, 

Total, . 










Befides the eftablifned churches, there are a vaft number of feceding congre= 
gations ; feme of which have had their rife in this country, and are very nu- 
merous : but it is foreign to our work to give an account of them,* 


The attention of the Scottiffi legifiature was, at a very early period of hif~ 
tory, called to the means of extending the views, and increafmg the knowledge 
of the inhabitants; but the intentions of the governrnent'were greatly retarded 
by the influence of Romiih clergy. When the Reformation emancipated them 
from Papal fubjeclion, the inhabitants were foon diitinguifhed by their en- 
lightened fentiments and growing knowledge. The civil revolution, which 
took place fhortly after, contributed to the fame happy end. By thefe events 
the means of inftruction were laid open ; many inftitutions were eftablifhed 
for the improvement of the poor ; and many benefactions were beftowed to 
reward the teachers, and to fupport the fcholars. In the Highland divifion 
of the kingdom, however, the peafantry were fcantily fupplied with oppor- 
tunities of inftruction, and flowly emerged from the ignorance of their fore- 
fathers. Partial fteps had, indeed, been taken to enlighten this neglected 
diftrict ; but from its diftance, its retired fituation, and other unfavourable 
circumftances, little progrefs had been made. In order more fully to remedy 
this want, an act of parliament was paffed in the fecond feffion of William 
and Mary, by which it was enacted, " that there be a fchool and fchoolmafter 
in every paroch ; his fee not under an hundred marks, nor aboVe two hund- 
red," Sec. This fcheme was attended with the moft beneficial effects, and 
civilifation and knowledge extended with rapidity. The falaries, however, 
which at that period were adequate to the fituation of the teachers, are now, 
from the inferior value of money, by far too fmall . and inadequate to the 
rank that fchoolmafters , ought to hold; but it is to be hoped that the fitua- 
tion of this deferving clafs of the. community will fhortly become the object 
of parliamentary inquiry. The improvement of knowledge in the Highlands 
has alfo been greatly promoted by the eftablifhment of fociety fchools in that 

Glasgow ; the bishopries of Edinburgh, Dunkeld, Dumblane, Bre- 
hin, Aberdeen, Moray, Ross, Caithness, Orkney, Galloway, Ar- 
;yll or Lismore, and the bilhopric of the Isles. 




diftrict, by the Society for propagating the Chriftian religion. In molt of the 
larje towns there are academies eftablifhed on liberal plans, for pupils of a 
more advanced age, where the different branches of mathematics and phytic 
are taught. Scotland has five Univerfities, viz. St. Andrews, King's Col- 
lege in Old Aberdeen, Marischal College in New Aberdeen, Edin- 
burgh, ancK Glasgow ; of which an account will be found in the Gazet- 
teer, under each article. As the fees in the parochial fchools, academies, and 
univerfities, are comparatively cheaper than thofe of England, it is to this 
caufe that we may, no doubt, attribute the ample materials for the next ar- 


For this article, we may refer to the literary hiftory of Europe for upwards 
of 1400 years back. During the third and fourth centuries, when Europe 
was almoft overrun by the ignorance and barbarity of the Goths and Vandals, 
learning found a retreat in the remote Weftern Ifles of Scotland, in the far- 
famed ifland of I-colm-kill. From that feminary a number of men arofe, 
eminent in literature, whofe very names would make a long article. The 
writings of Adamannus, and other authors, who were eleves of the feminary 
of I-colm-kill, and lived before, or at the time of the Roman invafion, are 
fpecimens of their great erudition. The Emperor Charlemagne unquestion- 
ably held a correfpondence with the Scottifh kings, with whom he alfo formed 
a famous alliance. That monarch alfo employed Scotfmen in planning, fettling, 
and eftablifhing his favourite univerfities, and other feminaries of learning in 
Germany, Italy, and France. It can hardly be questioned, that the univerfity 
of Paris, one of the mod ancient and celebrated in Europe, was founded by 
Scotfmen ; and that in confequence thereof, the Scots enjoyed privileges 
greater than the natives of any other ftate, even than thofe of Picardy and 
Normandy, though feudal fubje&s to the crown of France. It is an un- 
doubted truth, though apparently a paradoxical fact, that Barbour, a Scottifh 
poet, philofopher, and hiftorian, who flourifhed in 1388, prior to the time of 
Chaucer, wrote, according to modern ideas, as pure Englifh as that Englifh 
bard ; and his verfification is perhaps more harmonious. The deftruclion of 
the early Scottifh annals has caufed a confiderable deficiency in the .literary 
hiftory ; and there is every reafon to fuppofe, that many monuments of 
Scottifh learning have been loft during the civil wars, and the frequent inva- 
sions which harafied the kingdom. The ftyle of the hiftorical and philo- 


fophical works of Boethius is purely claffical, and thedatinity of Buchaniiari fe 
the moft claffical of all modern productions. The letters of the Scottifh kings 
to the neighbouring princes are incomparably the fineft compofitions of the 
times in which they were produced, and are free from the barbarifms of thofe 
they received in anfwer : this alone is an undoubted proof, that claffic learn- 
ing was more cultivated in the court of Scotland, than in any other court of 
Europe. About this period there yflourifhed many characters high in liter- 
ature ; but to pafs over Duns Scotus, whofe birth is claimed by a neighbour- 
ing kingdom, and the admirable Crichton r whofe acquirements were rathe? 
miraculous than natural, we need only mention Johannes Erigena, whofe 
works evince the greateft acumen of judgment. It would wafte time to fol- 
low the advancement of learning to its prefent day ; and it would fwell the 
article too much to give a bare enumeration of eminent Scotfmen in the dif- 
ferent departments of literature and fcience ; we may only mention Napier, 
the inventor of the logarithms, a difcovery which may vie in point of inge- 
nuity with any of modern times ; in aftronomy, Gregory ; in mathematics, 
Maclaurin; and in claffical learning, Ruddiman, and innumerable others, 
ftand almoft unrivalled. But, let us leave thefe times to come to the prefent 
day. Of late, the Scots have diftinguifhed themfelves in every department of 
literature ; and within the (host period of 40 years, Hume, Robertfon, Henry, 
Fergufons (hjftorian and aitronomer), Gillies, Stuart (Dr. Gilbert), Sommer- 
ville, Watfon, Thomfon (the continuator), Smith (Dr. Adam), Ofwald, Sin- 
clair (Sir John), Anderfon, Orme, Dalrymples (Sirs David and John), 
Tytlers (father and fon), Millar, Stewarts (father and fon), Burnet (Lord 
Monboddo), Smellie, Reid, Beatties (father and fon), Monros (father and 
fon), Gregories (father and fon), Homes (viz. Lord Kaimes, the phylician and 
the poet), Cullen, Black, Duncan, Hunters (Dr. William and John), Bells 
(Benjamin, John, and Charles), Jamiefons (divine and mineralogift), Camp- 
bells (divine and poet), Blair (Dr. Hugh}, Gerard, Hamilton, Burns, Mac- 
kenzie, Macpherfon, Brydone, Moore, Adam, Mickle, Simpfon, Robifon, 
Playfair, Gleig, and many other eminent writers, by far too numerous to 
mention, have appeared. Previous to 1763, literary property, or authors 
acquiring money by their writings, was hardly known in Scotland ; but, of 
late, the value^r literary property has been carried higher by the Scots than 
ever known among any other people. David Hume received 5000I. for the fix 
laft volumes of his Hiftory of Britain ; and Dr. Robertfon received 4500I. for 
his Charles V. : Dr. Blair received the higheft price for his fermons ever known 
to be paid for that kind of writing ; the merit of which procured him a pen- 


(ion from his Majefty of 200I. per annum. Even among the lower ranks liter- 
ature is not a ftranger ; the cheapnefs of the fees in the parochial fchools, and 
the facility with which education can be had in Scotland, give the peafantry 
a manifeft advantage over the peafantry of England. 


In thefe refpects Scotland has, for many years paft, been in an improving 
fcate. Without entering into the difputed point how far Scotland has bene- 
fited by the union with England, it is certain that fince that period its com- 
merce has greatly increafed. Previous to the reign of James VI., the Scots 
were clofely linked to the French by alliances and numerous treaties, and 
they carried on a confiderable trade in importing wines, &c. from France, 
and in exporting their own produce. They had alio a commercial treaty with 
the Netherlands, and had a ftaple port for the reception of their merchandife ; 
firft at Dort, and afterwards at Campvere. The Scots were by no means de- 
ficient in commercial enterprifes; and it is certain that the expedition to take 
poffeffion of Darien, for the profecution of the Eaft and Weft India trade, was 
founded upon true principles of commerce, and had it been fuccefsful, would 
have greatly benefited the country. The mifcarriage of this fcheme, owing to 
the illiberal conduct of another commercial company, after it had received the 
higheft fanclion and authority, is a dilgrace to the reign in which it happened, 
more efpecially as the Scots at that time had a free, independent, and uncon- 
nected parliament. To the difguft the Scots conceived on account of the 
conduct of the Englifh in the Darien fcheme, to fome invafions of their rights 
afterwards, and to the entails and fettlements of the great family eftates, with 
the remains of the feudal inftitutions, we have to look for the long langour 
that hung over the commercial enterprifes of the Scots. The Union, in a 
great meafure, deprived them of their French and Dutch trade ; and their 
jealoufy of the Englifh, whofe perfidy they had experienced at Darien, pre- 
vented thenrfrom attempting to extend their commerce. It was not till after 
the rebellion of 1745, that the true yalue of Scotland was difcovered ; and it 
is certainly to the talents of Mr. Pelham, who was firft minifter at that period, 
that Scotland enjoys its relief from feudal tyranny, and its prefent rank in the 
fcale of commercial importance. The bounties granted to the Scots during 
his adminiftration, for the extenfion and encouragement of their trade and 
manufactures, made them fenfible of their confequence, and removed the ide- 

c % 


of their being a defpifed people. The great Mr. Pitt, Earl of Chatham, 
adopted his predeceffor Mr. Pelham^s wife plan, and took every opportunity 
of ftimulating the Scots to make ufe of the natural advantages which their- 
country afforded for the extenfion of their commercial tranfaclions. It may 
alfo be added, to the honour of the Britifir government, that the Scots have 
been allowed to avail themfelves of all the benefits of commerce or manu- 
facture, which they can claim either in right of their former independence, 
the treaty of Union, or pofterior acts of parliament. This is evident from the 
exteufive trade carried on with the Weft Indies, and, before the American 
war, with the Britifn colonies ; and, fince the reparation of thefe from their 
mother country, the Scots have carried on a profitable trade with the United 
States. The fifheries of Scotland are not confined to their own coafts ; they 
have a great concern in the whale fifhing, in Greenland and in Davis's Straits; 
and their returns are valuable*, as Government allows them 40s. fterling per 
ton of the vefiels employed in that branch. Their white fifheries point out 
a i'ource of inexhauitible wealth ; their cured fifh being more efteemed by fo- 
reigners than thofe of Newfoundland. The falmon fifheries are productive 
of ccruiderable wealth to the country. The herring fifhery is alfo profecuted 
with confiderable fuccefs ; and Government give high bounties on the ton of 
the buffes employed. The benefits of thefe fifheries are, perhaps, equalled 
by the manufactures carried on at land, which are very extenfive, and daily 
incrcafing, The linen manufacture was, till lately, in a thriving ftate ; but the 
rivaLhip from Ireland, and the high price of the raw material, has confider- 
ably injured that branch: there is every reafon, however, to fuppofe, that in a 
fhort time that trade will return to its former channel. The thread manu- 
facture of Scotland is equal, if not fuperior, to any in the world. The woollen 
manufactures are very promifing ; and the exports of caps, ltockings, &c. 
made 01 their wn wool, is very confiderable. Of late, broadcloths have been 
attempted.; but tire Scots cannot yet pretend to rival the Yorkfhire manu- 
fa<f ... The kind of cloth lately begun to be manufactured in Roxburgh- 
r ire tile Galdjhiels gray* is in high repute, as are the duffles; and the 
Scots arpets make a cheap, neat, and rafting furniture. The minerals are 
turn d to ,?oud account, both in commerce and manufacture. The iron 
at C rron, and other places, pre eq-.ral to any in Britain. The lead 
mini o. anarkfliire bring confideraole returns: their coal trade is exten- 
, ?i:^ the- have 'ately turned their granite to account, by exporting it 
■ iii. ftree s of London, a) r l other Englifh cities. The cotton trade 
, :or the prefenl, <rlpecially in the weft country, ufurped the place of the 


linen, and engages many thoufands of hands. In general, there are few or no 
branches of trade or manufacture carried on in South Britain, pf which the 
Scots do not partake ; ?..d fame branches are carried on to equal perfection 
as in England, particularly thofe of itoneware and porcelain, glafs, fugar, 
paper, &c. Before the late oppreffive acts in favour of the great diftilleries, 
the diftillation of malt liquor was a considerable branch of trade, and afforded 
a great revenue to Government. The following is a comparative ftatement, 
from the Statiftical Account of Scotland, of the quantity of fpirits diftilled, 
and which paid duty, befides the quantity prepared oy illicit diftillation, and 
illicitly imported from Holland : 

f 1708, ") C 50,844!") 

" In -< I7 ^ ' >the quantity diftilled was-< J ^' 46 ° ^gallons ! 
1 1784.1 ^ ; } 208,503 i b 

(_i79i,_) C_ 1,696,00c J 


The following extracts from Mr. Creech's ftatiftical account of Edinburgh 
Ihews a comparative ftate of the revenues arifing from the Excife and Stamp 
duties : 

" In < ' -^' f the grofs revenue of the Excife was about < ^° ,c 
(.1790,) to (500,0 

At the time of the Union, there were no ftamp duties in Scotland. — In 1790, 
the revenue on (lamps was above %o,ooo\. per annum ." — The following com- 
parative ftatement is alfo curious: — " In 1763, there were 396 four-wheeled 
carriages, and 462 two-wheeled, entered to pay duty. In 1790, there were 
1427 four-wheeled entered to pay duty, and 643 two-wheeled carriages.'' 
But, after all that has been faid, many years will yet be required to bring the 
trade and commerce of Scotland to that ft ability which the trade of England 
poffedes. One great difadvantage to Scotland, and one of the chief evils at- 
tending the union with England, is the great number of the nobility and 
landed intereft who go to London, where they fpend the rents arifing from 
their property in Scotland ; which, by drawing the money from the country, 
confiderably diminifhes the real capital of the kingdom. The improvement 
of the trade, manufactures, and fifheries, have been greatly promoted by an 
act of parliament paffed in 1727, to enable his Majefty to appoint truftees 
for overfeeing the fifheries and manufactures of Scotland, and applying for 
their encouragement the fums deftined for their improvement by the articles 
of Union, and other fubfequent ftatutes. The truftees, who are twenty -one 
in number, difpofe annually of 4000I. fterling and upwards, in fuch manner 
as appears to them moil conducive to the end propeftd. They give premi- 
ums to thofe who produce the belt pieces of goods of Scots manufacture, and 

2. v ,Uvfj < 


on thofe who raife the greateft quantities of Scots flax, lintfeed, &c. They 
have appointed ftampmafters in every confiderable town and village as judges 
of the fabric of the linen manufacture, and to affix their ftamps, without which 
the cloth is not deemed fufficient. 


The currency of fterling money in Scotland and England is the fame. But 
many of the Scots ftill retain the value and denomination of the coins, which 
were in circulation in Scotland at the time of the union of the two crowns. 
The penny Scots is only one-i2th the value of an Englifh penny ; the mil- 
ling Scots is the 12th part of a fhilling fterling, or one penny fterling; the 
pound Scots bears the fame proportion, or is equal to one fhilling and eight- 
pence fterling ; and fo on of their merks, &c. : but thefe are not coins, but 
only denominations of fums. 


In the Statiftical Account of Scotland by Sir John Sinclair, vol. xxi. p. 472, 
we have a table of the valued rent in Scots money, and of the real rent in 
fterling money, by counties, drawn up on fo apparently accurate a calcula- 
tion, that we have thought proper to infert it in the Appendix, Table E. By 
that table, the valued rent of Scotland is 3,802,5741. 10s. 5d. Scots, equal to 
3i6,88il. 4s. 2d. one-i2th fterl.; and the real rent, including houfes, 2,937,5001, 
©r, in round numbers, three millions fterling. 


The population of Scotland has been pretty accurately afcertained, at dif- 
ferent periods : firft, about 1755, by Dr. Webfter, when engaged in eftablifh- 
ing the fund for the widows of the clergy : fecondly, in 1790-8, by Sir John 
Sinclair, in the returns from the different clergymen of their parifhes : and, 
thirdly, by the returns made in 1801 by the different fchoolmafters, in con- 
formity to an a<ft of parliament paffed that year. An abftract of the latter 
we have the happinefs of being able to lay before our readers, in the Ap- 
pendix, Table A, 



The ancient conftitutiori and government of Scotland has been highly ap- 
plauded, as excellently adapted for the prefervation of civil liberty ; and it is 
certain that the power of the king was greatly limited, and that the conftitu- 
tion provided many checks to prevent his affuming or exercifing a defpotic 
authority. But the Scottifh conftitution was too much of the ariftocratic 
kind to fecure the liberties of the common people; for, though the monarch's 
power was fufficiently reftrained, the nobles, chieftains, and great land pro- 
prietors had it too much in their power to tyrannize over and opprefs their 
tenants, and the lower ranks of the people. It would far exceed our limits 
' to enter minutely into an account of the laws of Scotland ; we fhall therefore 
only take notice of thofe peculiarities in which they differ from thofc of the 
fifter kingdom, with a fhort account of the ancient conftitution. The ancient 
kings of Scotland, at their coronation, took the following oath : " In the 
name of Chrift, I promife thefe three things to the Chriftian people, my fub- 
jedts: firft, that I fhall give order, and employ my force and afliftance, that 
the church of God and the Chriftian people may enjoy true peace during 
our time, under our government : fecondly, I fhall prohibit and hinder all 
perfons, of whatever degree, from violence and injuftice : thirdly, in all judg- 
ments, I fhall follow the prefcriptions of juftice and mercy, to the end that 
our clement and merciful God may fhew mercy unto, me, and unto you." 
The parliament of Scotland anciently confifted of all who held any portion 
of land, however fmall, of the crown, by military fervice. This parliament 
appointed the time of its own meetings and adjournments, and committees 
to fuperintend the adminiftration during the intervals, or while parliament 
was not fitting. Its powers were not only deliberative, but alio executive 5 
it had a commanding power in all matters of government ; it appropriated 
the public money, appointed the treafurers of the exchequer, and examined 
all the accounts ; it had the nomination of the commanders, and the calling 
out of the armies; ambaffadors to other ftates were commiffioned by the par- 
liament ; the judges and courts of judicature were appointed by parliament;, 
as well as the officers of ftate and privy counfellors; parliament could alienate 
the regal demefne, and reftrain grants from the crown ; it alfo affiimed the 
right of granting pardons to criminals. The lung had no veto in the pro- 
ceedings of parliament ; nor could he declare war, make peace, or conclude 
any important bufinefs, without the advice and concurrence of that afTembly, 


He was not even entrufted with the executive part of the government ; and 
the parliament, fo late as the reign of James IV., by ar a& lull extant, pointed 
out to that monarch his duty, as the firjl fevuant of his peop'e. In Short, the 
eonftitution of Scotland was rather arifiocraticcl than a limited monarchy. 
The abufe of power by the lords and great landholders gave the monarch a 
very confiderable intereft amongft the burgeffes and iower ranks ; and a king 
who had addrefs to retain the affections of the people, Was generally able to 
humble the moft powerful ariftocratical faction ; but when, on the other 
hand, a prince who appeared to difregard the parliament, and who did not 
feek after popularity, the event was commonly fatal to the crown. The kings 
of Scotland, notwithstanding the ariftocratical power of parliament, found 
means to weaken or elude its force ; and in this they were zealoufly affifted 
by the clergy, whofe revenues were immenfe, and were alway \ ealous of the 
power of the nobility. This was done by eftablifhing a felect oody of mem- 
bers, who were called " the lords of- the articles" chofen out of the clergy, 
nobility, knights, and burgeffes. The bifhops chofe eight peers, and the no- 
bility elected eight bifhops ; thefe fixteen nominated jointly eight barons, or 
knights of the {hires, and eight commiffioners of royal burghs, and to all thefe 
were added eight great officers of ftate, the lord chancellor being prefident of 
the whole. Their bufinefs was to prepare all queftions ; bills, and other mat- 
ters to be brought before parliament ; fo that in fad, though the king pof- 
feffed no veto, yet, by the clergy and the places he had to beftow, he could 
command the lords of the articles, and nothing could come before parliament 
which could require his negative. This inftitution feems to have been intro- 
duced by ftealth, and never was brought to a regular plan ; and the beft in- 
formed writers on law are not agreed upon the time when it took place. The 
Scots, however, never loft fight of their original principles; and though Charles 
I. wanted to form the lords of the articles i.:to mere machines for his own de- 
fpotic purpofes, he found it impi*acticable ; and the melancholy confequences 
are well known. At the Revolution,, they gave a frelh inftance how well they 
underftood the principle of civil liberty, by omitting all difputes about abdi- 
cation, and the like terms; and declared, at once, that King James had forfeited 
his title to the Britifh ciown. Scotland, when a fepairate kingdom, cannot be 
faid to have had any peers, in the Englifh acceptation cf the word. The no- 
bility, who were dukes, marquiffes, earls, vifcounts, and barons, were by the 
king made hereditary members of parliament; but ! aey formed no diftincl 
houfe, but fat in the fame room with the knights burgeffes, who had the 
fame deliberate and decisive vote with them in all pubi.^ matters. A baron, 


Wtou£h not a baron of parliament, might fit on a lord's jury in matters of 
life and death ; nor was it necefiary for the jury to be unanimous in their 
verdict. Great uncertainty occurs in Scottifh hiftory, in confounding parlia- 
ments and conventions ; the difference was, that a parliament could enact 
laws, as well as impofe taxes ; conventions or aflemblies of the ftates could 
only deliberate on the plans of taxation. Before the Union, there were four 
great officers of ftate ; the lord high chancellor, the high treafurer, the privy 
feal and fecretary, and four lefTer officers ; the lord clerk regifter, lord advo- 
cate, treafurer, depute, and juftice clerk: all thefe Officers, in virtue of their 
offices, fat in the Scottifh parliament. Since the Union, the lords privy feal, 
regifter, advocate, and juftice clerk only are retained. Thefe offices bear a 
confiderable refemblance to thofe of England of the fame names ; the advo- 
cate's office being fimilar to that of the attorney general. The great officers 
of the crown were, the lords high chamberlain, conftable, admiral, and mar- 
Ihal ; the royal ftandard-bearer, the lord juftice general, and the lord chief 
baron of the exchequer. Befides thefe, there were many other offices, both 
of crown and ftate, which are now extinct, or too inconfiderable to be no- 
ticed here. The office of lyoh king at arms, the rex fecialium, or grand 
herald of Scotland, is ftill in being : it was formerly an office of great fplen- 
. dour and importance, as the fcience of heraldry was preferved in greater 
purity in Scotland than in any other nation : he was crowned in parliament 
\vith a golden circle, and his authority might be carried into execution by the 
civil law. The privy council of Scotland, previous to the revolution, afiumed 
inquifitorial powers, even that of torture ; but it is now funk in the parlia- 
ment and privy council of Great Britain. The Scots are reprefented in the 
Imperial parliament by fixteen peers, elected by the nobility by writ, at the 
calling of every parliament, who are to fit and vote in the Houfe of Lords ; 
(for a lift of the peerage of Scotland, vide Appendix, Table C.) To the 
Houfe of Commons Scotland fends forty-five members, viz. thirty commif- 
fioners or knights of the fhires, and fifteen from the different diftricts of royal 
boroughs ; vide Appendix, Table D, 


The civil and criminal caufes are chiefly cogniiable by two courts of judi- 
cature ; but, for particular cafes, there are other courts of juftice. 
I. The College of JusxrcE, which was instituted by James V. after the 


xx?i i ' n T R D U £ Ti N. 

model of the French parliament, to ftvpply an ambulatory committee of par- 
liament, who took on themfelves the name of the Lords of Council and Seffion, 
which the prefent members or fenators of the College of Juftice ftill retain. 
It is the higheft court of Scotland, and eoniifts of a prefident, and fourteen 
ordinary lord?, befides extraordinary ones named by his Majefty, who mar 
fit and vote, but are not bound to attendance. This court may be termed a 
landing jury, who determine all civil caufes, according to the ftatutes, the 
cu'ftom of the nation, and the civil law. No appeal lies from this court, ex- 
cept to the EritHh Houfe of Lords ; and the prefence of nine judges is necef- 
fary to make their decifions valid. The College of Juftice confifts not only 
of the judges, but alfo of the advocates, writers to the fignet, clerks to the 
feffion, and feme others. The Faculty of Advocates, fomewhat fimilar to the 
Englifh inns of court-, is the orderly court under a dean of faculty ; and their 
forms require great precifion and examination of candidates for admiffion. 
The writers to the fignet, fo named beeaufe they alone are empowered to 
fubferibe the writs that pafs his Majefty's fignet, are alfo a regular body, and 
have a government a"nd by-laws for their regulation. The members of the 
College of Juftice are endowed with many valuable privileges ; they are not 
fubject to the jurifdiction of any inferior court ; they are exempted from paying 
the taxes impofed upon the inhabitants of the city of Edinburgh, for minifters 
itipends, fupport of the poor, from paying impoft on liquors, and from per- 
forming any fervices within the city ; nay, by feveral ftatutes, they are ex- 
empted from paying land-tax, and from all public taxes and contributions 
whatever ; a privilege which, indeed, they have not exercifed fince the Revo- 

II. The Court of Justiciary is the higheft criminal court of Scotland. It 
confifts of a lord juftice general, a lucrative office, but removable at his 
Majefty's pleafure ; a lord juftiee clerk, who prefides in the abfence of the 
former; and five other judges, nominated from the fenators of the College of 
Juftice. All crimes are tried before this court, when the verdict of a jury 
condemns or acquits ; but there is no necefiity for unanimity. The lords 
commiffioners of Jufticiary make a circuit twice a year to the different di- 
ftricts of Scotland. One lord can hold a Circuit Court ; and it has been 
found, by a decifion in 1763, that the judgments of Circuit Courts are not 
liable to be reviewed by the High Court of Jufticiary. 

III. The Court of Exchequer has the fame powers, privileges, jurifdic- 
tion and authority, over the revenue of Scotland as that of England over the 
revenue of England. This court confifts of a lord chief baron, and four 
•ther barons, two remembrancers, a clerk of the pipe, Ice. 


IV. The Cou-rt of Admiralty. The office of lord high admiral of Scot- 
land is very ancient, as well as the Court of Admiralty ; but the form of their 
proceedings of old is not much known, as molt of their ancient records art- 
loft. The lord high admiral was, before the Union, his Majefty's lieu- 
tenant and juftice general upon the feas, and in all creeks, harbours, and 
navigable rivers beneath the tuft bridge. He exercifed his jurisdiction by de- 
puties, the judge of the High Court of Admiralty, and the judges of inferior 
Admiral Courts in the different diftricts. By an article of the Union, the ju- 
rifdiction of the Admiralty in Scotland is faid to be under the lord high ad- 
miral of Great Britain ; but this does not feern to infer jurifdiction in a judi- 
cial capacity; for the decrees of the Admiralty Court are in civil cafes fubject 
to the review of the Court of Seffion, and in criminal to that of the Jufticiary. 
The judge of the High Court of Admiralty is appointed by the lord vice 
admiral of Scotland, an officer of ftate nominated by the crown ; and thofe 
of inferior courts, by the judge of the High Court. They have a jurifdiction 
fas all maritime cafes, civil or criminal ; and, by prefcription, the High Court 
has acquired a jurifdiction in mercantile caufes, nowife maritime. The infe- 
rior courts imitate the example, although their jurifdiction is difavowed by 
law in all caufes but thofe ftrictly maritime, and very properly; for the judges 
of the inferior courts are, by Hation and education, lefs qualified to act as 
judges than thofe of any other court in Scotland. 

V. The Commissary Court of Edinburgh, like that of the Admiralty, is 
in fome refpects fupreme, in others inferior; it can review the fentences of the 
other Commiffary Courts ; but its own decrees are fubject to revifal by the 
Court of SeiTion. There are many other CommiiTary Courts in the country ; 
the judges or commiffaries are nominated by the crown. The court of 
Edinburgh has four CommifTaries : thefe courts were i-nftkuted by Queen 
Mary, and are the general confiftorial courts of Scotland. Their nature is to 
confirm teftaments, to afcertain debts contracted by perfons deceafed, and to 
give decree of payment thereof; efpecially if the debts relate to the laft illnefs 
of the deceafed, the funeral charges, or obligations arifing from teftaments, 
or from the ties of nature, fupported by law, requiring alimony out of the 
effects of the deceafed ; to decide in all cafes of fcandal, and in general upon 
debts not exceeding 40I. fterling. The Court of Commiffary cf Edinburgh 
reviews the decrees of the other Commiffary Courts ; takes cognifance of all 
actions to prove a marriage ; and particularly, to try all caufes of matrimony 
and adultery, in order to a divorce, not only a menfa ei ioro. but alfg <j vin- 
culo matrimonii. 


VI. Sheriff Courts. As Scotland is divided into counties, {hires, or ftew- 
artries, the fherifF or fteward, the king's lieutenant, enjoys an extenlive 
jurifdiction, civil and criminal. Of old, the fherifF or Reward reviewed the 
decrees of the Baron Courts within his territories : he muftered the military 
companies or militia, whofe exercifes were known by the name of nveapon- 
Jhaiuing ; and the fame office is now renewed in the eftablifhment of the mi- 
litia in Scotland, the officers of which receive their commiffions from the 
lieutenant, fteward, or fherifF of the county: he receives the royal reve- 
nues from the collectors within his diftrict, which he pays into the exchequer: 
he fummons juries for the trials before the courts of Jufticiary : he returns, 
as member of parliament for the county, the perfon having a majority of 
fuffrages upon the roll of freeholders : he eftablifhes, with the of a 
jury, the fiars or rates to be paid for grain, that ought to be delivered when 
no precife price is ftipulated : he has a civil jurifdiction in all cafes, except in 
a conteft for the property of a landed eftate ; and a criminal one in cafes of 
theft, and other fmaller crimes. The office of fherifF was of old hereditary in 
the great families; but, by an act of parliament in 1748, this and all other 
offices pofTeffing hereditary jurifdiction, were either diffolved or annexed to 
the crown ; the jurifdiction of the magiftrates of royal boroughs being pre*- 
ferved entire. The office of fherifF is now exercifed by a judge, called the 
Jheriff-deputc, and his fubftitute. They are appointed by the crown ; and the, 
former muft be a member of the faculty of advocates. The decrees of this 
court are fubject to review by the fupreme Courts of Seffion and Jufticiary. 

VII. Courts of Royal Boroughs. The powers of jurifdiction veiled in 
the magiftrates of cities and of royal boroughs, are fomewhat fimilar to thofe 
of the fheriffs, but are fubject to the review of the Sheriff Court. The Deaa 
of Guild Court has loft confiderably of its former importance; being formerly 
authorized to decide in all caufes between merchants, and between merchant 
and mariner. Its office at prefent is, to take care that buildings within the 
city or burgh are carried on according to law ; that encroachments be no.t 
made in the public ftreets ; to judge in difputes between conterminous pro- 
prietors ; .to confider the Rate of buildings, whether they be in a fafe condi- 
tion, or whether they threaten damage to thofe dwelling in them, or to the 
neighbourhood, from their ruinous ftate ; and to grant warrant for repairing, 
"pulling down, or rebuilding them, according to the circumftances of the ca'fe. 
The royal boroughs of Scotland alfo form, as it were, a commercial parlia- 
ment, which meets once a year at Edinburgh, confuting of a reprefentative 
from each borough, to confult upon the good of the whole. Upon the efta- 
blifhment of royal boroughs, which took place about the 8th or 9th century, - 


the judgments of the magiftrates of thefe boroughs were made fubject to the 
review of the chamberlain of Scotland, and the Court of the Four Boroughs, 
the curia quatuor burgomm. This court was compofed of certain burgeffes 
from the towns of Edinburgh, Stirling, Berwick, and Roxburgh,* who were, 
appointed to meet annually at Haddington, to delibei - ate and determine in 
all matters reflecting the common welfare of the royal boroughs. Upon the 
fuppreffion of the office of chamberlain, the power which he poffeffed, and 
that of the curia quatuor burgorum, was transferred to the 

VIII. Convention of Royal Boroughs. This court was conftituted in 
the reign of James III. and was appointed to be held at Inverkeithing ; but it 
does not appear that it met earlier than 1552. Since that period, its conftitution 
has been confiderably altered, not only by fundry ads of parliament, but alio 
by its own decrees. At prefent, the Convention meets annually at Edinburgh^ 
and confifts of two deputies from each borough. The lord provoft of Edh> 
burgh is perpetual prefes, and the city clerks of Edinburgh are clerks to the 
Convention. It commonly fits four days. From the inftitution of the Court 
of Four Boroughs, the powers of the Convention may in part be collected. 
■They chiefly refpcct the efiablifhment of regulations refpe L fting trade and 
manufactures ; and to this effect the Convention has eftablifhed, and from 
time to time renewed articles of ftable contract with the town of Campvere.f 
As the royal boroughs pay afixth part of the fum impofed a3 a land-tax upon 
the counties of Scotland, the Convention js empowered to confider the Hate 
of trade and revenues in the individual boroughs, and to affefs their refpective 
proportions according to their abilities. This court alfo has been in ufe to 
examine the conduct of magiftrates in the adminiftration of the borough re- 
venues, although this property falls under the jurifdiction of the Court of Ex- 
chequer ; and to give fanction, upon particular occasions, to the town coun- 
cil of boroughs, to alienate a part of the borough eftate. The Conventioa 
likewife confiders and arranges the political feits or comtitutions of the differ- 
ent boroughs, and regulates matters concerning elections brought before 

IX. Baron Courts belong to thofe who hold baronies of the crown ; and 
are held by a baron-bailie or judge, under fome other title fimilar to the 
courts of royal boroughs ; but their authority extends in civil cafes only to 
caufes not exceeding forty {hillings fterling, and in criminal cafe,s to petty 
actions of affault and battery; and, in the latter cafe, the punifhment is not to 

* When Berwick and Roxburgh were taken by the Englifh, Lanark anej 
Linlithgow were fubftituted in their place, 
f Maitland's Kiftory of Edinburgh. 


exceed a fine of twenty fhillings fterling, or fetting the delinquents in the 
flocks for three hours in the daytime. The Courts of Regality had more ex- 
tenfive powers than the Baron Courts, being invefted with the power of life 
and death. But thefe were fo dangerous and fo extravagant, that all the Scot- 
tifh regalities were diffolved by ad: of parliament ; and the powers of the 
Baron Courts have been greatly curtailed. 

X. The Justice of Peace Court is of no earlier inftitution than A. D. 
3609 ; and is, in almoft every refpect, (imilar to thofe of England : but the 
powers of the juftices of the peace are not fo well underftood or defined al 
in the latter kingdom. Generally fpeaking, they are to judge in riots and 
breaches of the peace ; appoint conftables ; regulate highways, bridges, and 
ferries ; they have authority to punifh vagrants, and offenders againft penal 
laws ; to judge upon tranfgrefiions of the game laws, and concerning frauds 
againft the duties of cuftoms and excife, befides various other branches of 
jurifdiction. There is alfo a Juftice of Peace or Small Debt Court held 
monthly in every town, where caufes not exceeding 5!. fterling are decided 
in a fummary manner, and at a fmall expence. 

XL Coroners. The inftitution of Coroners is of very ancient date, being 
as old as the reign of Malcolm II. They took cognifance of all deaths that 
happened fuddenly, efpecially in breaches of the peace : but, except in a few 
diftricts, the office is much neglected in Scotland. 

From the above general fummary of inftitutions and civil government of 
Scotland, it is evident that they were principally the fame with thofe of Eng- 
land. The Englifh allege that the Scots borrowed the contents of the Regiam 
Majeftatem, their oldeft law book, from the work of Glanville, a judge during 
the reign of Henry II. of England. The Scots, on the contrary, claim the 
priority, alleging that Glanville's work is copied from the Regiam Majeftatem? 
even with the peculiarities of the latter, which do not now, and never did 
exift in the laws of England. The conformity between the practice of the 
civil law of Scotland and that of England is remarkable. The Englifh law 
reports are (imilar in nature to the Scottifh practice, and their acts of federunt 
anfwer to the Englifh rules of court ; the Scottifh wadfets and reverfions, to 
the Englifh mortgages and defeafances ; their poinding of goods, and letters 
of horning, are very fimilar to the Englifh practice in cafe of outlawry. 
Many other ufages are fimilar in both kingdoms, which prove the fimilarity 
of their conftitutions. Another fimilarity may be noticed in the early ages of 
both kingdoms. In Scotland the monarch held his parliament, and promul- 
gated' his edicts feated on a hill, called in Gaelic Tom'm'houl, i. e. Moot or 
Mots-bill, or the hi!], of meeting : and in England, the Saxon princes iflued 


their laws in what is named Felc-mote, a term implying a parliament of the 
fame kind as that of the early Scots. 


The military eftablifnmetot of Scotland confifts of a lieutenant general, 
three major generals, and the ftafF of North Britain, who are under the 
command of the commander in chief of Britain. There are four forts, which, 
by the articles of Union, are to be kept conftantly in repair, viz. Edinburgh, 
Stirling, Dumbarton, and Blacknefs ; and there are feveral other forts which 
are kept in repair, rather as barracks for foldiers, than as objects of military 
ftrength. Thefe are, Forts George, Auguftus, William, and Charlotte, &c. 
By a late act of parliament the militia eftablifhment has been extended to 
Scotland; and, in Table A of the Appendix, the number of men to be fur- 
nifhed by each county is fet down. 


Scotland is divided into thirty-one fliires or counties, and two ftewartries, 
which fend thirty reprefentatives to parliament, viz. one for each of twenty- 
feven counties, and three for the remaining fix ; Bute and Caithnefs, Nairn 
and Cromarty, Clackmannan and Kinrofs choofing alternately. For the dif- 
ferent counties and their population, vide Appendix, Table A, 


Vide Appendix, Table F. 

Vide Appendix, Table G. 


Of the military and religious antiquities of Scotland, it would too far ex- 
tend our limits to give an exact enumeration. Of the former, the great wall 
of Antoninus, part of which is ftill vifible ; the numerous Roman camps * in 

* Roman camps are generally difringuiflied from thofe of the Danes or 
Saxons, by being rectangular ; whereas, thofe of the other nations are oval, 
circular, or following the windings of the Mis on which they are fituated. 


every diftrict ; the many military ftations of the Saxons and other nations; 
and the remains of the vitrified forts* (as they are called) on many mountains?' 
furnifh innumerable examples. Many of the ancient Scottifh caftles have been 
ftrongly fortified; and, as many of them are fituated on precipitous rocks over- 
hanging the fea, muft have been impregnable before the invention of artillery. 
Of religious edifices the examples are alfo innumerable : almoft every diftricl: 
poffefTcs the remains of the circles or fanes of the Druids; and in feveral places 
are the celebrated rocking-ftones, fuppofed by many to have been engines 
ofdruidical fuperftition.}- The magnificent ruins of the different abbeys of 
Scotland, particularly of Melrofe, Aberbrothoek, Plufcardine, I-colm-kill, &c. 
are many proofs of the extenfive monaftic eftablifhments in Scotland. The 
Danifh duns in the Hebrides ; the Pidfcifh monuments at Brechin and Aber- 
nethy ; the obelifks ; the cairns and tumuli ; are too numerous for notice in 
this place, but will be found in the descriptions of the diftri&s where they arc 
fituated in the Gazetteer* 


The ancient hiftory of Scotland is involved in fo much fable, and fo much 
obfeurity, that, in our narrow limits, to attempt to unravel the confufed tiffue, 
and to feparate truth from fable, would be futile and ufelefs. It would be 
equally vain to give an abridgment of the modern hiltory, as it would be 
impofiible to ftate the important particulars in an Introduction to a Gazetteer. 
We have, however, in the Appendix, Table _B, given a chronological tabic 
of the Scottifh kings, from Fergus I. to James VI., with the dates of the begin- 
ning and conclufion of their reigns, which will be of confiderable ufe to the 
reader in finding out the dates of different inftitutiono and eftablifhments 
mentioned in the Gazetteer, to have taken place in fuch amonarch's reign. 


In other refpects, Scotland is fimilar to the fouthern diftricl: of Great 
Britain ; and the intercourfe between the t\^o countries is every day growing 
more frequent, to the mutual advantage of both : this has the effect of rend- 
ering their manners, drefs, language, and indeed every particular, alike; and, 
of ccurfe, we may anticipate, at no very diftant period, the time when national 
diftinctions and prejudices fhall be known no more, and Britain will form 3 
as it ought to be,— only ONE NATION. 

* Vide Craigphatric of the Gazetteer. 

f Vide Kells Rhvns of the- Gazetteer. 

Bopcjlp aagnpa fen P *- n:7 i ~ i i bdjipb nacBpapB a aria ■bbbb nana i/Tnm-im fcm g pcBcfa a is bob I 

— ■ ■ 


m.iir,/,.- Iff **~ 

Mr*/ JS¥\ 















-t\ riih in Berwickfhire, fituated in 
the midft of the Lammermuir hills, 
about 6-§ miles in length, and 3 in 
breadth. The foil is light .and dry, 
and, efpecially on the banks of the 
Wbittadder,{zrti\t and well cultivated; 
but the hilly diftrict is barren, and 
covered with he^th. Here are the 
remains of an ancient abbey of Ber- 
nardines, founded in 11 70, for which 
Ada Countefs of March fwore fealty 
to Edward I. of England, in 1296. 
The Earl of Wemyfs has lately built 
dn elegant fporting villa, called the 
Retreat, about a mile from the fmall 
Kirktown of Abbay. In 1801, the 
population was 138; decreafe 61 fince 
1791, but an increafe of 48 fince 1755. 

Vide Paisley. 

ABBEY-GREEN ; a village in La- 
narkfhire, in the parifh of Lefmaha- 
goe ; fo named from being built a- 
round the remains of a monaftery, 
dependent on that of Kelfo, founded 
by King David I. in 11 40, and dedi- 
cated to St. Macule. All that remains 
of the monaftery is a fquare tower, 
with battlements, now converted into 
a fteeple to the church of Lefmaha- 
goe. The village lies 1% miles S. of 


Hamilton, and 4 from Lanark. Iri 
1793, it contained about 95 houfes, 
and 430 inhabitants. 

ABBOTRULE ; a parifh in Rox- 
burghshire, lately fuppreffed, and di- 
vided between the parifhes of Bed- 
rule and Southdean. 

Abb's (St.) Head ;' a promontory 
of land, well known by feamen, lying 
in the parifh of Goldingham, county 
of Berwick, about 10 miles N. of Ber- 
wick, and the fame diftance S. of 
Dunbar. Longitude i° 56' W. lati- 
tude 5s 54.' N. 

ABBOTS-HALL^ a village and 
parifh in the S. coaft of the county of 
Fife. It is a fmall irregular parifh, 
being in its utmoft extent not more 
than 2. miles each way. Its general 
appearance is very pleafant, rifing 
gradually from the coaft northward, 
into pretty high grounds. The foil is 
thin, but exceedingly fertile, parti- 
cularly in warm, fhowery fummers. 
Mr. Fergufon of Raitb, one of the 
chief proprietors of the parifh, has 
lately made out fome extenfive plan- 
tations round his feat, and erected a 
fine obfervatory on the higheft ground 
in the parifh, which has a very com- 
manding profpect. The diftrict a- 
bounds with coal and limeftone ; in 
<■ A 



& quarry of the latter, are found fome 
beautiful fpecimens of petrified par 
tellts, entrochi, cortraa ammotns, and 
other marine productions. The vil- 
lage is in a thriving condition, and has 
long been noted for the manufacture 
of checks. The population in iSoi, 
Was 2501 ; increafe 365 fince 1791. 

ABDIE; a parilh in the county 
of Fife, of contiderable extent ; but, 
from it3 being interfered with other 
parilhes, it is impcilible to give ?. ge- 
neral idea of its length and breadth. 
It is lituated on the S. bank of the river 
•Taj,, amongft thofe high lands which, 
to the weftward, acquire the appella- 
tion of the Ochil hills. The furface is 
remarkably uneven ; but there is a 
good deal of arable land. The foil is 
in general pretty fertile; and the farm- 
ers, by adopting proper methods of 
agriculture, have greatly meliorated 
the foil, and incrcafed the annual re- 
turn of grain. The Tay has gradually 
carried away with its current many 
acres of the fineil land ; but embank- 
ments are now erecting to prevent 
this in future. There are 3 quarries 
of granite in the parifh, from which 
a confiderable quantity is {hipped for 
paving the ftreets of London. Two 
hills in the parifh, viz. Clatchart Crag, 
and Nonncm'sLazc, are remarkable for 
their height and precipitous fronts. 
There is little old wood ; but a con- 
fiderable extent of young planting. 
There are feveral old manfion-houfes 
in ruins, and the remains of different 
fortifications, fuppofed to be the 
works cf the northern invaders, or 
places of ftrength erected to repel 
their hoftile vifits. In 1801, the po- 
pulation was 723 ; increafe 229 fince 

Aber ; a Gaelic or Celtic word, 
implying a fituation cither on the 
banks of a river, or at its junction with 
the ocean ; and confequently forms a 
part of the name of many towns, vil- 
lages, and parilhes of Scotland, fo fi- 

BROATH ; a royal borough in For- 
farfhire, fituated at the sftuary of the 
river Brothock, on a fmall plain, fur- 
rounded on the W., N., and E. fides, 
by eminences, in the form of an am- 
phitheatre, commanding an extenfive 
profpect of the Friths of Tay and 
Forth, and the elevated parts of Fife- 

fhire and Lothian. It lies in the dr* 
reclion of the great iN. road, about 
17 miles E. from Dundee, 58 N. N. E* 
of Edinburgh, and 12 W. from Mon- 
trofe. The body of the town confifts 
of one ftreet, nearly half a mile in 
length, running N. and S. from the 
fea, and another on the W. fide of 
fmaller extent. Both thefe are inter- 
fered by other crofs ftreets, and are 
in general well built, though without 
much regularity. To the eaftward of 
the town, and locally fituated in the 
pariih of St. Vigeans, there are 2 neat 
regular ftreets ; at the top of one of 
which is an elegant chapel of eafe, 
built about 3 years ago. On the W. 
fide of the river Brothock there are alfo 
feveral neat ftreets newly built, con- 
fifting chiefly of fmall houfes of one 
ftorey, forming a fuburb of confider- 
able fize. The town-houfe is fituated 
nearly in the middle of the W. fide 
of the high-ftreet; and, though fcarce- 
ly diftinguifhed in its external appear- 
ance from the other inhabited houfes,. 
poffefies 2 elegant rooms for public 
meetings, befides accommodation for 
the town-clerk's office, and: prifons. 
The harbour is fmall, but commo- 
dious, and can be taken by veffels in 
a ftorm, when they cannot enter any 
of the neighbouring ports. It is en-> 
tirely artificial, being well flieltered 
from the fea by a long pier ; and, 
during ftcrms, the inner harbour is 
fo fecured by wooden gates, that the 
veffels lie in the fmootheft water. It 
can admit veffels of 200 tons at fpring 
tides ; but, at ordinary tides, veffels 
of 100 tons only can enter. The har- 
bour is defended by a neat battery, 
mounting fix 12-pounders, erected in 
1783, on account of an attack made 
on the town by a fmall privateer, 
commanded by one Captain Fall du- 
ring the American war. The port of 
Aberbrothock is of great antiquity : 
but its fituation was more to the eaft- 
ward than at prefent. The fite of 
the old harbour is ftill named the 
Old Shore-head ; and an agreement is- 
ftill extant between the abbot and 
burghers of Aberbrothock, in n 94, 
concerning the making of the harbour. 
Both parties were bound to contri- 
bute their proportion ; but the largeft 
fell to the fhare of the former, for 
which he was to receive an annual tax, 
payable out of each of the borovgh 


mods. The glory of the place was 
the abbey, the venerable ruins of 
which are much admired by all tra- 
vellers, and ftill convey an idea of its 
ancient magnificence. It was founded 
in 1178 by Willi' 11 I. furnamed the 
Lion, King of Scotland, and dedi- 
cated to the memory of Thomas a 
Becket, the celebrated Archbifhop of 
Canterbury. The founder was in- 
terred here ; but there are now no 
remains of his tomb. This monaftery 
was one of the richeft of the whole 
ifland, and its abbots were frequently 
the firft churchmen of the kingdom. 
Cardinal Beaton, the Wolfey of Scot- 
land, was the laft abbot, at the fame 
time that he was Archbifhop of St. 
Andrews. The monks were of the 
Tyronenfian order, and were firft 
brought from Kelfo, whofe abbot de- 
clared thofe of this place, on their 
firft inftitution, to be free from his 
jurifdiclion. This monaftery formerly 
enjoyed great and uncommon privi- 
leges ; and a charter is ftill extant, 
from King John of England, under 
the great fe'al of that kingdom, by 
which the monaftery and citizens of 
Aberbrothock are exempted, a tehntis 
et cenfttetudine, in every part of Eng- 
land, except London and Oxford. It 
has alfo been of confiderable note in 
the Scottifh hiftory, particularly as 
the feat of that parliament during the 
reign of King Robert Bruce, in which 
the celebrated manifefto was addrefs- 
ed to the Pope, on account of the 
hardfhips which Scotland lay under 
from the anathemas of his Holinefs, 
and the invafions of Edward I. ; a 
manifefto aimoft unequalled for the 
fpirit of its remonftrance, and the li- 
berty of fentiment which it avowed ; 
(vide Hatles' Annals of Scotland.) 
After the death of Beaton, the abbey 
felt the deftructive fanaticifm of the 
reformers ; and its revenues were e- 
rected into a temporal lordfhip, in 
favour of a Lord J. Hamilton, fon of 
the Duke de Chatelherault ; and Lord 
Aberbrothock is ftill one of the titles 
of the Duke of Hamilton. The ruins 
of the abbey are ftrikingly picturefque, 
confuting of ruinous towers of the 
moft folid conftruction, columns over- 
thrown and broken in pieces, Gothic 
windows, cloifters, ftaircafes, &c. all 
exhibiting, as well the ravages of 
tirce, as the frenzy of religious zeal. 


The profperity of the town fliared 
the fate of the abbey, till about the 
year 1736, when its commerce began 
to revive. At that time, a few gen- 
tlemen of property engaged in the 
manufacture of ofhaburghs and brown 
linens, which fucceeded well, and is 
ftill the principal branch of manufac- 
ture. In i8cz, there were ftamped 
at the ftamp- office, 1,457,851-*; yards 
of thofe kinds of cloth, valued at 
63,908!. 8s. stA- fterling ; and, prior 
to the conclullon of the late war, the 
fail-cloth manufacture produced near- 
ly as much. There are about 34 vef- 
fels belonging to the place, each from 
60 to 160 tons burden, employed in 
the Baltic and coafting trade. Aber- 
brothock is a royalty of very ancient 
erection ; it being the general opinion, 
that it was erected into a royal bo- 
rough by King William the Lion, a-„ 
bout the year 11 86 ; but this cannot 
exactly be afcertained, owing to the 
lofs of the original charter, which was 
taken by force out of the abbey, where 
it was lodged in the time of the civil 
wars, during the minority of James 
VI., by George Bifhop of Moray, cal- 
led Poftulat of Arbroath. It was, 
however, confirmed in its privileges 
by a writ of novodamus from James 
VI. in 1559. It is governed by a pro- 
voft, 2 bailies, a treafurer, and 1^ 
counfellors, and has 7 incorporated 
trades. The revenues arifing from 
the (hore dues, and other public pro- 
perty, is upwards of 900I. fterling. It 
unites with the burghs of Aberdeen, 
Montrofe, Inverbervie, and Brechin, 
in fending a reprefentative to parlia- 
ment. In 1801, the population, in- 
cluding that part of the town fituated 
in the pariih of St. Vigeans, was nearly 
7000; being an inereafe of about 1800 
fince 1792. Its fairs are on the 31ft 
January, ^d Wednefday of June, and 
1 8th July. The pariih of Aber- 
brothock or Arbroath, is of fmall 
extent, being an erection about tv/o 
centuries ago, of the town and royalty 
into a feparate pariih from St. Vi- 
geans, in which it formerly was in- 
cluded. Around the town the foil is 
rich and fertile, but towards the N. W, 
there is a confiderable extent of muiry 
ground, the property, of the com- 
munity, which is now covered with 
thriving plantation. About half a mile 
W. from the town is a confiderable 

A 2 


commonly, in which' is a ftrong cha- 1 
lybeate fpring, niuch reforted to. In 
iSoa, the population of the pariih ! 
was 4943 ; increafe 243 fince 179a, 
and 2578 fince 1755. 

ABERCORN ; a parifh in Linlith- 
gowfhire, of a rectangular figure, a- 
bout 4 miles long, and 3 broad, lying 
on the 6. bank of the Frith of Forth, 
about 12 miles W. from Edinburgh. 
The furface is irregular ; but, except 
two eminences, none of the riling 
grounds deferve the name of hills. 
The whole is arable ; but, about two 
thirds are occupied by plantations, 
and the polici s around Hopetoun-houfe, 
the princely feat of the Earl of Hope- 
toun. The village and church of A- 
berccrn are delightfully fituated on 
an angular point, where two fmall 
burns unite, about 100 yards before 
their junction with the Forth. It gives 
the Britifh title of Marquis, and the 
Scottifh title of Earl, to a branch of 
the family of Hamilton, It is generally 
believed, that the wall of Antoninus 
began in this parifh ; but it is more 
probable that it did not extend quite 
fo far ; the point on which Blacknefs- 
caftle is built having been its eaftern 
extremity. The monaftery of Aber- 
corn was one of the moft ancient in 
Scotland, as mention is made of it in 
the 7th century. Abercorn-caftle was 
a place of great ftrength, in the pof- 
feffion of the family of the Douglafcs, 
and difmantled in 1455, during the 
iv. liion of the Earl of Douglas. 
There are now no remains either of 
the monaftery or caftle. The minerals 
of this parifh are freeftone, limeftone, 
coal, and ironftone ; but only the 
limeftone, which is of fuperior qua- 
lity, is wrought. In 1797, the popu- 
lation was 870 ; decreafe 167 fince 


ABERDALGY ; a parifh in Perth- 
fhire, united to that of Duplin. 
The united parifh extends about 2§ 
miles in length, and nearly as much 
in breadth : the furface rifes gradu- 
ally from the banks of the Erne, 
which wafhes it on the S. fide, afford- 
ing a great variety of foil, from the 
richeft clay to the pooreft thin fand ; 
but in general pretty fertile. About 
a mile from the river ftands Duplin- 
caffie, the elegant feat of the Earl of 
Kinnoul : it is furrounded with fine 
plantations, and commands an exten- 


five and varied profpecl of the plain 
of Sira theme. In 1796, the population 
of Aberdalgy pariih was 5 23 ; increafe 
203 fince 1755. 

five county is bounded on the N. and 
E. by the German ocean ; on the S. 
by the counties of Kincardine, Angus, 
and Perth ; and on the W. by Banff, 
Murray, and Invernefs-fhires. It ex- 
tends in length about 90 miles, from 
S. VV. to N.E. and about 46 in breadth, 
from the mouth of the river Dee to 
where it is bounded by the fhire of 
Banff. Its extent in fquare miles may 
be eftimated at n 70. It comprehends 
the diftrifts of Marr, Garioch, For- ■ 
martin, and great part of Euchan. 
The diftricl: of Marr, which may be 
confidered as the center of Scotland, 
is wild, jugged, and mountainous ; 
fome of the hills riling precipitoufiy 
to the height of 3000 feet above the 
level of the fea. The Hoping fides of 
the hills are covered with extenfive 
natural forefts ; in many places impe- 
netrable to human footfteps. Buchan 
is lefs hilly ; but very barren, bleak, 
and inhofpitable to the view. The 
reft of the country is more fertile ; 
having a gradual defcent from the 
central diftrict eaftward, to the fea. 
The coaft is in general very rocky. 
The Boilers or Bullers of Buchan ar- 
reft the attention of all ftrangers, by 
their ftupendous craggy precipices. 
The foil, in fo extenfive a diftricl, is 
as various as can be well fuppofed. 
The ftate of agriculture in the interior 
parifhes of the county is very rude ; 
but the example of many patriotic 
proprietors is producing wonders even 
in the moft unptomifing foils. Pre- 
judices in hufbandry, when deeply 
rooted, are with difficulty overcome; 
but, even thefe are yielding to a mo- 
dern and more regular lyftem. The 
average produce of the farms in the 
whole county, is eftimated in the pro- 
portion to the rent, as 5 to 1. This 
produce, confiderable as it is, isfcarce- 
ly one half of what may be expecled 
from the improvements which are 
daily made. The rivers of Aberdeen- 
fhire are, the Dee, the Don, the Tthan, 
the Bogie, the Urie, the Ugie, and the 
Cruden : the De-veron alfo, for many 
miles, forms its boundary with the 
county of Banff. All thefe rivers have 
be,en long celebrated for the excel- 



lence of the falmon with which they 
abound. The rents of the fifhings arc 
eftimated at 2480I. per annum., and the 
produce at upwards of io,oool. Be- 
fides the fifhings of the rivers, the fea 
coaft of Aberdeenfhire abounds with 
all kinds of excellent fifh ; and a num- 
ber of timing vefiels are fitted out 
from the fea ports of the county, par- 
ticularly Peterhead and Frazerburgh. 
Under the articles of fifheries, we may 
mention the celebrated pearl timing 
in the river Tthan* In this river fome 
pearls have been found, which fold 
fingly fo high as %\. and 3I. With re- 
gard to mineralogy, little wealth of 
that defcription has hitherto been 
found in this county. The granite 
quarries are the moft valuable articles. 
From thofe in the neighbourhood of 
Aberdeen, 12,000 tons and upwards 
are annually exported to London; the 
value of which may be eftimated at a- 
bout 8400I. There are feveral quarries 
in the parifh of Aberdour, which yield 
excellent millftones. There is a quarry 
of blue flate wrought in the parifh of 
Culfalmond, and a vein of manganeze 
in the neighbourhood of Old Aber- 
deen. In the parifh of Huntly there 
are many indications of metallic ores; 
and confiderable quantities of plum- 
bago, or black lead, was lately difco- 
vered. The county abounds with 
limeftone ; but, from the want of coal, 
it cannot be wrought to much ad- 
vantage, except near a fea port. In 
Old Machar and Old Deer parifhes, 
about 55,000 bolls of lime are an- 
nually burnt, valued at 2750I. Some 
kelp is made on the coaft, the value 
of which muft be confiderable. Many 
fmail pieces of amber are found on 
the Buchan coaft ; and Cambden men- 
tions a piece of fuch a fize found on 
that coaft, that it requires the utmoft 
ftretch of belief to allow it credit. In 
the parifh of Lefly, a beautiful green 
amianthus, with white and gray fpots, 
is found in confiderable quantities. It 
is eafily wrought, and formed into 
fnuff-boxes and other ornaments by 
the country people. Amethyfts, e- 
meralds, and other precious ftones, 
particularly that kind of topaz called 
Cairngorm ftones, are found in the 
mountains in the parifh of Crathy ; 
and agates of a fine polifh, and beau- 
tiful variety, are found on the beachy 
fhore, near Peterhead. On the eftate 

of Invercauld, there are found large 
fpecimensof rock cryftals; one in the 
poffeffion of Mr. Farquharfon, is by 
far the largeft ever found in the king- 
dom. Befides thefe, afbeftos, talc, 
mica, fchiftus, and other curious mi- 
nerals, are found in many parts of the 
county. Several of the mountains in 
the diftrict of Marr fhew evident figns 
of volcanic origin. There are many 
famous mineral waters ; but thofe of 
Peterhead, and Glendee or Pannanach^ 
are defervedly celebrated for their ef- 
ficacy in curing difeafes. Aberdeen- 
fhire has been long noted for the dif- 
ferent branches of the woollen manu- 
facture, particularly the knitting of 
ftockings and hofe, in which great 
numbers of the common people are 
conftantly employed, and gain a live- 
lihood. Of late, the linen and fail* 
cloth manufactures have been fuccefs- 
fully introduced, particularly in A- 
berdeen, Peterhead, and Huntly ; 
which latter, according to the report 
of a minifter in a neighbouring parifh, 
" promifes fhortly to become the 
Paifley of the North." Aberdeen- 
deenfhire contains 3 royal boroughs, 
viz. Aberdeen, Kintore, and In- 
verury; and feveral large and hand- 
feme towns, as Peterhead, Fraser- 
burgh, Huntly, Keith, and Old Meldrum, 
Aberdeenfhire is divided into 85 pa- 
rifhes, which, by the returns of the 
different clergy to Sir John Sinclair 
in 1790-8, contained 122,921 inhabit- 
ants ; being an increafe of fince 
1755, when like returns were made, 
collected by Dr. Webfter. The fol- 
lowing is a lift of the chief feats of 
the nobility and gentry, which orna- 
ment this county. Huntly-lodgc, Mar- 
quis of Huntly ; Slain' s-ca file, Earl of 
Errol ; Keith-hall, Earl of Kintore ; 
Aboyne-cajlle, Earl of Aboyne ; Meerr- 
lodge, Earl of Fife ; Philorth-houfe, 
Lord Saltoun ; Putachie, Lord Forbes ; 
Ellon-caflle, Earl of Aberdeen ; Mony- 
muj% Sir. Archibald Grant ; Fintry- 
hoitfe, Sir William Forbes; Fyvie-cajlle, 
the Hon. Gen. W. Gordon ; Iri-ver* 
cauld, James Farquharfon, Efq. ; Pit- 
four, James Fergufon, Efq. ; Logie- 
Elphinftone, R. D. Horn-Elphinftone; 
Leith-hall, Major-General Hay; Free- 
field, Alexander Leith, Efq. ; Aber- 
geldy, Captain P. Gordon ; Skene-houfe, 
George Skene, ) fq. : Cluny, Charles 
Gordon* Efq. ; Shaloch, John Ramfay, 


Efq. ; Haughlon, Francis Farquharfon, 
Efq. ; Claim, H. N. Lurafden, Efq. ; 
Gordon-lodge, Colonel Gordon-Gum- 
ming ; Cajile-Frafer, Mifs Frafer ; 
Craigflon, J. Urquhart, Efq.; Nenvton, 
A. Gordon, Efq. ; Broad/and, A. Her- 
vey, Efq. ; Aden, A. Ruffels, Efq. of 
Old Deer ; Seaton, J. Forbes, Efq. ; 
Drum, A. Irvine, Efq.; Pitta drie, Col. 
Knight-Erfkine ; Meldrum, Jas. Ur- 
quhart, Efq.; Craig, j. Gordon, Efq.; 
Parkhill, A. Skene, Efq. ; Pitcaple, 
Mifs Lumfden ; Kemnay, A. Burnett, 
Efq. ; &c. Aberdeenfiiire fends one 
member to parliament. The valued 
rent of the whole county is in Scots 
money 235,6651. 8s. nd., and the real 
land rent is eftimated in fterling mo- 
ney at 133,632b 

ABERDEEN (NEW); the capital 
of Aberdeenfiiire, and the chief city 
of the N. of Scotland, is fituated on 
a riling ground, near the aeftuary of 
the river Dee into the German ocean, 
120 miles N. E. from Edinburgh, in 
57 9' N. latitude, and i° 45' W. lon- 
gitude. It is a large and handfome 
city, having many fpacious ftreets, 
lined on each lide by elegant houfes, 
generally four ftoreys high, built of 
granite from the, neighbouring quar- 
ries. The market-place, in the center 
of the city, is a large oblong fquare. 
On the N. fide of it is the town-houfe, 
with a handfome fpire; and adjoining 
to it the tolbooth, a fquare tower 120 
feet high, alfo furmounted with a 
fpire. Clofe to this is an elegant 
mafon lodge ; and oppofite to the 
town-houfe, the Aberdeen Banking 
Company have lately erected an ele- 
gant office of polifhed granite. In the 
middle of Caftle-ftreet is the crofs, 
the moft complete> perhaps, of any 
of the kind in the kingdom ; it is an 
octagon ftone building, highly orna- 
mented with neat das-relievos of the 
kings of Scotland, from James I. to 
James VI. with a Corinthian column 
in the center, on the top of which is 
an unicorn. By virtue of an act of 
parliament paffed in 1800, feveral new 
and elegant ftreets have been opened, 
paffing over other ftreets by arches, 
and facilitating the approach to the 
town in every direction. The grammar 
fchool is a low, but neat building, 
under a rector and 3 teachers, who 
have good appointments. There are 
a number of charitable inftitutions, 


of which the chief are, ift, the Poor' 
houfe, a large building, appropriated 
to the reception of aged poor, and 
deftitute children, fupported by its 
own funds, contributions from the 
town and kirk-feflions, and voluntary 
donations : 2nd, till lately, there was 
a Guild Brethren's Ho/pita/; but it was 
found more agreeable for the lodgers 
to receive an annual pennon : it was 
accordingly fold, and the charity put 
on that footing : 3d, Lady Drum's 
Hofpital, for old unmarried women, 
founded in 1663 by Lady Mary, 
daughter of the Earl of Buchan, and 
widow of Sir Alexander Irvine of 
Drum: 4th, Gordon's Hofpital, founded 
m I 733» an d the governors incorpo- 
rated by royal charter in 1772: it has 
a good revenue ; and from 60 to 66 
boys are clothed, maintained and e- 
ducated on the eftablifhment : 5 th, 
the Infirmary, a large plain building, 
eftablifhed in 1742, and fupported by 
fubfcriptions, collections, and dona- 
tions : the number of patients annu- 
ally relieved is about 900 : 6th, the 
Lunatic Hofpital, built by fubfcription, 
about half a mile from town, in 1800 : 
7th, the Difpenfaries, alfo fupported 
by voluntary contributions, and having 
from 2000 to 3000 patients annually 
on the books of the charity. Beudes 
thefe, every incorporated trade has a 
fund for decayed members; and there 
are many Friendly Societies for the fame 
end. A little to the E. of the town 
are the Barracks, erected in 1794, on 
the fite of a fortification built there 
by Oliver Cromwell. They are ele- 
gant and commodious, and capable 
of accommodating upwards of 600 
men. The ancient religious eftablifh- 
ments in the city were numerous ; 
but only four have been handed down 
to us by hiftory. ift, A convent of 
Mathurines, or the order of the Tri- 
nity, founded by King William the 
Lion : 2nd, the Dominican, or Black 
friars monaftery, founded by Alex- 
ander II.: 3d, the Obfervantine priory, 
founded by the citizens and other 
private perfons : and, 4th, the Car- 
melite, or White friars monaftery, 
founded in 1350 by Philip de Arbuth- 
not. The trade of Aberdeen is con- 
fiderable ; but might be greatly ex- 
tended by the profecution of the white 
fifheries. The harbour, which is form- 
ed by the Dee, was long a detriment 



to its trade, and occafioned the lofs 
of many lives, and much property. It 
was much interrupted by a bar of 
fand, which fhifted its fituation fo 
much, that a vefiel could never de- 
pend on finding it as it was left. This 
inconvenience is now removed by a 
new pier, on the N. fide of the river, 
which was creeled according to a plan 
of the celebrated Mr. Smeaton. It is 
1200 feet long, and gradually increafes 
in thicknefs and height, as it ap- 
proaches to the fea, where the head 
or rounding is 60 feet diameter at the 
bafe, and the perpendicular elevation 
38 feet. The whole is built of huge 
{tones of granite, at the expence of 
about 2o,oool. which is defrayed by 
doubling the harbour dues. Near the 
great pier are 2 batteries, mounting 
ten 12-pounders, erected in 17S1-2, 
for the defence of the harbour and 
ihipping. Aberdeen once enjoyed a 
great ihare in the North American 
trade : at prefent, its chief imports 
are from the Baltic ; and a few mer- 
chants trade to the Levant and the 
Weft Indies. Its exports are ftock- 
ings, thread, falmon, grain, and meal; 
the firft is the m oft important article, 
beingeftimatedatno lefs than 183,0001. 
annually. The manufacture of fine 
thread is carried on by feveral com- 
panies to a confiderable extent ; and 
a few gentlemen have lately begun to 
manufacture brown linens, ofnaburghs 
and canvafs. The falmon fiihings of 
Dee and Don are a valuable branch of 
trade; the annual average of exported 
falmon being 167,000 lb. of pickled 
filh fent to London, and 900 or 1000 
barrels of falted fifh fent to the Me- 
diterranean. Aberdeen alio expoits 
a confiderable quantity of pickled 
pork, which is dilpofed of to the 
Dutch for victualling their Eaft India 
veffeis and fnips of war; the Aberdeen 
pork having a high reputation for 
being the belt cured, and for keeping 
on long voyages. It is however re- 
markable, that there is not a fingle 
decked vefiel fitted out from this 
port for the herring or white fiiher- 
ies, for the profecution of which it is 
admirably fituated. Aberdeen has 
two private banking companies, who 
iilue their own notes ; and an In- 
furance Company againft loffes by 
fire has been lately eftabliihed, on 'a 
relpectable plan, and with a large 

capital. Aberdeen is faid to be one 
of the oldeft communities, and to 
have been erected into a royal borough 
as early as 893 ; but the moft ancient 
charter now extant, is from King Wil- 
liam the Lion, of which the date is 
wanting ; but it muft have been be- 
tween 1 1 65 and 1 2 14, the period of 
his reign. Many other charters have 
been given by fuccefiive monarchs. 
Its civil government is veiled in a 
provoft, denominated lord provoft, 
4 bailies, a dean of guild, treafurer, 
and town-clerk, a town council, and 
7 deacons of the incorporated trades. 
An act of parliament was alio pallid 
in 1795, empowering the inhabitants 
to elect 13 commillioners of police, 
and for railing an afleffment, pro re 
nata, for paving, lighting, and clean- 
ing the ftreets, lupplying the city with 
water, &c. Aberdeen, as a royal bo- 
rough, enjoys parliamentary repre- 
fentation, uniting with Abcrbrothock, 
Brecnin, Inverbervie, and JVlontroie, 
in fending a member to parliament. 
Its fairs are on the 2nd Tuefday of 
June, laft Thurfday of Auguft, and 
lit Tuefday of October. The pariih 
of Aberdeen (N^wj, or St. Ni- 
cholas, is of fmall extent, being con- 
fined to the limits of the town on e- 
very fide, except the S. E. where it 
extends to the fea, including the vil- 
lage of Footdee, a confiderable village, 
having a neat chapel of eaie, lately 
built. There is a fine bridge of 7 
arches over the Dee, built in 1530 by 
Biihop Dunbar, and repaired, or rather 
rebuilt by the magiftrates oi Aberdeen 
in 1724. Amongit many eminent cha- 
racters who were born in this place, 
we will only mention Jamie son, the 
celebrated painter, after named the 
Scottiih Vandyke. In 1793, the po- 
pulation of New Aberdeen pariih was 
16120; increafe 5335 iince 1755. 

ABERDEEN (OLD), ollm Aber- 
don ; an ancient burgh in the county 
of the fame name, and formerly an 
epifcopal fee. It is pleaiantly fituated 
on an eminence, on the river Don, 
about a mile N. of the city of New 
Aberdeen, and nearly the fame diftance 
from the fea. It is a place of great 
antiquity, and was of confiderable im- 
portance fo long ago as the end of the 
9th century, when, according to tra- 
dition, King Gregory the Great con- 
ferred an it forne peculiar privileges. 


But no authentic records are extant, 
prior to the year 1154 ; in which year 
David I. tranflated the epifcopal fee 
from Mortlach to this place ; and in 
the fame year, the town of Old Aber- 
deen was ere&ed into a free burgh of 
barony, holding directly of the crown. 
This charter has been renewed by 
many fuccefftve fovereigns, and was 
finally eftablilhed by a charter from 
King George I., by which the power 
of electing their own magiftracy is 
veiled in the free burgeffes of the 
town : the magiftrates are a provoft, 
3 bailies, a treafurer, and council, 
with the deacons of 6 incorporated 
trades. There is a neat Tonun-boufe, 
built about 10 years ago by the com- 
munity ; and a Trades 1 Hofpital for 
decayed freemen and their widows. 
There is alfo an Hofpital for 12 poor 
men, founded in 1532 by Bifhop Wil- 
liam Dunbar. The King's College, the 
chief ornament of the place, is a large 
and ftately fabric, fituated on the E. 
fide of the town ; (vide next article.) 
There was formerly a very magnifi- 
cent Cathedral, dedicated to St. Ma- 
char, which with the Bifhop's palace, 
fell a facrifice to the religious frenzy 
of the reformers. Two very antique 
fpires, and an aifle, now ufed as the 
parifh church, are now the only re- 
mains of it. The cathedral was found- 
ed in 1154, when the bifhopric was 
tran dated from Mortlach ; but, having 
become ruinous, or wanting fufneient 
elegance, it was demolifhed, and a 
new one founded by Bifhop Alexander 
Kinninmonth, in 1357. This was 
nearly 80 years in building, and was 
finiihed by Bifhop Elphinftone. In 
the cathedral was a valuable library, 
which was almoft totally deftroyed at 
the reformation. The parifh of A- 
berdeen (Old), or Old Machar, 
is of confiderable extent, being about 
8 milts long from E. to W., and from 
4 to 5 broad, comprehending the fpace 
(except that occupied by the town of 
New Aberdeen) which lies between 
the rivers Dee and Don. The furface 
is agreeably diverfified by riftng 
grounds, interfperfed with gentlemens 
feats, villas, and plantations, and nu- 
merous manufactories. Over the Don 
there is a fine bridge of one Gothic 
arch, built by Bifhop Cheyne, in 1281. 
The arch is 67 feet fpan, and 34* feet 
high from the furface of the river. 


Near the banks of the Don, a rick 
vein of manganeze has been lately 
opened, and promifes to be of confi- 
derable value. In 1793, the popula- 
tion of the parifh of Old Aberdeen 
was 8107 ; increafe 3163 fince 1755. 
Aberdeen (Universities of)* 
In this diftridt there are two Univer- 
fities, viz. ift, King's College, fitu- 
ated in the burgh of Old Aberdeen ; 
and, and, Marischal College, fitu- 
ated in the city. As thefe are diftincf 
from each other, as colleges and uni- 
verfities, we fhall notice them fepa- 
rately. Various attempts have been 
made to unite them ; but without ef- 
fect. The crown is fuperior of both 
colleges ; having fucceeded to the 
King's College upon the abolition of 
epifcopacy, and to the latter on the 
attainder of the late Earl Marifchal ; 
but has never interfered in the elec- 
tion of their chancellors or rectors. 
I. King's College. It appears that 
there exifted, fo long ago as the reign 
of Malcolm IV. a "Jludhun generale 
incollegio canonicorum Aberdonienfium" 
which fubfifted till the foundation of 
this college by Bifhop Elphinftone. 
In the year 1594, Pope Alexander, by 
a bull dated Feb. 10th, inftituted, in 
the city of Old Aberdeen or Aberdon, 
an univerfity, or " Jludium generale et 
univerfitatis Jlud'ti generalis," for The- 
ology, Canon and Civil Law,Medicine, 
the Liberal Arts, and every lawful fa- 
culty ; privileged to grant degrees, 
according to the merits of the ftu- 
dents ; which degrees " beftowen all 
privileges, &c. ubicunque terrarum, 
which belong to any other univerfity." 
James IV. applied for this bull on the 
iupplication of Bifhop Elphinftone, 
who is confidered as the founder. 
Though this bull was granted in 1494, 
the college was only founded in 1506, 
and dedicated to St. Mary; but, being 
taken under the immediate protection 
of the king, it was denominated King's 
College. King James IV. and Bifhop 
Elphiftone endowed it with very 
large revenues. The Bifhop of Aber- 
deen, for the time, was declared to be 
chancellor of the univerfity; but, upon 
the abolition of epifcopacy, the pa- 
tronage became vefted in the hands 
of the crown. The building is an- 
cient, containing a chapel,library, mu- 
feum, common-hall, and rooms for 
the lectures; and a long uniform range 


of modern houfes for the accommo- 
dation of the profeffors, and fuch ftu- 
dents as choofe to live in the college. 
Behind is the garden of the college, 
and the principal's houfe and garden. 
The library and mufeum are well 
furnifhed. There are a number of 
burfaries for poor (Indents, the funds 
for the fupport of which amount to 
near 17,0001. The feffion lafts five 
months, beginning in November. The 
officers are, a chancellor, generally a 
nobleman of high rank ; a rector, en- 
titled lord rector ; a principal; a fub- 
principal ; and a procurator, who has 
charge of the funds. The profeffors 
are of Humanity, Greek, three of Phi- 
lofophy, Oriental Languages, Civil 
Law, Divinity, and Medicine. The 
number offtudents is from 120 to 16©. 
Hector Boethius was the firft principal 
of the college, and was fent for from 
Paris for that purpofe, on a falary of 
40 merks Scots, or %\. 3s. 4d. fter- 

II. Marischal College and Uni- 
rERsirr was founded, and richly en- 
dowed, by George Earl Marifchal of 
Scotland, by a charter, dated. 2nd day 
Of April, 1593- The original founda- 
tion was a principal, and two pro- 
fefibrs of Philofophy ; but, by fome 
munificent donations, there have been 
fince added another profeffbrfhip of 
Philofophy, one of Divinity , and others 
for Mathematics, Chemiftry, Medi- 
cine, and Oriental Languages, and 
many buufaries for poor ftudents. The 
buildings are fituated in the Broad- 
ftreet of New Aberdeen, and contain, 
befides lecture rooms for the different 
claffes, the public fchool for the con- 
ferring of degrees, a common-hall, or- 
namented with fome fine paintings by 
Jamiefon and others; the library, and 
a fmall mufeum of natural hiftory 
and antiquities. The college alfo con- 
tains an obfervatory, well furnifhed 
with aftronomical apparatus. The of- 
ficers are, the chancellor; the rector; 
the dean of faculties; the regent, who 
■ is alO- 1 -."feffor _ ? Greek ; and the 
principal. The number of ftudents 
varies from 120 to 140. 

ABERDOUR; a parifh in Aber- 
deenfhire, in the diftrict of Buchan. 
Its form is very irregular, extending 
along the fhores of the Moray Frith, 
from W., 6\ miles; and from N. 
to S.j its greateft extent is nearly 10 ; 


but in many places the breadth is net 
more than a mile and an half. Ths 
furface is uneven, being formed into 
three dens or hollows, on the bottom 
of which run the burns of Auchmcd- 
den, Aberdour., and Troup. Thefc 
fmall rivulels, at their a;ftuaries into 
the Frith, form a like number of 
creeks for boats, at which are built 3 
fiihing villages. At the mouth of th<» 
burn of Auchmedden, about 60 years 
ago, there was a fmall and convenient 
harbour, (heltered by a pier, where 
fmall veffels ufed to winter and deliver 
cargoes ; but, from being neglected, is 
now totally deftroyed, and the ftones 
which formed the piers being wafhed 
into the former baton, it is now with 
difficulty that fiihing boats can enter, 
efpecially if there is any confiderabld 
roughnefs of the fea. Upon a rocky 
precipice, riling 68 feet perpendicular 
to the beach of the coaft, is the ruin 
of the ancient caftle of Dundargue ; 
it was a place of great confequenctf 
in the feudal times, and is noted for 
a long liege, in 1336, when Henry de 
Beaumont, the Englifh Earl of Buchan, 
was obliged to capitulate to Andrew 
Murray, regent of Scotland, during 
the captivity of King David Bruce. 
The foil of the parifh of Aberdour is 
exceedingly various ; the greater part 
is mofs and muir, interfperfed with 
fmall patches of cultivated land. The 
only plantations are around Aberdour' 
houfs, the elegant feat of Mr. Gordon 
of Aberdour. Two millftone quar- 
ries of excellent quality are wrought 
to good account ; one on the proper- 
ty of the Earl of Aberdeen, and the 
other on the property of Mr. Gordon 
of Aberdour. In 1792, the popu- 
lation was 1306 ; decreafe 91 fincc 


ABERDOUR; a parifh in Fife- 
fliire, forming a fquare of about 3^ 
miles, lying along the N. bank of the 
Frith of Forth. It is divided into two 
diftricts, by a fmall ridge of hills, run- 
ning from E. to W»; of theie the N. 
diftrict is wet, cold, poorly cultivated, 
and altogether unfheltered by enclo- 
fures ; while the S. is fertile, and a- 
griculture is well attended to. The 
town of Aberdour has a good har- 
bour on the Forth, about 10 miles N. 
W. of Edinburgh. It contains about 
840 inhabitants. The town was a 
place of considerable antiquity ; in 


the ittb. century it belonged to the 
family of the Uiponts ; from which it 
went to the Mortimers by marriage, 
and afterwards to the Douglafes ; 
one of whom, in 1457, was created 
Lord Aberdour and Earl of Morton. 
The nuns, commonly called Poor 
Clares, had a convent here; and there 
is an hofpital for four widows, found- 
ed by Anne Countefs of Moray. The 
chief manufacture is of coarfe tickings 
or checks; and, of late, a fmall manu- 
facture of fpades, fhovels, and other 
Iron utenfils, has been eftablifhed. 
The fmall ifiand of Incb-Colm, upon 
which are the ruins of a monaftery, 
founded in the 12th century by A- 
lexander I. is in this parifh ; (vide 
Inch-colm. The venerable old caf- 
tle of Aberdour, the property of the 
Earl of Morton, riling amidft thread- 
ing trees, ftands on the eaftern border 
of the pariih, on the banks of a rivu- 
let; which, winding beautifully in 
front, fhortly falls into the Frith of 
Forth. Towards the N. of the caftle, 
is the elegant manfion «f Hilljide, com- 
manding different views of the Forth, 
and exhibiting the richeft and moft 
diverfified profpecls. The minerals 
are coal, limeftone, freeflone, and 
Ironftone, all of which are abundant. 
In 1801, the population was 1393; 
increafe 113 fince 1792. 

ABERFELDIE ; a fmall, but im- 
proving village, in the county of Perth. 
It is fituated on the banks of the Tay, 
about 6 miles from Kenmore. The 
fituation is very romantic, furrounded 
with thick woods of haael and birch, 
and having the burn of Monefs, on 
which are the romantic falls of the 
fame name, gliding by it. There is a 
thriving muffin manufactory in the 
village. Near it is a very complete 
druidical temple. It lies on the great 
Highland road, 76 miles from Edin- 

pariih in Perthfhire, 11 miles long, 
and 5 broad,- forming the S. W. cor- 
ner of the county, and the extreme 
precinct of the Highlands. It con- 
fids of a long valley, and the fur- 
rounding hills ; forming together a 
great variety of landfcape and moun- 
tain fcenery. The bottom of the 
valley is occupied by the beautiful 
expanfes of water formed by the ri- 
ver Teithi which has its rife on the 


borders of this parifh with Dumbar- 
tonfhire. The chief of thefe lakes; 
are Loch Catherine, Loch Ard, and 
Loch Con; all of which abound with 
trout and pike. The fcenery in this 
diftricl: is uncommonly picturefque, 
and exhibits fimilar grandeur with 
that defcribed under the article Ca^ 
therine (Loch), Trosachs, and 
Callander. The chief mountains 
are Beni-venonu and Benchocben, which 
are nearly 3000 feet above the fea le- 
vel. On the banks of the lakes the 
foil is early and fertile, but is little 
cultivated. The hills afford excellent 
fheep pafture ; and many of them' 
are covered with oak woods of great 
value. The rocks are chiefly com- 
pofed of micaceous granite ; there 
is plenty of limeftone and coarfe 
marble, and fome good Hate. Few 
diftridts in Scotland are better fuited 
for the refearches of the botanift, 
from the variety of rare plants! which 
this parifh affords, of which a copi- 
ous lift is given by Mr. Graham, in 
his ftatiftical report. In 1791, the 
population was 790; decreafe 105 
fince 1755. 

ABERLADY; a parifh in Had- 
dingtonfhire, upon the coaft of the 
Frith of Forth, about 15 miles E. from 
Edinburgh. It is watered by the 
fmall river Ptffer, which at fpring 
tides is navigable for veffels of 60 or 
70 tons about a quarter of a mile from 
its mouth, as far as the village of A- 
berlady, which, in 1792, contained a- 
bout 390 inhabitants. Along the fea ; 
coaft there is a confiderable extent 
of fandy links ; above this the foil is 
light and early. The middle diftricT: 
is poor and unproductive ; but towards' 
the S. there is a fertile bank, extend- 
ing the whole length of the parifh,* 
Gosford, a feat of the Earl of Wemyfs, 
and Ralincriejf, a feat of Lord Elibank, 
are the only manfions of note in the 
parifh. In 1793, the population was 
about 800 ; increafe about 60 fince 


ABERLEMNO ; fituated in the 
county of Angus. Its extent is about 
b\ miles long, and 5 broad. The fur- 
face is various, part being hilly, and 
covered with heath, while the greater 
part is flat and fertile. It lies on the 
banks of the South Ej% which is fome- 
times apt to overflow its banks. There 
are plenty of free and whinftone, and 



fome excellent dates. Neither coal 
nor lime are found in the pariih. 
There are two obeliilcs, which are 
very fine pieces of antiquity ; one in 
the church-yard, and the other on the 

nethy, is fuperior. Its government Is 
veiled in 2 bailies, and 15 counfellors. 
There is carried on a conhderable 
manufactory of houfehold linen and 
Jih-Jias for the Perth market. The 

road from Brechin to Forfar ; erected ' pariih of Abernethy is of an irregular 

to commemorate the total defeat of 
the Danes. They are about 9 feet 
high, covered with rude hieroglyphics. 
Tumuli are alio to be feen in the 
pariih ; a few of which have been 
opened, and were found to contain 
human bones. In 1792, the popula- 
tion was 1033. Vide Appendix for 
that of 180/. 

ABERLOUR, fituated on the weft- 
em part of the county of Banff, is 
nearly of the form of a wedge, being 
9 miles long, and 7 broad at the longeft 
end. It lies on the fouth bank of the 
river Spey, which contains falmon and 
trout. Befides the Spey, it has the 
Fiddich and a few more rivulets, which 
abound with trout and eel. The foil 
on the banks of the Spey arid Fiddich 
is flat and fandy ; but towards the 
fouth it is hilly, with a deep clay bot- 
tom : but both are fruitful. In the 
middle of the parifh ftands the hill of 
Belrinnes, which is elevated 1100 feet 
above the level of the fea. Few fnineral 
productions are found in this parifh ; 
and there are no remarkable antiqui- 
ties. Population in 1792, 920. Vide 
Appendix for that of 1801. 

ABERNETHY ; an ancient town in 
Perthihire, formerly the capital of the 
Pictiih kingdom. It is laid to have 
been founded about the year 460 of 
the Chriftian era. It was intended as 
a retreat for St. Bridget, and 9 other 
virgins, who w 7 ere introduced by St. 
Patrick to Nectan I. the Pictiih mo- 
narch. Shortly after, it was erected 
into an epifcopal fee, and was the re- 
fidence of the metropolitan, if not of 
all Scotland, at leaft of that part which 
was fubject to the Pictiih kings, during 
the exiftence of that government. But 
when Kenneth II. King of Scots had 
entirely fubdued the Picts, he tranf- 
lated both to St. Andrews, in the year 
518. After this the cathedral of A- 
bernethy became a collegiate church, 
and an um-verJHy for the education of 
youth, in the pofiefhon of the Ciddees. 
In the year 1273, & became a priory 
or regular canons. The town is a burgh 
of barony, of which Lord Douglas, as 
reprefentative of the hiirefs of Aber- 

hgure, extending about 4 miles each 
way. It is fituated a little below the 
conflux of the Earn with the river Tay. 
A confiderable part of the parifh is 
fituated in the Ochill hills. The foil 
on the banks of the rivers is moftly 
blue clay ; but there is alfo clay of 
different colours, mixed with fand. 
Agriculture is yet in its infancy in this 
diftrict ; but a few enclofures are to 
be feen. About 25 feet below the fur- 
face, and 4 feet below the higheft 
fpring-tide of the river Tay, is uni- 
formly a Stratum of mofs, with large 
trees intermixed, from 1 to 3 feet thick. 
The hills and outfield, which we may 
reckon to occupy one half of the parifh, 
are appropriated to the rearing of cat- 
tle. There is a fmall ifland in the 
midft of the Tay, called Mugdrum's 
ifle, in this parifh. Befides the rivers 
Tay and Earn, feveral rivulets water 
the parifh. There are fome excellent 
falmon fiihings belonging to different 
proprietors. The church is remark- 
able for its antiquity ; it is fuppofed 
to be the cathedral which was founded 
at the time the' town was built. In 
the church-yard is one of thefe towersj 
of which this and the one at Brechin 
are the only in" Scotland, and which 
have puzzled antiquarians to find their 
ufe. This one coniifts of 64 courfes 
of hewn ftone, laid regularly. The 
height is 74 feet, and the circumference 
48. (Vide Brechin.) Balvaird-caftle 
ftands among the hills, the property 
of the Earl of Mansfield. Population 
in 1792, 1415- Vide Appendix for 
that of 1801. 

This united parifh is nearly equally 
divided between the counties of Mur- 
ray and Invernefs. It is about t$ miles 
in length, and from 10 to 12 in breadth. 
The furface is partly flat, and partly 
mountainous. The foil is as various* 
Along the banks of the Spey there is 
a large fpace of meadow ground, liable 
to be overflowed by the Spey river. 
The Nethy is the only rivulet of any 
note, which here empties itfelf into 
the Spey. There are feveral lakes, of 
which Loch A en and Glenmore are 



A D 

the chief. The Cairngoram mountain 
is in this parifh, celebrated for the 
topazes found there. (Vide Cairn- 
goram.) There are fome very ex- 
tenfive forefts of natural wood, parti- 
cularly the great fir wood of Aber- 
nethy, the property of Sir J. Grant ; 
and Glenmore wood, the property of 
the Duke of Gordon. This wood was 
the oldeft, and belt quality of any fir 
wood in Scotland ; and his Grace 
lately fold it to an Englifh company 
for io,oool. Befides thefe, there are 
feveral other fir woods of many miles 
in extent. Confidering thefe great 
forefts, it is very probable that the 
fir woods of this country exceed all 
the natural fir woods in Scotland put 
together. The produce of the arable 
farms is not fufficient for the confumpt 
of the parifh. A number of fheep a;sd 
black cattle are reared in the hills. 
There is abundance of freeftone in the 
parifh ; and moil of the hills are conv 
pofed of granite. There is an old 
caftle, called Cqftle Roy, of which 
there is no fatisfaclorytradition. Caftle 
Grant, the feat of Sir James Grant, is 
an elegant feat, in this pariih. Popu- 
lation in 1793-8, 1770. Vide Appen- 
dix for that of 1801. 

ABERNYTE ; a parifh fituated in 
the county of Perth, amongft thofe 
hills that rife gradually from the Carfe 
of Gowrie to the top of Dunfmnan. 
It is of an irregular oblong form, being 
,3 miles in length, and 2 in breadth. 
The low grounds are light, dry, and 
fertile ; but the more elevated are of 
a loofe, poor, and gravelly foil ; the 
tops of the hills are bare and rocky. 
Confiderable improvements in agricul- 
ture have taken place within thefe 30 
or 40 years, Lime is much ufed as 
3 manure, and would be more, but 
the badnefs of the roads prefents a 
great obftacle. Marl was found fome 
time ago ; but it appears to be now 
exhaufted. There is a remarkable 
fall of water, nearly 60 feet perpendi- 
cular, at the head of a den, which ex- 
tends to the Carfe of Gowrie. Here a 
copper mine was attempted, but with- 
out fuccefs. There are a few cairns 
and druidical circles. Part of the hill 
of Dunfmnan, famous from the refi- 
dence of Macbeth, is in this pariih - r 
but the caftle is in the pariih of Col- 
lace. King Sent, a part of Dunfmnan 
hill, in this parifh, commands a moft 

extenfive view of the country, from 
the Southefk river to the Frith of 
Forth. In 1793, the population was 
about 456. Vide Append, for 1801. 

ABOYNE ; a parifh in Aberdeen- 
fhire, compofed of the diftriefs of A- 
boyne and Glentanar. The cultivated 
part of the pariih extends on both 
iides of the river Dee, about 4 miles 
in length, and 3 in breadth ; but the 
mountains and foreft of Glentanar ex- 
tend nearly 10 miles further. The foil 
is very fandy and thin, particularly 
on the banks of Dee, where, in dry 
feafons, the crop is very fcanty. A- 
mong the farmers in general, agricul- 
ture is neglecled ; and they employ 
their fervants too much in cutting and 
driving wood for fale : but Lord A- 
boyne's own farm is in a ftate of high 
cultivation : indeed, his Lordihip, by 
his encouragement and example, is be- 
ginning to awaken their attention to 
regular hufbandry. Charleftown of A- 
boyne is a pleafantly fituated, little 
town ; a good deal frequented by in- 
valids, for the benefit of the goat 
whey. It is a burgh of barony, of 
which the Earl of Aboyne is fuperior, 
and has a weekly market and 4 fairs. 
The foreft of Glentanar is very exten- 
five, containing excellent oak trees, 
from which the Earl draws about 
500I. or 600I. yearly from his fale of 
wood. His Lordihip generally refides 
in the parifh, of which he is nearly fole 
proprietor. There is a hill on which 
there are a number of cairns. Popu- 
lation in 1793, 1050. Vide Appendix 
for that of 1801. 

Achilty Loch ; aiake in the pa- 
rifh of Contin, in Rofsihire, of con- 
fiderable extent. It is noted, that ex- 
cept in the time of very high fpeats, 
there is no vifible running water iliuing 
from it, though a great quantity runs 
into it. It certainly difcharges itfelf 
by fubtervaneous paffages into the ri- ' 
ver Rafay, diftant about a mile. It has 
an artificial ifland, with the ruins of 
a houfe upon it. 

Ad ; a river in Argyllfhire ; has its 
fource in the marihes, in the north- 
ern extremity of the parifh of Glaf- 
fary, and in its courfe through the 
muirlands, by the junction of feveral 
tributary rivulets, forms a confider- 
able body of water. It falls into the 
fea at Crinan, where there is a falmoa 



AIRDRIE ; a fmall town in'the pa- 
rifti of Baft Monkland, in the county 
of Lanark, fituated between two rivu- 
lets, on a beautiful riling ground. Jt 
is regularly built, with fine wide Streets, 
extending nearly a mile in length. It 
was, by act: of parliament in 1695, 
erecled into a market town, with the 
privilege of holding a weekly and 4 
annual markets. It carries on a con- 
fiderable trade in distillation of malt 
fpirits. There is alfo an iron fcundery. 
The population of the town is about 

AIRLY ; a parifh in the county of 
Angus, extending about 6 miles in 
length, and from 3 to 4 in breadth. 
It is fituated partly in the vale of 
Stralhmore, and partly in the Gram- 
pian hills, which bound the Strath on 
the north. The furface, even of the 
lower part, is by no means level. Of 
the 5 900 acres which the parifh is fup- 
pofed to contain, 4000 are arable ; the 
reft being muir and mofs, and a fmall 
part occupied by plantation. The 
foil varies from a light fand to a deep 
black mould, but is in general pro- 
ductive of good crops. There are fe- 
veral extenfive moffes in the parifh ; 
in moft of which there are inexhauft- 
ible beds of rock and fhell marl. Airly- 
caftle, the refidence of the Earl of 
Airly, is a fine modern houfe, erected 
on the ruins of an ancient caftle of the 
fame name. It is fituated on a pro- 
montory, at the conflux of the rivers 
Ifla and Melgums, elevated 108 feet 
above their level. The ancient caftle 
has been a ftrong fortrefs, fecured on 
the only acceffible part by a deep fofie 
and a draw-bridge. The furrounding 
fcenery is very romantic. The caftle 
of Balrie is another ruin, of consider- 
able extent. Population in 1793, 865; 
in j8oi, 1041. 

AIRTH ; a parifh of Stirlingfhire, 
about 6 miles in length, and 2 in 
breadth. The whole parifh is a plain, 
with the exception of the hills of 
Airth and Dunmore. The foil is a 
ftrong clay, abundantly fertile. It is 
fituated on the banks of the Forth, 
and has 3 harbours for fmall veffels. 
On Dunmore hill, a few years ago, in 
digging, an anchor was found, at leaft 
half a mile from the prefent courfe of 
the river. There is a considerable ex- 
tent of plantation of oak, See. in the 
parifli. Both the hills of Airth and 

Dunmore contain coal and freeStone. 
There are three ancient towers, at 
Airth, Dunmore, and Powfouls. The 
firft is called Wallace Tower, and 
makes part of the houfe of Airth. 
There are 3 ferries acrofs the Forth. 
There is alfo a mineral fpring of great 
reputed medicinal virtue. Population 
in 1792, eftimated at 2350. Vide Ap- 
pendix for that of 1 801. 

AISLA ; an infulated rock, on the 
weftern coaft of Scotland, betwixt the 
Shores of Ayrfhire and Cantyre. It is 
about 2 miles in circumference, and 
rifcs to a great height, in a conical 
form. Its top is covered with heath 
and grafs. Goats, rabbits, and Sea-fowl, 
in countlefs numbers, are its only in- 
habitants. It is rented at 30I. per 
annum of the Earl of Caffillis, the pro* 
prietor ; and this rent is paid from 
folan geefe, the feathers of the fea- 
fowl, and the Skins of rabbits. It 
is furrounded with excellent fifhing 
banks, well ftocked with cod and 
other fifh. It has on it a ruinous 
caftle, built by the direction of Philip 
II. of Spain, when he indulged the 
vain hope of annexing Britain to his 

Ale ; a fmall rivulet, which takes 
its rife from Alemoor loch, on the 
borders of Selkirk and Roxburgh- 
Shires ; and holding a northerly courfe, 
and joining with other rivulets, falls 
into the Tweed, a little above Kelfo, 
It abounds with trout-; and, at Spawn- 
ing time, a few falmon are caught in it. 

ALFORD ; a parifli in Aberdeen- 
Shire, fituated on the banks of the river 
Don, about 15 miles from Aberdeen. 
Its extent in length is about 8, and in 
breadth about 4 or 5 miles. It con- 
tains 8000 Scots acres, of which there 
may be 4000 arable ; 3000 hill, muir, 
and mofs; and 1000 of plantations of 
oak, larixes, afhes, &x. The arable 
foil lies moftly on the banks of the 
Don, and is generally a light loam ; 
tolerably early and fertile. A consi- 
derable extent of clay with loamy foil, 
lies in the eaftern part of the parifh. 
There are few of the lands enclofed ; 
and agriculture is perhaps in as low a 
ftate here, as in any part of Scotland. 
The fuel of the country is peat, wood, 
turf, heath, Sec. but the trouble of 
procuring thefe is fo great, that coals 
are now beginning to be brought from 
Aberdeeu. Among the antiquities, we 
B 2 


may mention two cairns of iinmenfe 
extent. A man in armour, on horfe- 
back, was lately dilcovered in one of 
the mofles, fuppofed to have been 
drowned in attempting to efcape after 
the battle of the. ad July, 1645, in 
which the Marquis of Montrofe de- 
feated the Covenanters. The battle 
took place in this parifh. Population 
in 1793, 663. Vide Appendix for 
that of 1801. 

Allan ; a. fmall river in Perth- 
fhire. It takes its rife at Gleneagles, in 
the parifh of Blackford, and after 
pafling by Dumblane, falls into the 
Forth, a little above Stirling bridge. 
Its courfe is rapid. Some falmons are 
got in it after fummer floods. 

ALLOA, or ALLOWAY ; a burgh 
of the county of Clackmannan, feated 
on the Forth, about 27 miles above 
Leith. It lies in a parifh of the fame 
name, which is about 4 miles long, 
and 2 broad. The fituation of the 
town is uncommonly beautiful ; and 
its harbour is very commodious, re- 
ceiving veffels of the greateft burden. 
It is a place of conflderable trade, and 
ihipping. An excellent dry dock has 
been lately erected ; and Alloa has long 
been famous for building fhips. A 
very conflderable quantity of coal is 
railed in the neighbourhood ; and vef- 
fels are expeditioufly loaded at this 
place, from a new waggon-way of lin- 
gular conftruction. A large manufac- 
tory of glafs, an iron foundery, a tan 
and tile-work, all increafe the trade 
of the town. Near the town Hands 
the tower of Alloa, which was built 
about the 13th century. It is about 90 
feet in height, and the walls are 1 1 feet 
in thicknefs. The tower and lands of 
Alloa were exchanged in 1365, by 
David II. with Lord Erfkine, for the 
eft-ate of Stragarthney, in Perthihire. 
Since that time it has been the favou- 
rite relidence of the Erfkine family. 
In this reiidence many of the Scottifh 
princes received their education, while 
under the wardlhip of the Earls of 
Marr. The reprefentative of this 
family ftill retains many memorials of 
the affection which fubfifted between 
the Stuart and Erikine families ; in 
particular, the private fignet of Mary, 
when obliged to defift from wearing 
the arms of England ; the child's 
chair of James VI. and a feftive chair, 
with the motto on it, foil deo, honor 


et gloria, prefented to Thomas 2d 
Earl of Marr. The gardens are un- 
commonly extenlive and beautiful ; 
and the furrounding park contains 
about 40 acres of the fineft old trees 
in Scotland. Farther north than the 
tower is Tullibody, the feat of the fa- 
mily of Abercrombie, where' the late 
Gen. Sir Ralph, and Lieut. Gen. Sir 
Robert Abtrcrombies, two diftinguim- 
ed characters in the military memoirs 
of Great Britain, were born. Shaw 
Park, the relidence' of Lord Cathcart, 
is alfo in the parifh. The river Devon 
waters the parifh, and falls into the 
Forth, a little above the town. In 
both thefe rivers are great quantities 
of excellent fifh ; and feyeral of the 
filhings yield a conflderable revenue 
to the proprietors. Population in 
1793, 480s.' Vide Appendix for that 
of 1801. 

Almond, or Am on ; a river in 
Perthihire, which rifes in the top of a 
glen in the Grampians, called the Nar-> 
ro<w Glen. It runs through the pa- 
ri flies of Monzie andFoulis; and conti- 
nuing its courfe between Logie Amon, 
Methven, and Regorton, falls into the 
Tay above Perth, after a courfe of 
near 18 miles. The banks are rocky, 
and often prefent to the eye the mod 
pictureique fcenery. It pofleffes many 
waterfalls, on a number of which ex r 
tenfive machinery have been erected. 
There are alfo feveral bleachfields wa- 
tered by its ftreams. It is celebrated for 
a particular ipecies of fine white trout. 

ALNESS ; a parifh of the county of 
Rofs, fituated on the coaft of the Frith 
of Cromarty. Its extent is about iz 
miles in length, and from 2. to 4 in 
breadth : contiguous to the fea, and 
extending 2 miles up the country, the 
furface is flat, and the foil arable ; the 
reft of the parifh is mountainous, and , 
more fit for pafture. There are two 
beautiful lochs in the parifh, which dis- 
charge themfelves by rivulets through 
two fine fertile ftraths. There is a 
very rich ore of iron, which feems to 
be of conflderable extent. By analyfis 
it was found to yield about 75 lb. per 
cwt. of excellent iron. On the eftate 
of Munrp of Lealdie, a rich vein of 
filver ore has alfo been dilcovered. 
Navar, the feat of the amiable Gen. Sir 
Hector Munro, is the moft complete 
and finiflied place in the north of Scot- 
land. Capt. Munro of Feaniniqh lvis,. 



alfo a fine feat in the parifli. Popula- 
tion in 1794, uai. Vide Appendix 
for that 'of 1801. 

ALVA. This little parifli or barony, 
although furrounded with the county 
of Clackmannan, is in fact annexed to 
the county of Stirling. It extends 
over a part of the Ochill hills, and the 
valley on the banks of the river Devon. 
The higheft of the Ochill hills, Ben- 
clock, which is about 2420 feet above 
the level of the Devon, is partly in this 
pariih. The fides of the hills are clothed 
vvith the richeft verdure, and afford 
pafture to a confiderable number of 
iheep. The arable foil is various, 
part being a rich mould with gravel, 
part clay, and part haugh lands, liable 
to be overflowed by the Devon. The 
lairds of Alva have of late years made 
out fome young plantations of trees, 
which are very thriving. This parifh 
has been diftinguiihed for the great 
variety of minerals with which it 
abounds. A very valuable vein of 
filver ore was wrought fome time ago ; 
and filver to the value of 40,0001. or 
5o,oool. was computed to be raifed. 
13efides the ore, which was exceedingly 
rich, confiderable quantities of native 
malleable filver has been dug out. 
Cobalt, arfenic, lead, copper, and iron, 
have alfo been difcovered at the foot 
of the hills. Extenfive veins of coal 
are now begun to be wrought. There 
has been earned on for more than a 
century, in the village of Alva, a ma- 
nufactory of coarfe ferges and Scots 
blankets. In 1791, the population 
was 612. Vide Appendix for that of 

ALVAH. This parifh is fituated in 
the county of Banff. Its length is 
about 6 miles, and its greateft breadth 
the fame. The river Deveron divides 
the parifli in two parts, winding at the 
bottom of a beautiful valley. At one 
part the river is contracted, having on 
each fide rugged precipices, about 50 
feet deep. The fcenery, which is na- 
turally picuirefque, is greatly em bel- 
lifhed by the proprietor the Earl of 
Fife. The foil on the fides of the 
river is fertile, but fubjecb to frequent 
inundations. As we recede, the fur- 
face becomes hilly and barren. The 
hill of Alvah riles majeftically to a 
confiderable height, ferving as a land 
mark to mariners. Agriculture is very 
little attended to, and enclofures are 

few. The roads are bad. Here arc 
the ruins of a caftle and chapel, faid 
to be built by an Earl of Buchan. 
Population in 179.?, 1070. Vide Ap- 
pendix for that of 1801. 

ALVES ; a parifh in the county of 
Moray, containing nearly 21 fquare 
miles. The furface is agreeably un- 
even, and the plantations lately made 
out by tke Earl of Moray, will foon in- 
creafe its beauty. The foil is very fer- 
tile, being moftly clay and loam. It is 
well cultivated, and is well adapted to 
the culture of wheat. The road from 
Elgin to Forres paffes through the pa- 
rifh. The parifh had once abundance 
of peat mofs ; but it is ail exhaufted, 
and the inhabitants are obliged to pur- 
chafe coals. There are feveral inex- 
hauftibie quarries of freeftone, fit ei- 
ther for building or millftones. There 
is a very large cairn in the parifli, near 
which fome Lochaber axes and other 
weapons were lately found. Popula- 
tion in 1793, mi. Vide Appendix 
for that of 1801. 

ALVIE ; a parifli in the county of 
Inyernefs, of a very irregular fliape. 
The inhabited part of it extends along 
the banks of the Spey and Feffie ; taken 
altogether, about 16 miles in length, 
and from 3 to 2 in breadth ; but the 
mountainous part extends much far- 
ther. The hills are very lofty, and 
either barren rocks, or covered with 
heath. The interjacent valleys afford 
excellent pafture. The lower or ara- 
ble foil is light and dry, upon a gra- 
velly bottom, yielding in fhowery fea- 
fons luxuriant crops. There is a final! 
lake, which with the other rivers, con- 
tain trout ; and the Spey contains 
falmon. The great military road to 
Fort George from the fouth paffes 
through the pariih. Here is an arti- 
ficial cave, 60 feet long, 9 broad, and 
7 high. It is covered with large flat 
ftanes. Some tumuli are alio found. 
Population in 1793, ion. Vide Ap- 
pendix for that of 1801. 

ALYTH. The pariih of Alyth is fi- 
tuated in the county of Perth, on the 
north fide of the valley of Strathmore. 
It lies on the north bank of the Ifla, 
which abounds with trout. The 
part of the parifli along the Ifla is 
flat and fertile ; towards the north it 
is more hilly. The mountains, which 
are fituated in this parifh, are covered 
with verdure, and afford pafture to a 


coniiderable number of fheep. The 
foil is in a particular manner adapted 
to the culture of fiax, of which a con- 
iiderable quantity is annually raifed. 
The village of Alyth, which was erected 
into a burgh of barony by James III. 
is pleafantly fituated, and carries on a 
great trade in the linen manufactory. 
Marl is found plentifully fcattered 
over the parifh ; andconfideraWe quan- 
tities of lime are brought from Dun- 
dee (15 miles) for the purpofe of ma- 
nure. Very extenfive moffes fupply 
fuel to the country. Game is very 
plentiful in the heathy muirs, which 
are fituated on the north fide of the 
parifh. Mount Blair, with a bafe of 
5 miles circumference, rifes in a coni- 
cal form to the height of 1300 feet. 
Limeftone abounds in the parifh ; but 
the want of coal to burn it is an infu- 
perable objection to its ufe. In 1793, 
the population amounted to 3723. 
Vide Appendix for that of 1801. 

Amon, or Amond ; a river in Mid- 
Lothian, which rifes in the fouth 
boundary of that fhire ; and after a 
precipitous courfe nearly north, falls 
into the Forth at Cramond. 

ANCRUM ; fituated nearly in the 
centre of the county of Roxburgh ; 
ilretches 6 miles in length along the 
"N. fide of the river Tiviot ; its breadth 
does not exceed 4 miles. The river 
Ale runs through the parifh. Both 
rivers contain plenty of trout. The 
foil is rich, coniifting of clay and fand ; 
and in fome places of a loam. There 
•was formerly a great extent of wood in 
the parifh ; but none of long ftanding 
remains, except in the environs of An- 
crum-houfe, on the banks of the Ale. 
Several young thriving plantations, by 
Sir John Scott and other heritors, are 
now beginning to embellifh the coun- 
try. The fite of Ancrum-houfe is 
very picturefque. There is plenty of 
excellent freeftone in the parifh ; and 
ihell marl has been got in fome of the 
moffes. The Roman road from York 
to the Forth paffes through the N. 
corner of this parifh. There are the 
remains alfo of a Roman encampment. 
The barony of Langnewton is annexed 
to this parifh. The number of inha- 
bitants in 1792, was 1146. Vide Ap- 
pendix for that of 1801. 

ANDREWS (St.); an ancient royal, 
borough, in Fifefhire, once the metro- 
polis of Scotland, an archiepifcopal 


fee, and ftill the feat of the oldeft 
Scottifh univerfity. St. Andrews is 
about a mile in circuit, pleafantly fi- 
tuated on a bay, into which the rivers 
Eden and Kenlowie empty themfelves. 
It was erected into a royal borough by 
David II. and the confirmation of their 
privileges, by a charter from Mal- 
colm II. is ftill preferved in the town- 
houfe. Here are alfo kept the fiiver 
keys of the city. In this place is like- 
wife to be feen the monftrous ax which 
took off the heads of Sir Robert Spotf- 
wood and other diftinguifhed loyalifts. 
The town underwent a fiege in 1337, 
while in poffeffion of the Englifh ; but 
the loyalifts, under the Earls of March 
and Fife, made themfelves mafters of 
it in 3 weeks, by the help of their 
battering machines. It once engaged 
an extenfive foreign trade. So late 
as the reign of Charles I. it had 30 or 
40 trading veffels. At prefent, the 
chief manufactures are fail-cloth and 
ofnaburghs. The harbour is fafe and 
commodious ;. but not eafily taken 
when the wind is eaflerly. The uni- 
verfity' was founded in 1411, by Bifhop 
Wardlaw. It confifts of 2 colleges, 
viz. the United college of St. Salvator 
and St. Leonard ; and the New, or 
St. Mary's college. Vide Andrews 
(St.) University of. The retired 
fituation of St. Andrews, its diftance 
from all places of fafhionable refort, 
and, above all, the celebrity of the 
univerfity, as a fchool of morals and 
philofophy, renders it, perhaps, the 
mod eligible place of education for 
ftudents, which Scotland affords. The 
ruins of the ancient religious eftablifh- 
ments ftill fhew a part of the former 
magnificence of this ancient city. It 
may not be improper here to mention 
a few of the moil remarkable. 1. The 
cathedral was founded in 1161, and 
deftroyed in 1559 by the reformers. 
Its length from E. to W. was 370 
feet; that of the tranfept, -322. 2. 
The chapel of St. Regulus, the fpire 
of which, rifing 103 feet, is ftill nearly 
entire ; but the arches and architec- 
ture afford undoubted proofs of its 
great antiquity. 3. The Auguftine 
priory, founded in n 22, by Alex- 
ander I. was endowed with immenfe 
revenues, and extenfive dependencies. 
4. The Dominican abbey, founded in 
1274, by Bifhop Wifhart. 5. The 
abbey of Obfervantines, founded by 


Biihop Kennedy, and finifhed by his 
fucceffor Patrick Graham, in 1478 ; 
and, according to many, a Carmelite 
monaftery. Immediately above the 
harbour, ftood the church of Kirk- 
heugh, founded by Conftantine III. 
who here retired from the cares of 
royalty and the world, in the habit of 
an Auguftine monk. On a rock, over- 
looking the fea, are the ruins of a forti- 
fied caftle, built by Bifhop Trail in 
1 40 1, with this angular infeription 
over the gate : 

Hie f nit ecclefia diretla columna fenejlra 
Lucidia, thuribulum redolens, campana 

The caftle was the refidence of Car- 
dinal Beaton, who was here murdered 
by Lefly and others. The entrance 
of it is ftill entire ; and the window is 
fliewn, out of which the cardinal 
looked, to glut his eyes with the cruel 
martyrdom of George Wiihart, who 
was burnt on a fpot beneath. Not 
many years ago, a fecret apartment 
was difcovered in the caftle, of a coni- 
cal figure, cut out of the folid rock. 
It is about 24 feet high, 18 in circum- 
ference at the bafe, and 6 at the top. 
It was no doubt a place of confine- 
ment, where the unfortunate victims 
periihed ; for feveral cartloads of hu- 
man bones were dug out of it. It is 
now ufed as a powder magazine. In 
the church of St. Salvator is Bifhop 
Kennedy's tomb, of exquifite work- 
manfhip. In the top is reprefented our 
Saviour ; around are angels, with the 
inftruments of the pafiion. A few years 
ago, fix magnificent filver maces were 
difcovered within the tomb, exact mo- 
dels of it. One was prefented to each 
of the other 3 Scots univeriities, and 
3 are retained here. With thefe are 
ihewn fome filver arrows, with filver 
plates affixed, on which the arms and 
names of the noble youth, victors in 
the annual competitions in archery, 
which were dropt but a few years 
ago ; and golf is now the favourite 
amufement. In the town church, 
which was lately rebuilt, is Bifhop 
Sharp's tomb, reprefenting the afiaf- 
fi nation of that unfortunate biihop on 
Magus muir. The library is magni- 
ficent, and efteemed one of the belt in 
the kingdom. In it are preferved a 
number of natural curiofities. On the 
ground floor is a fpacious hall, where 
the ftudents are generally examined. 


In this hall the parliament formerly fat. 
The pariih of St. Andrews extend3 
about 10 miles in length, and 3 in 
breadth. A confiderable part of it is 
covered with heath ; but along the 
coaft the foil is fertile, and well cul- 
tivated. The population in the town 
does not exceed 2000 ; but the coun- 
try part of the parifh being populous 
in. 1793, the number of inhabitants 
amounted to 4340; in 1801, the re- 
turn made was 4335. 

Andrews (St.) University of. 
This univerfity is the oldeft in Scot- 
land, being founded in 141 1. It form- 
erly confifted of 3 colleges, viz. ift, 
St. Salvator's, founded in 1458, by 
James Kennedy, Biihop of St. An- 
drews. 2d, St. Leonard's, founded 
in 15 1 2, by Prior Hepburn : and, ^d t 
St. Mary's, founded by Bifhop John 
Hamilton, in 1553. In each of thefe 
colleges, theology, philofophy, litera- 
ture, and other branches of fcience, 
were taught by able profefibrs. About 
the year 1579, under the direction of 
the celebrated George Buchannan, the 
univerfity was completely new-mo- 
delled, St. Mary's college being appro- 
priated to divinity, and denominated 
Divinity, or Nezv College. In 1747, by 
an act of parliament, St. Leonard's and 
St. Salvator's were united, under the 
name of the United College. Thefe two 
colleges are perfectly diftinct, and inde- 
pendent of one another ; but have the 
library in common. Thg.fena.tus aca- 
demicus, or univerfity meeting, is com- 
pofed of the profeffors of both colleges. 
To this court, in matters of difcipline, 
an appeal lies from the fentence of 
either college. The profeffors of both 
colleges are under one chancellor, with 
a principal to each. The united col- 
lege has 2 profeffors of philofophy, 
one of mathematics, of humanity, 
Greek, logic, civil hiftory, and medi- 
cine. The new college has profefibrs 
of Hebrew., ecclefiaftical hiftory, and 
divinity. The ftudents have apart- 
ments in each of the colleges, rent 
free ; and a public table for the buriars, 
on the foundation. The feflion lafU 
about fix months and a half. The an- 
nual average number of ftudents at 
both colleges is about 150. 

county and that of Kincardine were 
anciently a part of the Pictifli king- 
dom, and known under the general 


name of Horejiia, or Forejl/a. Upon 
the extinction of that government by 
Kenneth II. about the year 518, he 
divided this diftrict into two mires, 
and beftowed them on his two bro- 
thers, Eneas or Angus, and Mearns ; 
and from thefe brothers, Angus and 
Mearns received their names. Angus- 
fhire lies on the N. bank of the river 
Tay, and its boundaries are as follow. 
OntheNJE. itis bounded bytheNorth- 
eik river, which feparates it from Kin- 
cardinefhire ; from the mouth of that 
river, proceeding S. and W. to the 
Frith of Tay, the German Ocean 
forms its boundary on the E. and S. E. 
the Tay, from Barry fands to the 
quarry of Kingoody, is its boundary 
on the S. then it extends in an iri- 
diftindt line about 40 miles, as faras the 
fource of Ifla, bordering with Pefth- 
fhire on the W. and on the N. it is fe- 
parated from Aberdeenfhire for the 
fpace of 26 miles by the Grampian 
mountains, which here are named the 
Binchinnans. The extent of the whole, 
from the eaftern coaft to the Gram- 
pians, is about 48 miles ; and from 
Mount Petie, on the borders of Perth- 
shire, to the mouth of the Northefk 
river, about 42. The country is di- 
vided in many places by hills of con- 
jiderable elevation, forming valleys or 
glens between them. At the foot of 
the Grampians lies the valley of Strath- 
more, which extends from Dumbar- 
tonfhire to Aberdeen, nearly the whole 
breadth of the kingdom; inAnguslhire 
this valley is formed- on the S. by the 
Sidlaw or Sudiaw hills, which divide 
it from the lefs elevated part of the 
country. Beiides Strathmore, there 
are other valleys of lefs note, which 
receive their name from the rivers 
which run through them ; as Glenifia, 
Glen Proffin, Glenefk, &c. Thefe are 
the chief rivers, but there are many 
others which deferve notice ; as Mel- 
gums, Canity, Moran, Lunan, Elliot, 
Dich'ty, &c. All the rivers of the 
county arife in the northern parts ; 
and all (except Ifla, which runs W. in 
the valley of Strathmore, to fall into 
Tay,) empty themfelves into the Ger- 
man Ocean, towards the S. and E. 
There are a few lochs in the county ; 
but as none are of any remarkable ex- 
tent, they will come more properly to 
be defcribed in the account of the pa- 
rilh to which they belong. From what 


has been faid of the courfe of the 
rivers, it is almoft needlefs to mention, 
that the furface has a gradual defcent 
from the northern parts of the country 
to the S. In confequence, the lower 
parts enjoy a fine S. expofure, well 
flickered from the bleak, cold, north- 
erly winds. The Frith of Tay is 
every where interfperfed with fand 
banks, which much increafe the dan- 
ger of the navigation, from their fre- 
quent changes of fituation. To obvi- 
ate this difficulty, two light-houfes are 
erected on the fands of Barry ; and, 
from one being made moveable, it can 
at once be adapted to the changes of 
the fand. From the mouth of Tay to 
about 2 miles eaft ofAbefbrothock, the 
coaft is fandy, with frequent funk 
rocks. About 12 miles S. E. of Ar- 
broath is the dangerous rock, called 
the Bell-rock or Cape, Upon which fd 
many veffels have been lately wrecked. 
From the place where the fandy 
more terminates, the coaft becomes 
bold 2nd rocky, prefenting dreadful 
precipices to the fea. The rocks are 
every where excavated into extenfive 
caverns, into fome of which the fea 
runs a confiderable way. They are 
stbout 20 in number, and are worthy 
the attention of the traveller. The 
Red Head, a well known promontory, 
upwards of 200 feet perpendiculars 
terminates this rocky front. There 
Lunan bay begins, with a fandy fhore, 
and fafe anchorage, for nearly 3 miles. 
It again becomes rocky as far as the 
Southefk river ; and from this to the 
Northefk, it has a fandy fhore, with 
funk rocks. Befides the principal har- 
bours of Dundee, Aberbrothock, and 
Montrofe, there are a few places where 
fmall ve'ffets may unload. A very conh- 
derable number of veffels belong to 
thefe ports, which are moftly employed 
in bringing flax and hemp from the Bal- 
tic, and in exporting fail-cloth and 
brown linens, the chief manufacture 
of the county, and the fuperabundant 
produce of the farms. As fail-cloth 
is the ftaple manufacture, the increafed 
demand in time of war for that article 
is very advantageous to the county ; 
and peace, which is fo defirable to the 
re -eftablifhment of other manufactures, 
is the caufe of almoft a total ftagnation 
of the trade of this (hire. Angusfliire 
contains 5 royal boroughs, viz. Dun- 
dee, Arbreath, Montrofe, Brechin, 


find Forfar, vnih the fmall towns of 
Glammis and Kirriemuir, which arc 
all employed in the linen manufacture. 
It contains alio 53 parifhes, in many 
of which a confiderable quantity of 
cloth is made. The foil of the low 
country is various, but generally fer- 
tile. Agriculture is much attended to, 
and making rapid ftrides to improve- 
ment ; and the encouragement which 
the farmers receive from their land- 
lords, is every where producing en- 
clofures, by ftone fences and ditches. 
The produce in wheat and barley is 
generally far more than fufficient for 
the confumpt of the county ; but it, 
in moft feafons, requires a fupply of 
oats. There are a number of black 
cattle reared in the county, many of 
which are annually purchafed by the 
fouth country drovers. A few fheep 
are reared on the mountains. There 
is little wood of great age in the coun- 
ty, except in the neighbourhood of 
fome ancient feats ; but a number of 
very fine young plantations of larix 
and Scots fir are lately laid out on al- 
moft every eftate. The inhabitants on 
the coaft are well fupplied with Eng- 
liih and Scots coal ; but in the more 
inland parts, peat, turf, and furze, 
form the principal fuel. There are 
many molfes of confiderable extent. 
The whole county is interfperfed with 
fine feats of nobility and gentry; a few 
of the moft remarkable are, Brechin- 
caftle and Panmure-houfe, the chief 
feats of the- Hon. W. R. Maule, the 
greateft proprietor in the county ; E- 
thie-houfe, the feat of theEarl of North- 
elk ; Glammis-caftle, of the Earl of 
Strathmore ; Kinnaird, of Sir D. Car- 
negie, the lineal defcendent of the fa- 
mily of Southeik; Airly-caftle, of Lord 
Airly ; Roflie-caftle, of Hercules Rofs, 
Efq. ; Belmont, the feat of the late 
Lord Privyfeal : beiides which, Lind- 
fay of Boyfack and Kinblythmont, 
Guthrie of Guthrie, Rait of Arnifton, 
Dempfter of Dunnichen, Gardyne of 
Ivliddleton, Lyell of Kinordie, Guthrie 
of Craigie, Graham of Fin tray, Hen- 
derfon of Lawton, Ogilvie of Clova, 
Fotheringham of Powrie, and a great 
many others, poffefs beautiful villas 
and ornamented_eftates in the county. 
Angusihire poffeffes very few valuable 
minerals. Freeftone abounds in moft 
parts of the county, and there are fe- 
veral limeftone quarries; but the great 


diftance and expence of coals, render's 
void many of the advantages which 
might accrue from this mineral. Lead 
has been found in one place, but in 
very inconfiderable quantity. A vein 
of lilver ore was once opened in the 
parifh of EfTay ; but to fo little advan- 
tage, that it is now no longer wrought. 
Pebbles, porphyry, and jafper, with .a 
few cornelians, are perhaps the only 
mineral fubftances of any value to be 
met with, if we except marl, which is 
found in moft of the lochs. Many 
years ago, pearls of confiderable fize 
were found in the Southeik ; but of 
late they have become more rare. The 
animals are common to other parts of 
Scotland ; and the county is well fup- 
plied with fifh. Upon the whole, for 
trade, agriculture, and ornamented 
furface, it can vie with almoft any 
county in the kingdom. The valued 
rent of the county is ftated in the 
county books at 171,6361.; and the 
real land rent is eftimated at i22,cooL 
Population in 1791, 91,964; in 1801* 
about 97,778. 

ANNAN; a royal borough in Dum- 
friesfiiire, and capital of the diftrict of 
Annandale. It is lituated near the dif- 
charge of the river Annan into the 
Solway Frith. It is one of the moft 
ancient towns in Scotland, having re- 
ceived its charter from Robert Bruce, 
who was lord of Annandale, before his 
acceffion to the ScottiQi throne. The 
houfes are decent, and well built. 
There was a fine caftle built here by 
the Bruces, the ruins of which ftill 
remain. There is a bridge of 5 arches 
over the Annan, at this place. Form- 
erly this town carried on a very con- 
fiderable trade in wine, and annually 
exported nearly 15^000 bolls of corn. 
The mouth of the river forms an ex- 
cellent harbour, having water fuffi- 
cient to permit veffels of 250 or 300 
tons to approach within half a mile 
of the town ; and veffels of 60 tons 
can come up as far as the bridge. The 
burgh pofieffes extenfive burgh-roods 
and commonties. Its revenue, arifing 
from fifheries, tolls, and feu-duties, is 
about 300I. fterl. per annum. A cot- 
ton manufactory has lately been efta- 
blifhed on a fmall fcale. The popu- 
lation of the town is about 1620. 

The parifh of Annan is about 8 
miles in length, and from 1 to 3 iri 
breadth. The furface is moftly level* 



and the foil a rich clay. There are 
fame tracks of heath-covered muir ; 
but thefe are very trifling. The tides 
of the Annan, and the elevated part 
of the parifh, are ornamented with 
itripes of planting. There is a falmon 
fiihery on the river, which lets at about 
32ol. per annum. Several turnpike 
roads interfect the parifh, viz. from 
Dumfries to Carliik, from Annan 
(town) to Edinburgh, Sec. Limeftone, 
granite, and freeftone, abound in the 
parifh. Population in 1793 in the 
whole parifh, ijco. 

Annan; a river which takes its 
rife in the mire of Peebles, and runs 
fouthward through that diftrict of 
Dumfriesfhire to which it gives its 
name. Its banks are highly fertile and 
ornamented, and its beautiful mean- 
derings add much to the romantic ap- 
pearance of the furrounding fcenery. 
It difcharges itfelf into the Solway 
Frith, after a courfe of nearly 30 miles. 
It abounds with falmon, and other fifh 
in great variety. 

ANNAND ALE ; a ftewartry cr dis- 
trict of Dumfriesfnire ; anciently was 
a part of the Roman province of Va- 
lentia. It became a lordftiip under 
the Braces, who took their title from 
it. About the year 13 71, upon the 
demife of David II. fon of Robert, it 
fell into the hands of Randolph Earl 
of Murray, regent during the minority 
of David ; and, with his fifter Agnes, 
it went to the D unbars, Earls of 
March. After their forfeiture, it fell 
to the Douglaffes, who loft it by the 
fame fate. It is now a Marquifate, in 
the Johnftone family. Lochmaben- 
caftle was the chief fort in this diftrict i. 
and when, from its vicinity to the 
borders of England it was expofed to 
hoftile attacks, it was deemed alrrioft 
impregnable. Annandale is a fertile 
vale, lying on both fides of the Annan, 
about 25 miles long, and 14 broad. It 
is bounded on the N. by the ihires of 
Lanark and Peebles ; on the W. by 
Nithfdale ; on the S. by the Solway 
Frith ; and on the E. by Elkdale. 
From its vicinity to the borders, and 
the continual predatory excurfions to 
which it was expofed, the greateft part 
was uncultivated, and common ; but, 
within thefe 50 years, from the divi- 
sion of the commons, the enclosures, 
and the great improvement of the 
roads, it has aflumed a very different 

appearance. There are feveral lochs 
in the diftrict, which abound with 
rifh. Coal and lime are found in con- 
siderable quantity. From having been 
a Roman province, it abounds with 
Roman ftations and antiquities. Part 
of Severus's wall, the camps of Birreus 
and Brunfwick, and the remains of a 
great military mad, are eailly and dis- 
tinctly traced. The ruin of the caftle 
of Auchincafs, once the feat, of Ran- 
dolph the regent, covers an acre of 
ground, and fall conveys an idea of 
the ftrength and extent of the building. 
The caftle of Hoddam, and of Com- 
longan, are in tolerable prefervation ; 
but, except thefe, all the forts and 
towers erected on this part of the 
border are in ruins. 

An nat, or Cam bus ; a fmall rivu- 
let in the parifh of Kilmadock, county 
of Perth. It joins the Teith at the 
church of Kilmadock, and is remark- 
able for numerous cafcades, and ro- 
mantic banks. 

royal burgh, in the county of Fife, 
being little more than a paltry fulling 
village, containing about 1070 inhabi- 
tants. The pariih is fmall, and the 
foil fandy and unproductive. Weft- 
ward, and adjoining to it, lies 

a royal burgh, conftituted in 1583, 
with reprefentation in parliament, 
which it ftill enjoys. The pariih does 
not contain more than 600 acres ; and 
the burgh is a finall village, containing 
not more than 370 inhabitants. 

Antoninus' Wall; the barrier 
which the Romans erected to protect 
their conquefts in the fouthern parts 
of Scotland. It was conftructed by 
Lolliiis Urbicas, the lieutenant of the - 
Emperor Antoninus, about the year 
J38, to connect the chain of forts, 
formerly erected by Agricola, between 
the Friths of Forth and Clyde. It 
confifted of a ditch from 12 to 15 feet 
wick, the wall being formed of the 
earth thrown up in making the ditch. 
In a few of the molt expofed iitua- 
tions it was built of (tone. It after- 
wards received the appellation of 
Graham's dyke, from a chieftain of 
that name who firft broke through it. 
This wall, the monument of Roman 
ufurpation, is now nearly demoliihed 
by the ploughihare ; and we may fairly 
apply to it the celebrated words of 


the Roman poet, <* Jam feg&s eft, ubl 
Troia ft: it," — O v i n 1 1 E p i s x o l .t . 

ANWOTH ; a paiiftl in the ftew- 
artfy of Kirkcudbright. Its extent is 
about 6k miles in length, and 3^ in 
breadth. The river Fleet runs on the 
borders of the pariih for 7 miles, and 
the fea bounds it on the S. for a| or 
3 miles. The fea coaft is very rocky, 
not affording a harbour to any fhip- 
ping. The mouth of the Fleet, how- 
ever, is navigable to veffels of 50 tons 
for 3 miles, as far up a-s Gatehoufe of 
Fleet, a village in the pariih of Girthon. 
The furface has in general a hilly ap- 
pearance ; one of the hills, Cannkar- 
rab, riling to the height of 1 100 feet 
above the level of the fea. The foil 
is, from the nature of the furface, 
more fitted for plantations and paf- 
ture, than tillage ; but, a few fpots 
near the fea are arable, and produce 
excellent crops. The Fleet yields fal- 
jnon, and river trout ; but the fiihery is 
not fo productive as formerly. There 
is a bridge over the Fleet at Gatehoufe, 
and a final! village has been ere<Sed on 
the Anwoth tide of the river. There 
are feveral relics of antiquity in the 
pariih, of which the tower of Rufco, 
and caftle of Cardonefs, are the chief. 
They are both iituated on the banks of 
the Fleet, and are of very ancient erec- 
tion. On the top of a hill is one of 
rhefe ltructures, which have been de- 
nominated i'it 'lifted 'forts. The top of 
the hill is about 300 feet above the fea, 
and is ftrewed with fragments of (tone 
{fc/jiftujj, twitted, and bearing all the 
marks of fuiion. Population in 1793, 


Aoreidh, or Arat; a river in Ar- 
gyllfhire. It rifes amongft the moun- 
tains, at the back of the burgh of In- 
veraray, and takes its courfe through 
rugged and uneven ground, moftly co- 
vered with natural forefts, forming fe- 
veral fine cafcades. After emerging 
from the mountains, itaifumes, as well 
as the furrounding grounds, a more 
pleafing appearance, being formed in- 
to beauty by the hand of art and of 
tafte. The lawn, the forefts, the fur- 
rounding mountains, the rapid ftream, 
and the princely of the caftle 
of Inveraray, forming at once a grand 
and delightful fcene. Its courfe does 
not exceed 9 miles, when it falls into 
the ocean at the head of Lochfyne. 

APP IN; an extensive Highland 


diftricr, on the mainland of Argyllshire, 
lately united to the pariih of Lifmorc : 
but as Lifmore is an ifland, it has been 
thought more proper to confider them 
feparately. The extent of Appin i3 
not afcertained ; but it cannot be efti- 
mated at lefs than jo miles in length, 
and on average 10 in breadth. Like 
the greater part of Argyllfiiire, there 
is more attention paid to fheep farm- 
ing than agriculture, although many 
parts of Appin are arable. Glencoe, 
the fcene of a tranfaction which will 
ever tarnifh the memory of the perpe- 
trators, is in this diftricr ; ( vide G l e n - 
coe). Through this glen runs the 
water of Coe (the Cona of Fingal), 
which abounds with trout. Befides 
this river, the diftrict is watered with 
the rivulets Coinich, Durror, Baliy- 
cheliih, Laroch, and Leven. There 
are feveral freih water lakes, and ex- 
tenfive arms of the fea, which bear the 
name of lochs, viz. Loch Linnhe, Loch 
Creran, Loch Eil, and Loch Leven, 
There are feveral appearances of lead 
minesmthe diftricr, butnonehave been 
wrought to any extent. Black and 
white marble are found in different 
pails. At BaUycheliih, near the head 
of Loch Leven, is a quarry of very fine 
blue flate, of which great quantities 
are exported to Leith, England, and 
even America. Limeftone alfo abound*? 
in the parifh. Near Appin-houfe, the 
property of the Marquis of Tweedale, 
are feveral enormous blocks of quartz, 
which had been detached from the 
mountains. Caftle-Stalkir, a ruin of 
great beauty, Hands upon a fmall ifland 
in Loch Linnhe. On an ifland in Loch 
Leven, are the ruins of a chapel, de- 
dicated to St. Mungo. Glencoe, the 
birth place of Offian, and the neigh- 
bouring mountains, recal to our re- 
membrance his defcription " of the 
days that are paft." Airds, the feat 
of Mr. Campbell of Airds, is pleafant- 
ly Situated on Loch Creran. Inverf- 
cadle-houfe, the .feat of Macdonald of 
Glencoe, is a fine building ; and near 
the top of Loch Eil, is a good houfe^ 
the occaiiona! refidence of Cameron 
of Loch-eil. Population of Appin in 
1792, 2425. 

APFLECROSS ; a pariih in Rofs- 
ihire, extending at leaft 25 miles along 
the coaft. Its furface is mountainous. 
and rocky ; yet, between the hills, 
which are covered with heath, an4 
C % 


dreary to the eye, are beautiful and 
fertile valleys. In thefe the foil is va- 
rious ; but fome are rendered almoft 
inacceffible from 'the fteep precipices 
of the furrounding mountains. From 
the rugged appearance of the country, 
it cannot be fuppofed that agriculture 
is much attended to. Breeding of 
cattle is the principal employment of 
the farmer. Game of all kinds abound 
in the hills, and the fea contains plen- 
ty of almoft all kinds cf nfh. The ri- 
vers, of which Firdon and Applecrofs 
are the chief, abound with trout and 
falmon. A few natural and artificial 
Subterranean cavities, with the remains 
of a Danifh dun or fort, form all the 
curiofities worth notice in the parilh. 
There is a rich copper mine in the 
northern diftrict of the pariih, and a 
limeftone quarry of excellent quality. 
Number of inhabitants in 1793, 1734.' 

APPLE GARTH ; a parifh frtuated 
on the banks of the Annan, in the dis- 
trict of Annan dale, county of Dum- 
fries. Its greateft extent in length may 
be about 6, and its greateft, breadth 
nearly 5 miles. The lands of the pa- 
rilh are in general good, efpecially on 
the banks of the Annan, and the Dryfe, 
another fmail river, which waters the 
pari{b. Lime is ufed very much as a 
manure, and commonly produces good 
crops. The great read from Carlille 
to Glafgow and "Edinburgh paffes 
through this pariih. Sir W.' Jardine 
of Applegarth is the principal heritor, 
and commonlyi refides at his feat in 
the parifh. Population in 1792, 74 1 - 

ARAY. Vide Aoreidh. 

ARBIRLOT; a fmall parifh in 
Angus-fhire, extending about 4 miles 
in length, and 3 in breadth. It extends 
along the fea coaft for about 2 miles, 
where the foil is fandy, and very early. 
Contiguous to this, it becomes a rich 
loam, ,capable of producing almoft 
any crop. The little river Elliot runs 
through the parifh, in the bottom of a 
deep den, the fides of which are very 
romantic. The ancient and deferted 
caftle of Kelly, belonging to the Pan- 
mure family, has been much admired 
for its romantic iituation. There are 
feveral mineral wells in the parifh ; 
but one in particular, a ftrong chaly- 
beate, is much reforted to, not only 
on account of its own virtues, but alio 
from its vicinity to the fea, which 
gives the valetudinarians the advantage 


of the fea bathing. Population in 
i 793j 1055 I m 1801, 1050.' 

ARBUTHNOT ; a parifh in Kin- 
cardinefhire, of an irregular triangular 
form, nearly 5 miles in length. Its is unequal, having 2 valleys 
with their correfponding ridges. In 
one of them runs the water of Rervie, 
whofe banks are very picturefque, 
beautiful, and adorned with the ele- 
gant mailfions of Arbuthnot and Al, 
lardyce. The foil is various; part 
being a ftrong clay, with a moift cold 
bottom, and part being light and dry. 
Vifcount Arbuthnot is the principal 
heritor. There are excellent freeftone 
quarries. A few pebbles, and fome 
green jafpers, are Sometimes to be met 
with. There are alfo 2 or 3 weak 
chalybeate fprings. The roads are 
very bad in the parifh, which prefents 
a grand obftacle to agricultural im- 
provement. The celebrated Dr. Ar- 
buthnot, the intimate of Pope and 
Swift, was a native of this parifh. In 
1 79 1 the population was 1041. 

Arc haig Loch ; a frefh water 
lake, in the county of Invernefs. It 
is 16 miles long, and i-f. broad. It is 
of great depth, and abounds with fe-, 
yeral kinds of trout. It difcharges it; 
felf by the river Archaig into Loch 
Lcchy, which is about a mile diftant, 

Ard Loch; a lake in the parifh. 
of Aber-foyle, in Perthihire. It is the' 
laft of a chain of lakes, through which 
the river Forth paffes, at a fhort dis- 
tance from its fource, and which conr 
tribute to form it into a river. At 
the lower extremity of Loch Ard, it 
burns forth with great magnificence, 
over a rock near 30 feet high. The 
lake is finely ferried with natural 
woods, and furrounded by high moun? 
tains. The extent is about 3 miles 
in length, and 1 in breadth. 

a parifh in Argylifhire, about 24 miles 
in length, and on an average 20 in 
breadth. The furface is mountainous* 
and appropriated to the fheep-walk. 
Very little is under crop. In the 
valleys are feveral rivers, abounding 
with trout. The moft confiderable 
are, the Aw, the Kinlofs, and the 
Etie. Beinn Cruachan, one of the 
higheft hills in Scotland, is in this pa- 
rifh; (vide Cruachan.) LochEtive, 
an arm of the fea, is a fine fheet of wa- 
ter, with ornamented banks. In this, 



diftrict ftood the celebrated city of 
Beregun'ium, which was for many ages 
the capital of Scotland, faid to have 
been founded by Fergus II. Tradition 
reports, that this city was deftroyed 
by fire from heaven. In confirmation 
of this tradition, we may mention, that 
a high hill in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood, has much the appearance 
of a volcano ; and in moft places, put 
mic& und/coria; of different kinds, are 
dug up in great quantities. It is ge- 
nerally believed by rnineralogifts, that 
pumice ftone is a certain indication of 
volcanic fire. Thcfe circumftances 
tend ftrongly to prove this hill to be 
an extincl: volcano. The rocks are 
inoftly of that kind called pudding 
ftone. There is ftill (landing a part of 
the walls of an old priory, founded in 
the 13th century ; and the druidical 
monuments are fo numerous, that it 
would be almoft endlefs to enumerate 
them. Ardmucknage, the feat of Ma- 
jor Duncan Campbell of Lochnell, is 
"the only manfion of any note in the 
diftricf. Population in 1793, 2350. 

ARDCLACH. This pariih lies on 
each fide of the river Findhorn, in the 
extremity of the county of Nairne. 
It is a hilly, mountainous diftrict, ex- 
tending in length 12, and in breadth 
• 7 miles ; moflly covered with heath, 
and here and there a few clumps of 
trees. There is little arable land in 
the parifh ; and even that is very poor. 
Attempts have been made to difcover 
limeftone, but without fuccefs. From 
the poverty of the foil and of the in- 
habitants, there has been little im- 
provement in agriculture. A few 
black cattle and fneep are reared in 
the parifh. There is plenty of mofs, 
which Supplies the people with fuel. 
The Findhorn contains falmon and 
trout. The population in 1797, was 

ARDERSIER. This parifh lies in 
the county of Invernefs. Its length 
is 24 miles, and its breadth the fame. 
Its furface is fiat, with a few emi- 
nences. Towards the fea it is bold 
and rocky, being nearly 100 yards 
perpendicular. The foil is various; 
but generally fertile, except clofe by 
the fhore, where it is fandy. Agricul- 
ture is little attended to. The vici- 
nity of Fort George, which is litu- 
ated in this pariih, affords a ready 
rnarket for the produce of their farms. 

There is only one piece of antiquity 
which is worth notice : this is a ftone 
about 6 feet high, and 3 bread, fup- 
pofed to be creeled in memory of 
fom.e chieftain. Population in 1792, 
including Fort George, 1298. 

ISLE ; a diftrict in Rofsfhire and Cro- 
marty, containing 8 parjflie.s, which 
form a peninfula. It has received that 
name from being inoftly a black un- 
cultivated muir. The pariflies are, 
Avoch, Rofemarky, Xillearaan, Ur- 
quhart, Kirkmichatl, Kilmuir Eafcer, 
Kincardine, and' Logic The ridge ot 
hills, called Mulbuy, extends nearly 
the whole length of 'the diftrict. 

ARDNAMURCHAN ; an exten- 
five parifh. of Argyll, and Invernefs- 
fhires, being formed by the annexation 
of 5 feveral pariflies, under this gene- 
ral name. Its extent may be reduced, 
taking one diftrict with another, to 
the fuperficies of a fquare of 20 miles, 
comprehending about 273,280 acres; • 
of which it is fuppofed 200,000 are 
land. Part of the parifh is a peninfula, 
formed by two arms of the fea, called 
Loch Sunart and Loch Sheil ; in the 
laft of which is a beautiful little ifiand, 
named St. Finan, where formerly a 
church was erected. The Rn, or extre- 
mity of the peninfula above mentioned, 
is the moft wefterly point of the main- 
land of Great Britain, and the moft re- 
markable head-land, from Cape Wrath 
to the Mull of Kintyre, between 
which it is eentrically fituated. A 
minute description- of fo extenfive a 
diftrict: cannot be expected* Its gene- 
ral appearance is muirs, mountains, 
and lakes. The mountains are not of 
the firft order ; few being elevated 
above the height of 2700 feet: but 
there are feveral which approach to 
to that elevation. Mingary-caftle, 
caftle Tioram, Mor-ir-houfe, and a 
few other buildings, are in a ruinous 
ftate. About 700I. worth of wood is 
cut down annually, and fold by roup. 
Lead mines are wrought annually at 
Strontian, to the value of 4000I. In 
thefe mines a new mineral was lately 
difcovered, the properties of which 
were analyfed by Dr. Hope, profeffor 
of chemiftry in Edinburgh ; who dif- 
tinguifned it by the title of Jlrontites. 
It refembles barytes very much in ap- 
pearance ; but its chemical qualities 
are different in many refpects. The 



tfLianate of barjtes communicates a 
blue colour to flame, while that of 
Jtrantltes (the new mineral) commu- 
nicates a deep red colour. It is alfo 
lighter than the baryies, and is gene- 
rally of a greeniih hue. It is not con- 
vertible into a lime ,; nor does- it effer- 
■veice with acids. Near thefe mines 
are found beautiful fpecimens of talc, 
garnets* aibeilos, &c. Population of 
the whole diftrict in 1790-8, 4<42. 

ARDOCH ; a fmall village in the 
parifh of Muthil, in Perthihire. Near 
it is the molt complete Roman camp 
that remains in Scotland. It was pro- 
bably eftabiifhed during the fourth 
campaign of Agrieola, in the year 48. 
It is 1060 feet in length, and 900 in 
breadth ; and it could contain a 6,000 
men, according to the ordinary distri- 
bution of the Roman foldiers in their 
encampments. There appears to have 
betn 3 or 4 ditches furrounding the 
camp, ftrongly fortified. The 4 en- 
tries croffing the lines, are ftill dif- 
tin&Iy to be feen. The general's quar- 
ter rii'es above the level of the camp, 
hut is not exactly in the centre. It 
is a regular fqusre of 20 yards, en- 
clofed with a ftone wall, and contain- 
ing the foundation of a houfe, 30 feet 
hy 20. There is a fubterraneons com- 
msmication with a fmaller encamp- 
ment, at a fhort diftance, in which fe- 
veral helmets, fpears, Sec. have been 
found. From this place the great 
Roman highway runs eaft to Bertha, 
about. 14 miles diftant, where the Ro- 
man army pafled over the Tay into 

ARDROSSAN; a parifb in Ayr- 
fhire, extending along the weftern 
coaft in length about 6 miles, and a- 
bont 4 in breadth. The furface is a 
mixture of hilly and flat country, in 
molt places fit for the plough ; though 
even the beft lands of the pariih are 
under pafture. The foil is capable of 
great improvement ; but agriculture 
is rather neglected. The foil is loamy, 
\vith a mixture of fand ; and jn fame 
places it is a ftrong deep clay. There 
are-few enclofures. There is annually 
a great quantity of fea weed thrown 
upon the coaft, wliich affords excellent 
manure. Lime and coal are found in 
great abundance. The town of Salt- 
coats is very curioufiy fituated, being 
partly in this parifb, and partly in the 
parifh of SlevcmTown ; (vide Salt- 

coats.) There are fome remains ot 
Banifh encampments, on a hill in the 
N. fide of this parifh. The ruins or 
the caflie of ArdrofTan, fhew it to 
have been a place of great extent. 
The popolation in 1 792, was eftimated 
at 1520. 

Ardstinchar, or Stinchar; a 
river of considerable ir/.c, which takes 
its rife in the eaftern part of Ayrfhire. 
It continues a very rapid courfe for 
the fpace of 26 or 27 miles* till it falls 
into the Atlantic, at Ballantrae ; near 
which village is a falmon fifhery, 
which rents at about iool. a year. 

ARGYLLSHIRE ; anciently called 
Argathalia, is laid to have been a part 
of the ancient Caledonian kingdom, 
while the Romans and Piets were m 
poflelljon of the greater part of Scot-, 
land. It extends about 114 miles in- 
length, and 43 in breadth, excluding 
the ifles. It contains 2 royal boroughs, 
and 49 parifhes. It is divided into 5 
districts, viz. Kintyre, Knapdale, Cow- 
al, Lorn, and Argyll Proper.; bounded 
on the S. by the Iriih fea and the Clyde ; 
on the E. by Perth and Dumbarton- 
fhires ; on the N. by Invemefs-fhire ; 
and on the W. by the Atlantic ocean. 
Argyllshire was much infefted, in an- 
cient times, by predatory intruders, 
and was in confequence the fcene of 
many engagements. The deeds of 
Fingal and his heroes, were moftly at* 
chieved in this diftrict ; and many mo- 
numents of the remoteft antiquity, 
ftill remain to demonftrate the warlike 
fpirit of the former inhabitants. In 
this diftrict the feudal fyftem remained 
longeft unaltered. The chieftain, per- 
haps net fo much the mafter as the 
father of the family, upon the fmalleft 
alarm of invafion, could fummon all 
his dependents and relations to his 
ftandard. They attended, not with 
the fame fentiments as a fervant would 
the commands of ,a mafter, but they 
loved him with an enthufiafm, which 
made them cheerfully undergo any 
trouble and fatigue. This fort of 
princely command was often the caufe 
of great inconvenience. The ambition, 
the wants, or the quarrels of a chief, 
was fuflicient to embroil the neigh- 
bourhood in war. In thefe difputes the 
weakeft party was obliged to fubmit ; 
who lay quiet, only till time or op- 
portunity enabled him to take the field 
againft his antagonift. At this time Ar- 


pvlllhire feemed by no means to form 
a part of the kingdom of Scotland. 
The Macdonald's of the Ifles, having 
fubdued the neighbouring chieftains 
by their powerful elan, aflumed regal 
authority, held parliaments, and enact- 
ed laws. Robert Bruce, upon being ef- 
tabliihed on his throne, immediately 
endeavoured to bring them under fub- 
erdination. He travelled into that part 
of his dominions, fubjjected the rebelli- 
ous clans, and curbed their difpoiition, 
by building fortrefTes, and placing in 
them ftrong garrifons. From this time 
the clannifh attachment began to flack- 
en. The Highlanders were employed 
iri theEngliih wars, and the chieftains 
taxed their dependents, to procure the 
luxuries of the low country, and to 
defray the expence of attending upon 
their fovereign. This innovation, and 
the new mode of life which was intro- 
duced, dhTolved the ties of frieudihip ; 
and, to enforce obedience, it became 
requisite to have recourfe to penal 
laws. Thus was the feudal deipotifm 
eftabliflied, which enabled every baron 
to puniih his vafials at his pleafure, 
without trial, or without redrefs. To 
remedy this Migrant evil, juries were 
afterwards introduced ; but the irtfiia- 
ence of the chief was fufHcientto bias 
their conduct. In ihort, till parliament 
reformed this defpotic fyftem in 1748, 
by aboliihing thefe abominable juris- 
dictions, gibbets were erected on every 
feudal eftate,.and on thefe the vaffals 
were executed without remorfe. Since 
the reformation of thefe abufes, the 
Weftern Highlands, and Argyllfhire in 
particular, are wonderfully improved. 
Protection to property, and liberty to 
the vaffai, has introduced that emula- 
tion, and agricultural improvement, 
which will "ultimately render Argyll- 
shire, perhaps one of the molt valuable 
provinces of the Britifh ifles. The 
fill-face of this county is, like the other 
parts of the Highlands, mountainous, 
bleak, and uncomfortable to the view ; 
covered with heath, and in fome places 
exhibiting rugged and bare rocks, piled 
on one another in dreadful diforder. 
The coa't is rocky ; but warned on 
all iides by the fea, and indented with 
navigable bays and lakes ; it affords 
fafe harbours for Shipping. The lakes 
abounding with myriads of all forts 
of fiih, the mountains affording pailure 
to numerous herds of black cattle and 

1 ARG 

fheep, the heaths with game, and thuf 
bowels of the earth teeming with the 
wealth of copper, iron, and lead mines, 
we mayanticipate, at no great dhtancc, 
the time when Argyllshire wiUbecoine 
a great commercial county. But, not- 
withftandmg thefe advantages, die 
Highlands labour under many great 
obltacles to improvement. The warn* 
of leafes is one of the moft materi- 
al. When a man, upon taking a'fanra 9 
is obliged to build himfelf a halt, 
and, after all, holds his farm from 
year to year, on the precarious tenure 
of his laird's pleafure, what induce- 
ment can he have to improve his land 
by manure or enclosure : When he 
alio reflects that his rent, wliich this 
year he is with difficulty able to pay, 
may next year be nearly doubled; liow 
can fuch a dependent afford the neee£- 
fary expence of fuch improvement \ 
Yet this fyfteiri, evidently lb detri- 
mental to the infertile, alike of the 
landlord and the tenant, is very gene- 
rally followed, not only in Argyllshire, 
but in moft parts of the Highlands. 
Should proprietors at length fee their 
own iatcrefts, and grant leafes of cm- 
fiderable length, and either build houfes 
for the tenants, or encourage them to 
do fo, by paying the extra expence at 
the termination of the ieafe, their land'* 
would be improved, and become more 
valuable; their rent-roll would be con- 
siderably augmented; they would have 
furer payments of their rent ; and the 
tenants would enjov fome of the com- 
forts of life, to which, as fellow-men, 
they are entitled. For more particu- 
lars on this interesting Subject, winch 
it would be foreign to our work to 
enter too minutely upon, we muff, re- 
fer to " Dr. Smith's agricultural fur- 
vey of Argyllihire." Another great 
obstacle to improvement, may be found 
in a practice lately become very com- 
mon, viz. the introduction of fheep, 
and the conversion of many Small farms 
into one extenfive {beep-walk. By 
•this fyftem, j?, or 14 families are 
thrown out of their nfual line of em- 
ployment, and the greater numlvr 
obliged to -emigrate. The public lofs 
can by no means be compenfated by 
the gains of a few individuals. To 
banilli that hardy race, by which our 
fleets are manned, and our battles 
fought, is furely a national lofs ; and> 
it mutt be a Serious misfortune to any 


diftrfd, to have its number much di- 
minifhed ; for, it is certain, that if in- 
duftry be properly directed, the riches 
and profperity of any country muit be 
in proportion to its population. For 
the honour of Argyllfhire, we may 
mention that this practice is not fol- 
lowed by every proprietor. Dr. Smith, 
in his Survey, reports the following 
reply of a Highland chieftain, who 
was advifed to remove his people, and 
put his land under iheep, as more pro- 
fitable. " Their forefathers," laid he, 
" got and fecured my eftate by their 
blood and their lives, and, I think, 
they have a natural claim to a fhare 
of it." But, behdes the injury to po- 
pulation, f beep-walks totally prevent 
cultivation. No country can become 
ilch by pafturage alone ; and, what is 
worfe, if the prefent fyftem is followed, 
that ground which has been refcued 
from its wildnefs by the labour and 
induftry of ages, will fliortly return to 
its former ftate ; and, though the rents, 
which have been confiderably raifed 
at firft by the introduction of fheep, 
will, from want of improvement, again 
fall, but can rife no higher. A num- 
ber of iflands are attached to this 
county, of which the chief are, Tyrie, 
Coll, Mull, Ilia, Jura, Staffa, Icolm- 
kill, Sec. which will be feverally de- 
fcribed under each article. Argyll 
gives the title of Duke and Earl to the 
chief of the family of Campbell, the 
moit powerful of the Scottiih nobility. 
The county is moftly peopled with 
this clan ; and many gentlemen have 
feats here, who count themfelves allied 
to the Duke. Argyllfhire fends one 
member to parliament, who is gene- 
rally a near relation of the Duke. The 
valued rent of Argyll is 149,595!. 10s. 
Scots, and the real rent 112,7521. fter- 
ling. In 1791-8, the population of the 
whole county, including the iflands, 
amounted to 76,101. 

ARNGASK parifh is nearly circu- 
lar, having a diameter of about 4 miles. 
The foil is various. On fome of the 
hills it is light and {hallow ; but many 
fields are rich and fertile, and capable 
cf producing aimofc any crop. The 
hills afford excellent pafture, cf which 
there is more than tillage in this pa- 
rifh. It iupplies itfelf with the necef- 
faries of life, and fends to market a 
good deal of the produce of the farms. 
The air is pure and whcldbme, not 


expofed to the great variations of ihe 
weather. There is one quarry of good 
moor-ftone, which is fufficient for all 
the building in the parifh. Three 
counties join in this parifh, viz. Perth, 
Kinrofs, and Fife. The number of 
inhabitants in 1745, was 736; fince 
which period, they have decreafed to 
554, which is the number in 1790. 
ARRAN ; an ifland, lying in the 
Frith of Clyde, between. Ayrfhire and 
Kintyre. It was by the Romans' call- 
ed Glotta, or Glotta JEJluarhmi. Its 
form is in fome degree oval, and ex- 
tends from N. to S. nearly 24 miles, 
and from E. to W. about 14. It is 
probable that this ifland was of confi- 
derable importance in very ancient 
times. There are many traditions of 
Firigal, who is fuppofed to have here 
enjoyed the pleafures of the chafe ; 
and many places retain his name. It 
was ceded by Donald Bain to the Nor- 
wegian invader Magnus ; but reco- 
vered from Acho his fucceffbr, about 
the year 1264. It then became the 
property of the crown. Robert Bruce 
retired here during his diftreffes, fol- 
lowed by his faithful vaffals. About 
the year 1334, it formed part of the 
eftate of Robert II. fteward of Scot- 
land. James III. when he matched 
his lifter to Lord Boyd, created him 
Earl of Arran, and gave the ifland for 
a portion. On his difgrace, it was be- 
llowed on Sir James Hamilton ; and 
in the Hamilton family it ftill remains. 
The coaft is in many places indented 
with various harbours. In particular, 
at the S.E. quarter, is the beautiful 
and commodious harbour of Lamlafh, 
covered by an iflet, where 500 veflela 
may ride at anchor. To the north- 
ward of Lamlafh is Loch Ranfa, an- 
other fpacious harbour, but inferior 
in extent and fafety to Lamlafh. The 
face of the country is rugged and 
mountainous. Goatfield, or Gaoil- 
bbchi, the higheft hill, rifing 1840 feet 
above the level of the fea, is nearly jn 
the center of the ifland. The other 
principal mountains are Beinbarran, 
Cunmacallacb, and Grinnanathol. The 
Cock of Arran, towards the northern 
extremity, is a famous fea mark. The 
lakes in the ifland are about 5 in num- 
ber, and from 2 of them iflue fine ri- 
vers. The lofty parts of the ifland 
are either bare rocks, or covered with 
heath and fern- In the vales and bord- 


fci-s of the lakes, the ground is toler- 
ably fertile, and well cultivated. The 
ifland is divided into 2 parifhes, viz. 
Kilmore and Killbride, and forms part 
of the (hire of Bute. One part has been 
found to furnilh coal and limeftone. 
Freeftone and marble are in confi- 
derable abundance. On Goatfield, jaf- 
pers and fine agates are found. There 
are annually exported about ioco black 
cattle. On the hills are wild deer, 
and the lakes contain falmon. The 
coafts abound with white fifh and her- 
rings. There are feveral cairns, and 
the remains of druidical edifices. The 
caftle of Broadwick, belonging to the 
Duke of Hamilton, is an extenfive 
building. There are alfo the ruins of 
many ancient fortreffes, and natural 
caves, remarkable for their great ex- 
tent. Many parts of the ifland exhi- 
bit marks of volcanic fire ; in parti- 
cular, a fort of bafaltic trapp or lava, 
which fcratches glafs, but does not 
ftrike fire with fteel ; the chemical pro- 
perties of this mineral have not yet 
been inveftigated. The population of 
the whole ifland is about 6000. 

ARROQUHAR; a mountainous 
parifh in Dumbartonfhire, about 16 
miles long, and 3 broad. It lies on 
the E. fide of Loch Lomond, the 
banks of which are covered with fine 
plantations. The furface, which was 
formerly covered with heath and bent, 
is now beginning to affume a better 
appearance, from the introduction of 
iheep. The population in 1791, Was 


Arthur Seat ; a high hill in the 
neighbourhood of Edinburgh, which 
rifes in a conical form, with a rugged 
and very fteep afcent, to the height of 
796 feet above the level of the fea. 
On the- S. fide it is in many places a 
perpendicular rock, exhibiting a range 
of bafaitic columns, of a pentagonal 
or hexagonal form, from 50 to 60 feet 
in length, and of 5 feet diameter. Ad- 
joining to this hill on the W. are Sa- 
lisbury Craigs, which prefent to the 
city the appearance of a lofty terrace, 
forming a fort of amphitheatre of folid 
ftone, with an awful front of broken 
rocks and precipices. Backward from 
the craggy top, it gradually defcends 
into an extenfive valley, which has 
much the appearance of a volcanic 
crater long fince filled up. The rock 
in digging affords ores, fpars, zeolites, 


haematites, jafpers, and, it is faid, a- 
gates; befides an inexhauftible fupply 
of granite for paving the ftreets of the 
city. At the bottom of Arthur Seat 
is the loch of Duddingfton ; and on 
the N.the ruins of St. Anthony's her- 
mitage and chapel, and a copious 
fpring of pure water, called St. An- 
thon's well. The rock abounds with 
rare Alpine plants, andaffords frequent 
fpecimensof that lingular phenomenon 
in vegetation, called fairy rings ; an 
appearance which is now generally at- 
tributed to electricity. From the pin- 
nacle of Arthur Seat the view is re- 
markably noble and extenfive. The 
traveller may fit at his eafe, and look 
down on the metropolis as on a map 5 
while the German ocean, the courfe of 
the Forth, the Grampians, and a large 
portion of the moft populous, and 
beft cultivated part of the kingdom, 
form a landfcape, at once beautiful and 

ASHKIRK; a parifh lying partly 
in Roxburgh, and partly in Selkirk- 
fhire. It is about 7 miles long, and 
3 broad. The furface is moftly hilly ; 
but they are free of heath to the very- 
top. The foil is light and fertile. 
There is a mofs containing marl, of 
great extent. Population in 1793, 539. 

ASSINT, fituated in the county of 
Sutherland, is a very extenfive parifh, 
being no lefs than % ; miles long, and 
about 15 broad. Its furface prefents an 
affemblage of lofty mountains, huge 
barren rocks, precipices, extenfive 
heaths, lakes, moffes, and rivers. It lies 
on the W. N. W. coaft of Sutherland, 
and has a number of ifiands annexed 
to it. From the broken furface of the 
ground, it cannot be fuppofed that a- 
griculture has made much progrefs : 
indeed, there is fcarcely 1 acre in 100 
under crop. The hills furnifh pafture 
to a few cattle and iheep, and the ri- 
vers contain falmon. The rearing of 
cattle and fifhing, therefore, afford 
employment to the inhabitants. The 
coaft much refembles the furface of 
the country, being rough, and prefent- 
ing dreadful precipices to the ftormy 
fea. However, at one or two places, 
there is a tolerably fafe anchorage. 
Formerly iron mines were dug here j 
and they might yet be worked, if coals 
could be procured. Marble and lime- 
ftone are found in confiderable quan- 
tities. As yet, no coal has been dil- 



covered. The common fuel of the 
people is peat mofs. A number of 
antiquities are feattered over the pa- 
rk i &c. fuppofed to be Scandinavian ; 
cairns of ftones and druidical temples 
are frequent. In 1793, the population 
was ooo» 

ATHGL. The moil northern dis- 
trict of Perthfhire, extending in length 
about 45 miles, and in breadth 30 ; 
bounded on the N. by Badenoch ; on 
the W. by Lochaber ;. on the E. by 
Man- and Gowrie; on the S. by Strath- 
erne, Perth Proper, and Breadalbane. 
The country is very rough and moun- 
tainous, and contains a great part of 
the ancient Caledonian foreft, The 
mountainous furface is, however, in- 
terfperfed by very fertile valleys. There 
are no towns in this diftricT: ; but fe- 
deral populous villages are fcattered 
over the country. The molt noted 
feat is the caftle of Blair, belonging to 
the Duke of Athol, who is fuperior of 
the whole diftrict, and takes his. title 
from it. Blair-caftle is pleaiantly fitu- 
ated on the Tilt, a fmall limpid ftrearn, 
near its conflux with the Garry. The 
noble owner often makes it his refi- About 15 miles from it is the 
Pafs of Giilicrankie, rendered famous 
from the battle fought here between 
the Highland adherents of King James, 
and the forces of King William. 

THELSTANEFORD y a village and 
parifh in Iladdingtonfhire, extends a- 
bout 4 miles in length, and a£ in 
breadth. From the Garleton hills, 
which bound the parifh on the S. the 
land by a gentle declivity extends to 
the more of the Frith of Forth, con- 
taining a tra<ft of country; which, for 
beauty and fertility, is perhaps inferior 
to none in Scotland. The foil is moftly 
of a light loam ; but part is gravelly, 
and part inclining to clay. Almoft 
the whole pariih. is cultivated and en- 
clofed. Tiie village of Atholftonford 
ftands on the fide of the Garleton hills, 
commanding a beautiful profpect of 
the Frith of Forth, and adjacent places. 
Blair, the author of " the Grave," was 
a nal ive' of this parifh ; and, here, the 
th . author of Douglas held his paftor- 
al charge, till the ill-placed zeal of the 
Kirk of Scotland deprived him of his 
fi.tuat.ioQ. He, however, did not leave 
the parifn ; but built a neat ornament- 
ed '.ilia, which is a pattern of his tafte. 

Gilmerton, the feat of Sir G. Kinlocfr* 
alfo beautifies this parifh. Here are 
the remains of an extenfive Daniih 
camp ; and the ruins of Garleton- 
houfe ftill retains fome of its ancient 
magnificence. Population in/ 1792* 

AUCHINBLAY ; a village in the 
pariih of Fordoun, Kincardineihire.. 
It contains about 150 inhabitants, andl 
is noted for a great market for black, 
cattle and horfes, held weekly from' 
Michaelmas to Chriftmas. 

DOIRj a parifh in Aberdeenfhire,. 
about 7 miles long, and 5 broad, ex- 
hibiting in general a hilly, nay, moun- 
tainous furface. The foil is moftly thin r 
dry, and early ; but fcarce more than 
2500 acres are under crop. The fides- 
of the hills are more fitted for pafture 
than tillage, and " the heath-covered 
mountains" afford the fportfman plen- 
ty of game. The only river of notice 
in the parifh is the Bogie, which con- 
tains plenty of trout. Freeftone is 
found in great abundance, and a vein- 
of good limeftone, which might be 
quarried and burnt to good account. 
A bluifh-coloured fibrous afbeftos is 
found in great quantities in the fiffures 
of the rocks, which the fportfmen 
often ufe for wadding to their fowl- 
ing-pieces. There are a few antiqui- 
ties here, fuch as tumuli, barrows, 
cairns, and the remains of an exten- 
five fortification. Several hundred 
acres were lately planted by Mr. Gor- 
don of Craig, which are in a very 
thriving fta-te, and add much to the 
beauty of the place. In 1755, the po- 
pulation was 839 ; in 1791,572. 

AUCKINLECK; a pariih in the 
county of Ayr, is a bleak, naked coun- 
try ; is about 18 miles long, and on 
an average 2 broad. About the mid- 
dle of the parifh the foil is clay, upon 
a cold till bottom. The extremities 
lie upon a freeftone rock, which ap- 
pears in moft places, through a thin- 
fandy foil. Several arable farms are 
lately converted into farms for grazing 
cattle. An extenfive diftricT:, named 
Glenmore, at leaft 6 miles in length, 
is entirely covered with heath. Sal- 
mon and pike are caught in the rivers 
Ayr and Lugar, which run through the 
parifh. Coal may be wrought in every 
part of the pariih. There is plenty 
of freeftone, of excellent quality ; and 


a lead mine, which has never been 
wrought, raid to be very rich in filver. 
"There is a quarry of black fire-proof 
ftone, which is much ufed for fire- 
places and ovens. The ruins of the 
ancient caftle of Auchinleck, the date 
■of the erection of which is unknown, 
ft-nds in this parifh, on the banks of 
the Lugar. Near the old caftle is the 
new home of Auchinleck, erected by 
the late Lord Auchinleck, father to 
James BoiWell, Efq. the well-known 
companion of Dr. Johnfon, and the 
friend of General Pao'li. Population 
in 1792, 775. 

AUCHTERARDER ; a pariffi ex- 
tending 5 or 6 miles in length, and 
nearly the fame in breadth ; frtuated 
in the county of Perth, on the S. of 
the river Earn. Befides the plain on 
•the banks of the Earn, this parifh takes 
in part of the Ochil hills ; one of the 
higheft of which, Craig Roffie, is frtu- 
ated in this parifh. The hilly part 
produces good pafture ; and the low 
ground is arable, with a good, though 
not a ftrong foil. The Earn abounds 
with trout andfalmon ; and the Ruth- 
ven, a fmall beautiful river, which alfo 
runs through the parifh, contains ex- 
cellent trout. The village of Auch- 
terarder, which once enjoyed the pri- 
vilege of a royal borough, extends 
nearly a mile in length. The parifh 
abounds with ftone, fit for building ; 
and a few -quarries furnifh a particu- 
lar kind of thin gray flate. The vil- 
lage labours under great difadvantage 
from want of water. Here are the 
•ruins of an old caftle, faid to have been 
a hunting-feat of King Malcolm Ken- 
inure. There are alfp fome traces of 
Roman encampments. Neither coal 
nor lime are found in the parifh. A 
little marl was lately difcovered, but 
it is now exhaufted.. In 1792, the 
population was 1670. 

AUCHTERDERRAN ; a parifh in 
the county of Fife. Its extent is 4 
miles long, and 3 broad. The foil is 
moftly clay, and black earth ; xnoift, 
and not very fertile. There are many 
inequalities in the fields, which appear 
broken and feparated. Bafaltes, and 
other volcanic productions, are often 
to be met with. A great part, if not the 
whole of the parifh, lies above coal, 
of which there is annually raifed to 
the value of 700I. About one-fifth of 
-t'he parifh only is under tillage; the 


remaining four-fifths is paftured ; but 
every where the fields are of a dufky 
tinge, as if the plant did not delight 
in its foil. There is plenty of lime- 
ftone ; and the inhabitants are now 
applying thcmfelves more to agricul- 
ture, which is rapidly improving the 
appearance of the country. The crops 
are fcarcely fufficient fortheccmfumpt 
of the parifh. 1 hough the air is moift 
and cold, yet we do not hear of any 
very prevalent complaint. There is 
a confiderable quantity of peat mofs ; 
but the great plenty of coal makes it 
but little ufed for fuel. Number of 
inhabitants in 1740, 1194 ; in 1790, 
1200 ; in 1801, 1045. 

TERGAVEN ; a parifh in the county 
of Perth, frtuated on the turnpike road 
from Perth to Dunkeld ; extends about 
9 miles in length, and 5 in breadth. A 
great proportion of it is covered with 
muirs, hills, and moffes. On the arable 
land the improvements in agriculture 
have been fo rapid for thefe 20 years, 
that the country has affumed quite a 
different afpect. Marl is found in the 
parifh. There are alfo feveral exten- 
iiye moffes, from whence they ufed 
to procure peat fuel ; but of late, the 
farmers have rather been at the ex- 
pence of coals from Perth, thinking 
they can employ their fervants to 
greater advantage in ploughing the 
land, than in digging peats. A large 
cotton fpinning mill was lately erected 
in the village of Stanley, in this parifh. 
A few druidical circles are the only 
antiquities of confequence. In 1795? 
the population was 1784. 

AUCHTERKOUSE ; a parifh in 
the county of Angus, fituated on the~ 
S. fide of the Sidiaw hills. It contains 
nearly 4000 acres. The foil is rather 
thin and moorifh ; but when well cul- 
tivated, produces tolerable crops. En- 
closures are pretty general. There 
are 3 fmall villages, the largeft of which 
Contains 11^ perfons. There is plenty 
of excellent peat mofs ; and rock marl, 
and freeftone abound in the parilh, 
Dichty water runs through the parifli. 
There are feveral antiquities; but none 
of importance to deferve notice. Po- 
pulation in 1793-8, 600; in 1801, 653. 

AUCHTERLESS, fituated in the 
county of Aberdeen, is about 7 miles 
long, and 3 broad. The foil is various; 
in fome olaces a deep black mould j 



but the greateft part is light and gra- 
velly, intermixed with clay, which is 
early and very productive. Afmallriver 
called Ithan or Ythan, which paries 
through this pariih, contains a few 
trouts. From the improvement of the 
land, they are enabled to export con- 
fiderable quantities of the produce of 
their farms, with the price of which 
they annually purchafe great quanti- 
ties of lime for manure. On the S. of 
the Ithan is an extenfive tract of muir, 
covered with fhort heath, almoft inca- 
pable of improvement. Neither coal, 
lime, nor marl, are found in the pariih. 
There are a few ftone quarries, but of 
fo bad quality, that the ftone cannot 
be ufed even for fences. Earth fences, 
with hedges and ditches, are therefore 
the only enclofures. Here is a moft 
extenfive fortified camp, which is well 
worthy of the attention of the anti- 
quarian. The profiles of the vallum are 
very diftinct, and in great prefervation ; 
enclofed area is computed at 1 20 acres. 
No monuments, inferiptions, or pieces 
of armour, have been difcovered, which 
can with certainty determine by what 
nation thofe military works have been 
conftructed. Population in 1791, 1200. 

and parifh in the county of Fife, ex- 
tending about 2 miles in length, and 
ii in breadth. The furface is various : 
towards the S. low and fiat ; and were 
it not for drains, it would be over- 
flown with water : towards the N. 
and W. it is hilly, and covered with 
heath. The foil around the town is 
gravelly ; but the reft of the pariih is 
fertile. Marl is found in fome places ; 
and the whole parifh abounds with freev 
ftone. The town was conftitutedaroyal 
borough by James IV. and it ftill re- 
tains all the privileges of a royal bo- 
rough, except that of fending mem- 
bers to parliament. , Auchtermuchty 
carries on a confiderable manufacture 
of brown linens and filefias, to the an- 
nual amount, on an average, of nearly 
2o,cool. In 1793, the number of fouls 
in the parifh was 1439; m 1801, 2060. 

AUCHTERTOUL ; a fmall inland 
parifh in the county of Fife, extending 
about % miles in length, and 1 in 
breadth. The fituation is elevated, 
commanding an extenfive profpect. 
The furface is varied, with eminences 
and little hills ; which caufts a confi- 
derable difference in the nature and 

quality of the foil. Toward the S. the 
foil is light and fertile ; but farther N. 
it becomes four, wet, and better for 
pafture than cultivation. There is a 
fmall lake in the parifh, called Camilla 
loch, from which a final! burn, the- 
Teel, or Toul, takes its rife. There, 
are feveral-new plantations made out. 
of late by different proprietors. There 
are both freeftone and limeftone in the 
pariih. Coals are brought from the 
neighbouring pariih of Auchterderran. 
On the fide of the loch above men-, 
tioned, are the ruins of Camilla-caftle, 
or Hallyards. It received the name of 
Camilla from one of the family of 
Campbell, who was a Countefs of Mo- 
ray. Population in 1793, 334; in 
1801, 396. 

Augustus (Fort) ; fituated at the 
extremity of Loch Nefs. It is a re- 
gular fortification, with four baftions ; 
and barracks capable of accommodat- 
ing 400 foldiers, with proper lodging 
for the officers. It is garrifoned by a 
company of invalids, and fupplied 
with provifions from Invernefs by a 
(loop of 60 tons. Though the fortifi- 
cation is hi good repair, it is fo com- 
manded from the neighbouring hills 
on every fide, that it is by no means a 
place capable of refiftance. It is a 
very neat looking place ; and the fur- 
rounding plantation, and the river 
Tarff which runs by it, give it very 
much the appearance of an Engliih 
country feat. It was taken by the re- 
bels in 1746; who deferted it, after 
demolifhing what they could. • This 
place has been recommended as an, 
excellent ftation for a woollen manu- 
factory . . 

AULDEARN ; a pariih in the coun- 
ty of Nairn. It extends 4 miles along 
the Murray Frith, being in length a- 
bout 6 1 miles, and in breadth about 
5-i. The ground rifes gradually from 
the coaft to the inland part of the pa- 
rifh, where it 1 becomes hilly. The 
foil is generally light and fertile, in 
proportion to its. vicinity to the fea. 
Mifs Erodie of Lethen, Dunbar of 
Boath, and Colonel Brodie of Brodie, 
are the proprietors of the pariih. There 
is an unexhauftible fund of marl in 
Loch Lity, on Lord Cawdor's eftate. 
The appearances of coal are very flat- 
tening ; but no attempts to difeover 
it have been fuccefsful. In a deep mofs, 
on the eftate of Colonel Erodie, have 


been found fir trees 60 feet in length. 
The village of Auldearn is a burgh of 
barony, under the fuperiority of Col. 
Brodie. Population in 1793, 1406. 

Aven River iffues from a lake of 
the fame name, at the foot of Cairn- 
gorm mountain, in the county of Banff; 
and after a rapid and tempeftuous 
courfe of 20 miles, falls into the Spey 
at Inveraven. It abounds with trout. 
Aven, or Avon; a river in Lanark- 
shire ; rifes on the borders of Galfton 
and Sorn, from Loch Aven ; and after 
receiving many tributary ftreams in 
its courfe, through the fertile vale of 
Strathaven, falls into the Clyde near 
the town of Hamilton. Its banks are 
high and bold, and in moft places co- 
vered with natural woods. 

Aven, or Avon ; is alio a river in 
Stirlingfhire, which takes its rife in 
the parifh of Cumbernauld, from loch 
Fanny-fide, and receiving confidera- 
ble additions to 1 its ftreams in palling 
through Slamannan and Linlithgow 
parilhes, falls into the Forth near Bor- 

AVENDALE, otherwife called 
Strathaven ;alargepariih or barony, 
in the county of Lanark, about ia 
miles in length, and 5 or 6 in breadth. 
The face of the country, as the name 
imports, is open, riling gradually from 
both fides of the Aven, and terminat- 
ing in hills. The foil is various. In 
the low grounds it is in fome places 
dry and gravelly ; in fome clay, and 
in others mofs. The hilly part is black 
muir, covered with heath. A number 
of fmaller rivers interfect the parifh, 
which abound with trout ; and falmon 
are fometimes caught in the Aven. 
There is abundance of limeftone, and 
fome coal ; but the coal is not of good 
quality. Freeftane is rather fcarce. 
A few fpecimens of iron ore have been 
dug up ; but it has not been found 
worth working. The crops on the 
low grounds are generally good ; but 
on the borders of the muir they are 
very precarious. The manufacture of 
muflins employ a confiderable number 
of hands. A Roman road can be dis- 
tinctly traced for feveral miles, on the 
S. of the Aven. Here are alio 3 an- 
cient chapels. The caftle of Avendale 
exhibits an interefting ruin on a rocky 
eminence. The Duke of Hamilton is 
the principal proprietor. In 1793, the 
population was eftimated at 33^3. 


AVOCH; a parifh in Rofsihire, a- 
bout 4 miles in length, and %\ in 
breadth. It enjoys all the variations 
of foil and furface, and is reckoned in 
general exceedingly fertile, though the 
arts of modern hufbandry are little 
known. The fea coaft, which bounds 
this parifh on the E. affords employ- 
ment and provilion to the inhabitants. 
There are fome excellent quarries of 
freeftone in the parifh, from which the 
ftones were taken with which Fort 
George is built. It is watered by a 
few fmall rivulets, which contain a 
particular fpecies of red trout. Marl 
is found in one loch, and it is fuppofed 
that limeftone is not wanting in the 
parifh. Rofehatigh-hoyfe, the feat of 
Sir Roderick Mackenzie of Scatwell, 
with its extenfive plantations, is much 
admired. Avoch and Bennets-field, 
two other feats in the pari fh, are fallen 
into difrepair. The herring fifhery em- 
ploys the inhabitants of the coaft, and 
on an average there are generally cured 
here about 6,000 barrels. The foun- 
dation of an old caftle ftill remains, on 
the top of a little hill, about 350 feet 
long, and 160 broad. Population in 
1793, 1380. 

Aw (Loch) ; a lake in Argyllfhire, 
about 30 miles in length, and from 1 
to a in breadth. It is reckoned the 
moft picturefque of any in the High- 
lands ; and it poffeffes many pretty 
ifiands, tufted with trees. On one of 
them, lnis-chonnel, not much larger 
than a churchyard, is the ruin of an 
ancient caftle. At the north-eaftern 
extremity rifes the mountain of Ben- 
Cruachan, elevated 3390 feet above 
the furface of the lake ; from the top 
of which defcends the river which 
forms this beautiful expanfe of water. 
The lake abounds with falmon, trout, 
and eel, and difcharges itfelf into Loch 
Etive, a branch of the Atlantic ocean, 
at a place called Bun-aw, where is ef- 
tablifhed a falmon fifhery. 

AYRSHIRE is bounded on the N. 
by the county of Renfrew ; on the E. 
by the fhires of Lanark and Dumfries; 
on the S. by Galloway ; and on the 
W. by the Irifh channel, and the Frith 
of Clyde. Its extent in length is about 
65 miles, and about 36 in breadth. It 
is divided into 3 great bailliages or 
ftewartries, which bear the names of 
Kyle,Cunningham, andCarrick. Thefe 
divifions are not altogether artificial j 



the river Ayr, on which is the town 
of Ayr, forming the feparation between 
Carrick and Kyle ( or Ay rfhire Proper), 
and the river Irvine (at the mouth of 
which is a borough of the fame name) 
is the limit between Kyle and Cun- 
ningham. Thefe diftricts are very dif- 
ferent from each other in appearance. 
Carrick, and the interior parts of Kyle, 
are mountainous, and more fitted for 
pafture ; while the coaft of Kyle, and 
the greater part of Cunningham, exhi- 
bit a fine level country, fnterfperfed 
with numerous villages and towns. 
The fea coaft is mollly fandy, with 
funk rocks, poffefiing feveral good har- 
bours. The ifiand of Aifia is in this 
county. From the ridge, of which 
the mountains of Carrick are a part, 
rife almoft all the rivers of the S. of 
Scotland. The Tweed, the Elk, the 
Nith, the Annan, the Urr, &c. flow 
to the E. and S. while the Stinchar, 
the Girvan, the Docn, the Ayr, and 
the Lugar, pouring into the Irilh chan- 
nel, interfect the county of Ayr with 
their copious ftreams. Befides thefe, 
the Irvine and other fmalier rivulets, 
water the more northerly parts of the 
county. Ayrfhire has 2 royal boroughs, 
viz. AYRandlRViNE ; and feveral po- 
pulous towns and villages, of which 
Kilmarnock, Beith, Saltcoats, Kilwin- 
ning, Largs, Girvan, and Ballantrae, 
are the chief. Fitted as Ayrlhire is in 
every refpecl: for the carrying on of 
trade, and the extenfion of agricultu- 
ral improvements, itisonlyof lateyears 
that much has been done in that way. 
Poffeffing valuable feams of excellent 
coal, and enriched with the returns 
from its exportation, little attention 
was paid to the culture of the ground. 
The eftablifhment of the Douglas and 
Heron Bank, though ruinous to the 
proprietors, contributed greatly to pro- 
mote the improvement of Ayrlhire. 
The abundance of wealth which it 
fallacioufiy feemed to pour into the 
country, and the ready command of 
money it gave, fet all the proprietors 
towards improving and planting their 
eftates, furnifhed means for railing and 
burning lime for manure, and above 
all, with the money from the bank, 
canals and roads were opened through 
every part of the country. Upon the 
failure of that extravagant and ill-con- 
ducted fpeculation, the proprietors 
•of many eftates faw their property 

brought to the hammer, and the great- 
er part of their lands purchafed by new 
proprietors. After the general diftrefs, 
consequent on fo difaftrous a fcheme, 
was fomewhat relieved, the improve- 
ment which the land had received dur- 
ing the profufion of money, enabled 
the proprietors to continue the im- 
provement, and the new fettlers being 
moftly men of great fortune, allowed 
no expence to be wanting to produce 
the fame end : and hence the improve- 
ment of the country was rather pro- 
moted than retarded, by an event 
which threatened to overwhelm not 
only Ayrfhire, but the greater part of 
Scotland, into the gulf of bankrupt- 
cy. Ayrfhire, befides the inexhauftible 
feams of coal with which it abounds, 
pofiefTes feveral other valuable miner- 
als ; as freeftone, limeftone, ironftone, 
feveral rich ores of lead and copper. 
A few curious fpecimens are alio to he 
found in the hills of Carrick, of agates, 
porphyries, and of calcareous petrifac- 
tions. In the parifh of Stair, antimony 
and molyhdctna have been found ; and 
in feveral parts of the county is found 
that fpecies of whetftone, known by 
the name of Ayr-Jlone. ' There is plen- 
ty of marl in moft of the lochs ; the 
chief of which is Loch Doon, from 
which the river of that name takes its 
rife. There is annually a great quan-, 
tity of fea weed thrown afhore, from 
which many tons of kelp are made. 
All the rivers of Ayrlhire abound 
with falmon, and the coafts are admir- 
ably adapted for the white fhhing. 
To attempt to enumerate the feats 
with which this county is ornamented, 
would extend this article far beyond 
our limits. We need only mention a 
few of the chief families. The Ken- 
nedies, the Cunninghams, the Coch- 
ranes, the Stewarts, the Montgomeries, 
the Boyds, the Campbells, and the 
Bofwells, are the moft ancient ; and 
moft of them poffefs refidences in the 
county. The valued rent of Ayrfhire 
is eftimated at 191,605b Scots; and 
the real amounts to 105,8001. fterling. 
Population of Ayrlhire in 1798, 75>544* 
AYR ; a royal borough, of great 
antiquity, and confiderable extent, 
the county town of Ayrlhire, and the 
feat of a jufticiary court. It was e- 
recled into a royal borough by Wih 
liam the Lion, about the year n 80; 
and the privileges granted by that 


charter are ftill enjoyed by the town- 
It is pleafantly fituated on a point of 
land, between the influx of the rivers 
Doonand Ayr, into the Atlantic ocean. 
The principal itreet is a fine orna- 
mented, broad, fpacious way, with a 
row of elegant houfes on each fide. 
Its Hi ape is lbmewhat of the form of 
a crefcent, having the tolbooth and 
town-hail hi the center, with a fine 
fpire, 135 feet high. In ancient times 
Ave find Ayr to have been a town of 
confiderable trade. The merchants 
imported a great quantity of wine 
from France, and exported corn and 
other produce of the country. The 
rifing trade of Glafgow proved very 
injurious to the trade of this town; 
but of late it has much revived. The 
fea fhore is flat and fhallow, and the 
entrance of the river Ayr, which forms 
the harbour, is fubject to the inconve- 
nience of a bar of fand, which is often 
thrown quite acrofs the river, efpeci- 
ally with a ftrong N. W. wind. The 
water never rifes above ia feet; but 
from feme improvements andextenfive 
works now carrying on en the fides 
of the river, it is hoped the channel 
will be connderably deepend. There 
are erected 2 reflecting light-houfes 
to conduct veiTels fafely into the har- 
bour. There are great plenty of fal- 
mon in the two rivers, the fiihings of 
which rent at upwards of 200I. Be- 
fides the falmon fifhery, the fand banks 
on the coaft abound with all kinds of 
white fifth ; and one or two companies 
are eftablifhed here for curing them. 
The principal trade carried en is the 
exportation of coal to Ireland, in which 
nearly 2000 tonnage of veffelsare annu- 
ally employed. There is an extenfive 
manufacture of leather and foap. Ayr 
was in ancient times, however, not 
only diftinguiihed for trade, but alio 
for military ftrength. Here the heroic 
exploits of Sir W.Wallace began, and 
here Edward I. fixed one of his molt 
powerful garrifons. Oliver Cromwell, 
too, judging it a proper place to build 
a fortrefs, took poffeffion of the old 
church, and converted it and the neigh- 
boui ing ground into a regular citadel. 
On one of the mounts, within the walls 
of this fortrefs, ftood the old caftle of 
Ayr, mentioned in ancient hiftories, 
and the old church, the tower of 
which ftill remains, noted for the meet- 
ing of the Scottiih parliament, when 


Robert Bruce's title to the throne was 
unanimoufly confirmed. Ayr is a very 
gay and faihionable place. It has 
well attended races, and is fometimes 
the feat of the Caledonian hunt. It is 
fituated 75 miles S. W. from Edin- 
burgh. In 1797, the population a- 
mounted to 4647 ; in 1801, 5560. 
The parifii extends about 4 miles in 
length, and 3 in breadth ; the furfaee is 
flat and fandy, but here and there in- 
terfperfed with beautiful feats and 
plantations. There are two fmall 
lakes, well ftored with pike and trout. 
There is plenty of muirftone on the 
furfaee, but the freeftone is neither a- 
bundant norgood. No coal is wrought, 
but all the neighbouring pariihes pof- 
fefs inexhauftible pits of the fineft coal. 
There is a ftrong chalybeate fpring, 
which is famous in icrophulous and 
fcorbutic complaints. Tradition re- 
ports an engagement to have . taken 
place in the valley of Dalrymple, be- 
tween two kings, Fergus and Coilus, 
in which both leaders loft their lives ; 
the names of peaces in the neighbour- 
hood feem derived from this circum- 
ftance, and a cairn of ftones in the 
midft of the valley, is faid to point 
out the place of the' engagement. Hi£- 
tory has only recorded two diftinguiih- 
ed characters in literature, natives of 
Ayr: ift, Johannes Scotus, Ihnamed 
Erigena, celebrated for his acumen 
of judgment, his readinefs of wit, and 
fluency of elocution : and, 2d, the 
Chevalier Ramfay, author of Cyrus' 
Travels, and other works ; to thefe we 
may add the late Robert Burns, whofe 
genius, at leaft, will bear a companion 
with any of the former. 

AYR (Newtown of). While 
the borough of Ayr extends along 
the fouth fide of the river Ayr, this 
fmall parilh is fituated on the north 
fide of the fame river. It is a burgh 
of confiderable domain, having in that 
domain baronial jurifdiction ; govern- . 
ed by a magiftracy elected by free- 
men, but not having parliamentary 
reprefentation. It is of very ancient 
erection, owing its privileges to Ro- 
bert Bruce, who, upon being attacked 
with leprofy, came to refide in this 
place, and was induced to eftablilh a 
Lazar-houfe, and to confer confidera- 
ble favours on the tov\«n, and on the 
fmall village of Prieftwick, about 2 or 
3 miles diftant. In thq Newtown of 


Ayr are a number of very good houfes. 
it has a tolerable good harbour, chiefly 
employed in the coal trade. Lying 
on the banks of Ayr, and the fea coaft. 
the foil is moltly flat and fandy. Its 
extent is about 3 miles long, and i\ 
broad. In 1793, the population was 

Ayr River. This river rifes in 
the parifh of Muirkirk, in Ayrfhire ; 
and after a courfe of about 18 miles 
nearly due W. falls into the fea at Ayr, 
where its asftuary forms a fine harbour. 
It is for a edhfiderable courfe only a 
fmall rivulet; but joined by Greenock 
and Garpel, tributary ftreams, it be- 
comes a large body of water. It fre- 
quently fhifts its bed, and does consi- 
derable damage by its encroachments. 
Its banks are fteep and very romantic ; 
and the number of feats which orna- 
ment them prtfent a fine picturefque 
fcenery. Sorn-caftle,Auchincruive,and 
Auchinleck, may be mentioned as the 
chief beauties of the fcene. The vil- 
lage of Catrine is fituated on its banks. 
Jt forms the boundary between the 
diftricts of Ayrlhire, denominated 
Kyle and Carrick. 

AYTON, fituated in the county of 


Berwick, extends about 4^ miles ifi 
length, and 4 in breadth. The foil 
is in general fertile, and particularly 
adapted for the culture of turnips 
and corn. The fouthern part of the 
parifh is hilly ; but, even there, the 
foil is productive of corn and grafs. 
Of late this parifh has been much im- 
proved in its hufbandry, and the 
greateft part is now enclofed. The 
air is very dry and falubrious. As 
the fea forms the boundary on the 
E. it is in general Well fupplied with 
fifh. Its vicinity to the village of 1 
Eyemouth and the town of Berwick, 
affords a ready market for the produce 
of the farms, which in general is more 
than neceffary for its own confump- 
tion. About 15 or 20 tons of kelp 
are made here annually. The quarries 
afford ftone fit for building. On the 
hills are the remains of 2 camps, fup- 
pofed to be Roman or Saxon ; urns, 
and broken pieces of armour, have been 
found here. In the low grounds of 
the N. W. are the veftiges of 3 en- 
campments, fimilar to the former. 
Moft of the names of the places are 
derived from the Saxon. In 1792, the 
population was 1245 > ' m 1801, 145 3. 

g&S£SHW.iH» — 



BADENOCH; the moft eafterly dif- 
1 tricb of Invernefs-fhire ; having In- 
vernefs on the N. Moray on the E. 
Athol on the S. and Lochaber on the 
\V. It extends 33 miles in length, 
and 27 in breadth. It is very moun- 
tainous and barren, having no villages, 
and only a few inhabitants in the val- 
leys. It is watered by the Spey, and 
a few rivulets. There are alfo fe- 
veral lochs, fome of which are of con- 
fiderable extent. The mountains are 
covered with natural forefts, and a- 
bound with game. 

BALDERNOCK ; a parifh in Stir- 
lingfhire. The furface and foil are 
very various, part being flat and fer- 
tile, efpecially on the banks of the ri- 
ver Kelvin, while the back part is hil- 
ly, and covered with muir. A fmall 
loch, covering about 70 acres, called 
Baldowie, abounds with pike and 


perch. There is great plenty of lime 
and freeftone ; and the parifh every 
where abounds with coal, of excellent 
quality. The ruins of the manfton of 
Baldernock, fhew it to have been a' 
place of great ftrength. There are fe- 
veral cairns and druidical monuments; 
and all the names of the places feem 
to be derived from fome of the facred 
places of the druids. Population in 
1793, 620. 

BALFRON ; a parifh in the county 
of Stirling, extending about 8 miles in 
length, and 2 in breadth. The furface 
of the ground is on a gentle declivity, 
from the banks of the river Endrick, 
enjoyingtheadvantage of a S.expofure*- 
The foil is in fome places light and 
fandy, but the greater part is wet and 
tilly. Bad roads, the diftance from 
manure, and the poverty of the farm- 
er, has in this parifh retarded great-- 



ly agricultural improvements ; but 
thefe obftacles are now nearly remov- 
ed, and a fpirit for agriculture is ex- 
cited. Lime and freeftone are found 
in great plenty ; but as yet no coal 
has been difcovered, though in the 
opinion of good judges, the appear- 
ances are very nattering. The village 
of Balfron contains about noo inha- 
bitants, who are moftly employed in 
the cotton manufacture. The popu- 
lation of the parifh in 1793, amounted 
to 1381. 

BALLANTRAE ; an extenfive pa- 
rifh of Ayrfhire, being nearly 10 miles 
fquare. It lies on the fea coaft, which 
is bold and rocky, except oppofite the 
village. The furface is much diver- 
fined, riling gently from the fhore to 
the tops of that range of mountains 
which extend acrofs the country to 
the Frith of Forth. The foil is gene- 
rally-poor andthin ; but in manyplaces 
there are confiderable fields of natural 
grafs, well fitted for the feeding of 
fheep and cattle. The fifheries on this 
coaft are very productive, and there is 
always a ready market in the (hires of 
Ayr, Lanark, and Renfrew. There is 
alio a falmon fifhery at the mouth of 
Ardftinchar river, near the village of 
Ballantrae. There are no minerals of 
importance, if we except a mineral 
fpring, which has been long efteemed 
as a cure in cutaneous and fromachic 
diforders. Population in 1793, 770. 

BALLINGRY; an irregular parifh, 
of the extent of 3 miles in length, and 
1 in breadth, lying in the county of 
Fife. The foil is tolerably good, one 
fourth of the parifh only being under 
crop ; the remainder affords excellent 
pafture. There is great plenty of coal 
. and lime ; and fome marl has been 
procured by draining a fmall lake in 
the parifh, called Lochore. At the 
eaftern extremity of this lake is an 
iflet, with a ftrong tower now in ruins. 
There are alio the veftiges of a Ro- 
man camp ; in the neighbourhood of 
which various articles have been dug 
up, which muft have belonged to the 
Romans. Population in 1793, 220; 
in 1801, 227. 

BALMAGHIE; a parifh in the 
ftewartry of Kirkcudbright. It is about 
8 miles long, and from 3 to 6 broad. 
The general appearance is very unfa- 
vourable ; a great part being heath, or 
barren rocks. There are alfo a con- 

fiderable portion of morafs, incapable 
of any improvement ; but, notwith- 
ftanding this unpleafing afpect, the 
parifh contains fome arable ground, 
and very fertile meadows. There is 
fome natural wood, and a number of 
young plantations have been lately laid 
out. There are feveral lakes, which 
contain pike, perch, and trout in a- 
bundance. A very powerful chaly- 
beate fpring, called Lochenbreck nvell, 
is much reforted to ; befides which, 
there are feveral other mineral wells. 
The river Dee bounds the parifh on 
the N. Population in 1793, 862. 

BALMACLELLAN; a parifh in the 
ftewartry of Kirkcudbright. Its general 
appearance is muir, with 5 or 6 fmall 
lochs. Its furface is level, with a gen- 
tle rifing towards the N. There are 
about 60 acres of natural wood, chief- 
ly on the banks of the rivulets, which 
interfecl it. Only about one-fourth 
of the land is arable ; but this portion 
is very fertile. Many fheep are fed 
on the muirs. Two turnpikes pafs 
through the parifh. Population in 
1793, about 500* 

BAL MERINO; a parifh in the 
county of Fife, on the S. bank of the 
river Tay, extending on an average a- 
bout 3 -j- miles in length, and 24 in 
breadth. The furface Hopes gently 
to the banks of the river. The foil is 
thin and fandy. Agriculture is here 
practifed by fyftem, and the produce 
is frequently great. The harbour of 
Balmerino is fmall and inconvenient, 
but might be much improved. A very 
confiderable quantity of grain is an- 
nually exported from hence. A con- 
fiderable falmon fifhery is alfo carried 
on at this place. The abbey of Bal- 
merino, built in the year 1229, has 
been once a magnificent ftructure. 
The ruins of it are ftill much admired. 
Several extenfive plantations of hard 
wood have been lately made out. Po- 
pulation in 1793, 703 ; in 1801, 786. 

BALNAHUAIGH ; a fmall ifiand 
in the diftricl of the weftern ifies, be- 
longing to Argyllfhire. It is altogether 
compofed of bluifh-coloured flate. A- 
bout 2Qfamiliesrefide'upon it, forwork- 
ing the flate. It lies near the N. fide of 
the ifiand of jura, to which it may be 
confidered as a fort of appendage. The 
number of inhabitants refident on it 
are 140. 

BALQUHIDDER ; a Highland pa* 
i E 


rlffa of Perfhfhire, extending about 15 
ririles in length, and 7 in breadth. The 
furface is very hilly and mountainous* 
and fcarcely any of it is under crop. 
A great number of iheep are fed on 
the hills. The mountains are generally 
very high and fteep. Eenmore, rifing 
3903 feet, and Benvoirlich 3300 feet 
above the level of the fea, are in this 
pariih. There is a considerable extent 
of the ancient Caied©nir.n foreft in 
this difcridb, but the proprietors are 
yearly diminishing its extent. There 
is abundance of limeftone, which the 
fcarcity of fuel renders of little ufe. 
There are fome appearances of lead, 
but no proper vein h&"s been difcover- 
ed. There are many fine ftreams and 
lakes, of which the principal are Loch- 
doine, Lochvoil.- part of Lochlubnaig, 
and part of Lochearne , in thefe there 
are abundance of excellent fifh. The 
military road from Stirling to Fort 
William pafi'es through the parim. 
The number of inhabitants in 1793, 
was 130c. 

Balreggan Head; a promontory 
in the pariih of Stcnykirk, in the bay 
of Luce. 

BAMFFSHIRE is bounded on the 
N. by the Ocean ; on the W. by 
Murray and Invernefslhir'es ; on the 
S. andE.byAberdeenfhire. It extends 
in length about 36 miles, but it's ave- 
rage breadth is fcarcely more than 16. 
It contains 2 royal boroughs, and 24 
pariihes; comprehends part of Buchan, 
Boyne, Strathdovern, Strathaven, and 
Balvenie. The lurface of the country 
is agreeably diverfified with hill and 
dale, well watered with rivers, and or- 
namented with many feats and exten- 
' five plantations. The S. part of the 
county is very mountainous ; but the 
northern diftricb. is level, and the foil 
extremely fertile. The rivers are, the 
Deveron and the Spey, Ifla, Conglafs, 
Avon, and Fiddich. The county of 
EamfF abounds with the necefiaries 
and cbmforts of life ; and valuable mi- 
nerals are often found in the district. 
Limeftone is very plenty ; and a hill 
in the diftricb of Balvenie affords hones 
and whetftones, fufficient to iupply 
the whole ifland. There are leveral 
remarkable mountains in the county, 
of which Cairngoram, orle of the high- 
eft in Scotland, is the chief. Bclrin- 
nes, rifing 2690 feet, and Knockhill, 
which is 2^00 feet above the level of 


the fea, are alfo in this county. At 
Portfoy is a beautiful vein of ferpen- 
tine, called Portfoy marble ; and a 
fpecies of granite, which, when po- 
lifhed, exhibits the refeniblance of 
Arabic or Hebrew characters. Along 
the whole coaft are frequent tumuli 
and Daniih monuments. The Duke 
of Gordon, Earl of Findlater, Earl of 
Fife, and Lord Bamff, have elegant 
feats in the county. The valued rent 
is 79,2001. Scots, and the real land rent 
43,49cl. fterling. Population of the 
whole county in 1798, 38,487. 

BAMFF, or BANFF ; a royal bo- 
rough, and capital of the (hire of that 
name ; is pleafantly fituated on the 
fide of a hill, at the mouth of the ri- 
ver Deveron, Tradition fays, it was 
founded by Malcolm Kenmore,in 1163. 
It was erected into a royal borough* 
and endowed with the fame privileges 
as Aberdeen, in virtue of a charter 
from Robert II. dated October 7, 
1372. It now gives the title of baron 
to the Ogilvie family. It has feveral 
very well built ftreets, and is fai'd to 
be the moft fafhionable town N. of 
Aberdeen. The harbour is very bad, 
owing to the continual fhifting of the 
fand banks at the mouth of the river. 
Manufactories of thread, cotton, and! 
ftockings, are carried on to confider- 
able extent, and great* quantities of 
falmon are annually exported. There 
is an excellent eftablifnment for the 
education of the children of the poor. 
In the neighbourhood is Duff-houfe, 
the magnificent manfion of the Earl of 
Fife, with its extenfive and beautiful 
I policies. The houfe itfelf is an elegant 
i building, planned by the kte Mr. A- 
| dam. It contains a well felecled lib- 
I rary, and a number of fine paintings. 

The pariih is about 6 miles in length, 
I and 2 in breadth. The furface is beau- 
\ tifully diverfified, and the foil, though 
j in general good, is of various qualities. 
The fea coaft is bold and rocky. A 
! great part of the pariih, though it 
might be eafily converted into arable, 
ia occupied by pafturage ; and a very 
considerable number of black cattle 
are reared in the pariih. There is art 
extenfive nurfery of young trees in the 
neighbourhood. Near the town is a 
powerful chalybeate fpring. There is 
a fine bridge of 7 arches lately creel- 
ed over the Deveron. There is built 
within thefe two years, a new prifoa 



and town-houfe ; in laying down the 
plan of which, the genius qf the bene- 
volent Howard appears to have pre- 
iided. Population in 1797, 35 10. 
Banrfflies i6<; miles N. of Edinburgh. 

rifh, lying partly in Aberdeen, and 
partly in Kincardinefhires. It is fitu- 
ated on both fides of the river Dee, 
near its difcharge into the ocean. R 
extends about 3^ or 4 miles along the 
fea coaft, and from 6 to 7 along the 
banks oi the Dee. The general ap- 
pearance of the country is rugged, and 
•the hills are moftly covered with heath. 
On the N. fide of the river, the foil, 
though rather light, when properly 
managed, yields a tolerable crop. A- 
griculture is well attended to, and en- 
clofures are becoming general. There 
is no creek or harbour on the coaft, 
which would afford fhelter to any 
veffel larger than a fi filing boat; and 
the river Dee is not navigable. At 
this place feveral quarries of granite 
are wrought in the parifh. There are 
a number of very large cairns, and 
a building, which is fuppofed to be a 
druidical temple. Population in 1793, 
about 1700. 

in Kincardinefhire, lying on the banks 
of the river Dee, containing nearly 
20,000 fquare acres. It is of very 
unequal furface, the greateft part be- 
ing mofTy, and covered with heath. 
There are 2 or 3 fmall lakes in the 
parifh ; in one of which, Loch Leys, 
is an artificial ifland, with ruins of fe- 
veral houfes upon it. Agriculture is 
in the fame ftate it was 100 years ago, 
though lime is to be found in many 
places of the parifh. Population in 
1793, 1340. 

BANNOCKBURN; a village in 
Stirlingihire, celebrated for the battle 
between Robert Bruce and Edward I. 
in which the latter, with every fupe- 
riority in point of numbers and difpo- 
fition, was completely defeated. . It 
was fought on Monday, June 14, 13 14 ; 
and Bruce's victory was celebrated in 
inonkiih rhymes, by Bafton a friar, 
brought from England by Edward I, 
to be the hiftorian of his fuccefles.. 

BARR ; an extenfive parifh in Ayr- 
ihire, the extent of which is not well 
afcertained. The foil is partly arable ; 
but the principal attention of the farm- 
er is paid to the rearing of cattle and 

fheep, for which their grounds are ad- 
mirably calculated. \t is fituated, on 
the Stinchar, the bank* of which are 
covered with fine trees. There is one 
relic of antiquity, a Romifh chapel, 
remarkable only from a great annual 
fair which is held in its vicinity, and 
which receives its name (kirk domina 
fair) from this circumstance, There 
is freeftone, and abundance of lime- 
ftone, but no coal has yet been found, 
though thereis plenty in the neighbour- 
ing parifhes. Lead and other minerals 
are found in fmall quantities, but no 
vein is fumciently extenfive to induce 
the proprietor to open a mine. There 
is a ftrong chalybeate fpring, faid to be 
of fervice in debilitated habits. Po- 
pulation in 1792, 

Bara, or Barra ; one of the weft- 
ern ifles. It is a fmall rock, about one- 
fourth of a mile in circumference, 
being one of a clufter of fmall ifles 
which appear joined at low water, 
and named Long Ifland. It is alto- 
gether barren, but abounds with mul- 
titudes of fea-fowl. 

BARRA, oi- BARRA Y ; is alfo an- 
other of the weftern ifles, annexed to 
Invernefsfhire. It is about 8 miies 
in length, and 4 in breadth. It is 
fruitful in corn and oats ; but the chief 
attention is paid to the rearing of cat- 
tle, burning kelp, and the cod fiih- 
ery. The ifland has a very mountain- 
ous appearance, and contains about 
1604 inhabitants. It has a good har- 
bour on the N. E. fide, and the rivu- 
lets contain a few falmon. 

BARRIE ; a parifh in the county 
of Forfar, extending 4 miles in length, 
and 3 in breadth, along the N. coaft 
of the Frith of Tay. A bank running 
from E. to W. divides the parifh. into 
a higher and lower division, which are 
very different in foil and appearance ; 
while the low ground on the banks of 
the river is fandy, and affording only a 
fcanty pafture to a few flocks of fheep, 
the higher is a rich loam, extremely 
fertile, and well cultivated. The chief 
manufacture is brown linen ; and the 
parifh has been long famed for the ex- 
cellence of the fabric, and the fuperi- 
ority of the workmanfhip ; the great- 
er part is ftamped and fold at the Ar- 
broath market. Two light-houfes are 
erected on the fide of the river, to 
guide the mariner fafely through the 
land banks, which are very numerous 
E % 



at the mouth of the Tay. Many tu- \ 
mult are feen on the eaftern border of; 
the parifh ; and at Carnuiftie, is dif- I 
tinctly traced a camp of great extent, I 
en the fide of the burn of Loch Tay, i 
where the Danes under Camus were | 
totally defeated by the Scottifh army 
under Malcolm II. Buchannan re- | 
lates (lib. 6. cap. 50, 51,) that the en- j 
gagement was fo defperate, that the 
burn ran with blood for 3 days. Some J 
of the tumuli have been lately opened, 
and found to contain many very per- 
fect human fkeletons. Population in 

I79 I "3> 769. 

BARVAS ; a parifh in the ifland of 
Lewis. Vide Lewis. 

Barvie ; a fmall river, riling in the 
parim of Monzie, in Perthfhire, which 
falls into the Earn near Crieff. 

Bass ; an infulated rock, about a 
mile in circumference, fituated in the 
mouth of the Frith of Forth, about a 
mile from the town of North Berwick. 
It is fteep and inacceffible on all fides, 
except the S. W. and even there, with 
difficulty a (ingle man can climb up, 
with the affiftance of a rope and lad- 
der. The caftle, which was once the 
ftate prifon of Scotland, is now in 
ruins. A garrifon was formerly kept 
here ; but a party of King James's ad- 
herents keeping poffeffion of it long 
after the reft of the kingdom had fub- 
mitted to the new government, the 
fortifications were ordered to be de- 
ftroyed. There is a fpring of excel- 
lent water on the top of the rock. This 
rock, with St. Kilda and Aifia, is the 
only place in Scotland where the folan 
geele breed. It contains a fmall war- 
ren for rabbits, and affords pafture to 
a few fheep. 

BATHGATE ; a village and parifh 
in the county of Linlithgow, about 7 
miles long, and a broad. Towards 
the N. E. the parifh is hilly, and the 
Bathgate hills are the moft elevated in 
this part of the country; towards the 
S. the furface is level. The foil is to- 
lerably productive, and agriculture is 
much attended to. The village of 
Bathgate, containing about 1400 inha- 
bitants, is part of the extenfive poffef- 
fions granted by King Robert Bruce, 
in 1.3 16, to Walter, fteward of Scot- 
land, on his marriage to lady Margery, 
Robert's daughter, and was the chief 
reiidence of Walter, till his death, in 
1328. The foundations of the houfe 

are ftill viable, in the midft of a mo- 
rals, about a quarter of a mile from the 
town. The population of the whole 
parifh was about 2300, in 1793. 

BEATH ; a fmall inland parifli in 
the county of Fife, about 4 miles in 
length, and 3 in breadth. The furface 
is rugged and uneven, riling to an emi- 
nence, called the hill of Beath, from 
which the profpect is extenfive and 
beautiful. The foil is fertile, and the 
fields moftly enclofed. Almoft every 
part of the parifli contains coal, and 
plenty of freeftone for building. It is 
watered by 2 fmall rivulets. Popula- 
tion in 1793, 450. 

BEAULIE, or BEAULY ; a village 
of confiderable note in the parifh of 
Kilmorack, in Invernefsfhire. It is 
fituated at the mouth of the river 
Beauly, where it difcharges itfelf into 
a frith of the fame name. It lies ia 
miles W. of Invernefs. 

Beauly; a river in Invernefsfhire. 
It is formed by the union of the fmall 
rivers Farrur, Canich, and Glafs, near 
Erklefs-caftle. The Beauly then takes 
its courfe eafterly, and after forming 
the falls of Kilmorack, and other beau- 
tiful cafcades, it falls into an arm of 
the fea, to which it gives its name. 
The banks are covered with natural 
wood, and are very bold and rocky. 
At one place the river divides, form- 
ing the beautiful ifland of Aigajh, on 
which is erected feveral faw-mills. The 
Beauly is celebrated for a productive 
falmon fifhing, which rents at 63 il. 
fterhng per annum. 

BEDRULE ; a parifh fituated in the 
center of the county of Roxburgh, is 
about 4 miles in length, and from 2 to 
3 in breadth. It is almoft oval, con- 
lifting nearly of equal divifions of a- 
rable, pafture, and muir land. The 
furface is various, exhibiting fudden 
and unexpected tranfitions from hill 
to dale. The foil is uncommonly fertile, 
and is much improved from the quan- 
tity of marl which is found in almoft 
every part of the parifh. In this 
diftrict much attention is paid to agri- 
culture ; and lime is much ufed as a 
manure, though brought from a con- 
fiderable diftance. The appearances 
of coal is very flattering ; but as yet 
none has been difcovered. The hills 
of Dunian and Ruberflaw, the former 
riling 103 1 feet, and the latter 1419 
feet above the level of the fea, are feea 



at a great diftance. There is abund- 
ance of excellent freeftone, which fup- 
• plies the neighbouring country. The 
roads from Berwick to Carlifle, and 
from London to Edinburgh, in palling 
through this parifh, are remarkable for 
the variety and beauty of the profpects 
which they unfold. The rivers Rule 
and Tiviot form the boundaries on the 
N. and W. In 1793, the population 
amounted to 259. 

Bein-an-lochan ; a high moun- 
tain in Argyllfhire. 

Beinmore; a lofty mountain in the 
Ifland of Mull. It exhibits many ap- 
pearances of volcanic fire, and is moft- 
ly compofed of bafaltic columns of 5 
and 6 fides. 

Beinchonzie ; a mountain in the 
parifh of Monivaird, in Perthfhire ; 
rifes 2922 feet above the level of the 
fea. On the very fummit are 40 acres 
of deep mofs, containing large trees 
of oak and fir. 

Beindeirg ; a mountain in Athol, 
in Perthfhire ; riling to the height of 
3550 feet above the level of the fea. 

Beinglo ; a mountain of Athol, 
the higheft pinnacle of which, Cairn- 
an-gour, is elevated 3725 feet above 
the fea. 

BEITH ; a town in the diftrict of 
Cunningham, county of Ayr. It is 
fituated on a fmall eminence, and 
pretty regularly built. There is a 
confiderable trade carried on in the 
manufacture of linen and of filk 
gauze. The town, in the beginning of 
this century, is faid to have coniifted 
of only 5 or 6 houfes. At prefent the 
number of inhabitants amount to near- 
ly 1800. The parifh of Beith lies on 
the border of Ayrfhire, and a fmall 
part of it is in the county of Renfrew. 
Its extent is about 5 miles in length, 
and 4 in breadth. The furface rifes 
gradually to the elevation of about 
400 feet, where the town is built. 
The lands are all arable ; but parti- 
cular attention is paid to the manage- 
ment of the dairy, from which, indeed, 
the farmer pays his rent. This, and 
the neighbouring parifh Dunlop, have 
been long famous for a particular kind 
of cheefe, which iscalled Djw/o* cheefe. 
A very ancient feat of the Montgo- 
meries of GifFan, a branch of the Eglin- 
ton family, is now in ruins. There is a 
fmall loch, containing abundance of 
k(h : and near it is plenty of peat mofs 

Coal is found in many parts ; yet it 
has never been wrought to advantage. 
Freeftone is abundant ; and of lhne- 
ftone the quarries are inexhauftible ; 
lately feveral rich veins of ironftone 
were difcovered. On the limeftone are 
frequent beautiful fpecimens of im- 
preffioBS ; and it abounds with cal- 
careous petrifactions of fheils, entrocM, 
and other marine annua. There are 
alfo many filiceous petrifactions of 
woods and moffes. Barytes, that re- 
gular attendant on metallic veins, and 
white radiated cryftals of zeolite, are 
frequently found. Population ( includ- 
ing the town of Beith ) in 1792, 2872. 

BELHELVIE ; a parifh on the fea 
coaft of Aberdeenfhire. The appear- 
ance of the parifh is very unfavourable, 
efpecially at a diftance from the fea 
coaft, where it exhibits nothing but 
heath and ftones. Towards the coaft, 
however, there is fome arable ground ; 
and perhaps the greater part is capable 
of cultivation, but neglected from the 
want of attention to agriculture. No 
minerals of importance have been dis- 
covered. The principal fuel is turf 
and peats. Population in 1793, 1318. 

Bell Rock, or Cape ; a dange- 
rous ridge of funk rocks, lying about 
12 miles from Fife-Nefs, between the 
openings of the Friths of Tay and 
Forth. The ridge extends about a 
mile in length, and about half a mile 
in breadth, the top of the rocks being 
only feen a few hours at low water. 
This rock renders the navigation not 
only of the Tay and Forth very ha- 
zardous, but is alio dangerous to all 
veffels navigating coaftways. Every 
year veffels of confiderable value are 
wrecked upon it ; and there is reafen 
to fufpect that many, which have been 
fuppofed to have foundered at fea, 
have fuffered on this dangerous reef. 
It has been long purpofed to erect a 
light-houfe on it ; and furveys have 
been made at different times, to afcer- 
tain the poflibility of its erection. A 
very ingenious model, by Captain 
Brodie, was lately fent round for the 
approbation of the feafaring people, 
and the feveral ports on the eaft coaft. 
It is hoped that this plan, or fome one 
fimilar, will be earned into execution. 

BELLIE ; a parifh fituated chiefly 
in the county of Bamff ; but that part, 
on which the burgh of Fochabers is 
built, is in the county of Murray. 


Theparifh is fituated on the left banks 
of the river Spey ; and is in extent 
about 6 miles in length, and nearly 4 
in breadth. The ancient bank of the 
Spey, which is very high, and now 
ejiftant from the prefent current about 
4 miles, by the ihifting of the channel, 
bounds a fine plain, which is princi- 
pally occupied by this parilh. The 
foil is very fertile, being rich loam de- 
pofited from the river. Enclofures arc 
not general, being only feen near Gor- 
don-caftle. Though the land is moftly 
arable, yet, as we frequently obferve, 
in the neighbourhood of fine feats 
more attention is paid to pafture. The 
town of Fochabers is on the other fide 
of the river ; and the church is now 
built there ; (vide Fochabers.) 
There is an excellent falmon fifhing 
on- the Spey, the property of the Duke 
of Gordon, which rents at 1500I. 
per annum. There is an extenfive en- 
campment, fuppofed to be Danifh. 
Upon the bank above mentioned, Hands 
Gordon-cattle, the feat of his Grace the 
Duke of Gordon, furrounded with ele- 
gant and extenfive policies. The front 
of this caftle is 568 feet in length ; and 
perhaps no palace in Britain can vie 
with it in elegance : an attempt at des- 
cription would extend the account far 
beyond our limits. Itwas called, during 
the time of Pennant's tour, by the name 
vMBogra' Godher, or Bog of Ghight, 
from the place where it was built, 
which was marfhy, and required great 
labour and expence to form the charm- 
ing landfcape it now exhibits. Popu- 
lation of the parifli, including Focha- 
bers, in 1790-8, 1 919. 

the height of which, above the fea, is 
2650 feet, and from its own bafe 1680. 
BENBECULA; one of the Hebrides, 
lying between the ifiands of N. and 
S. Uift, from the laft of which it is 
ieparated by a narrow channel, nearly 
dry at low water. It is a low ifiand, 
about 8 or 9 miles each way.. The foil 
is fandy and unproductive. A great 
quantityof fea weed is annually thrown 
on the coaft, from which kelp is made. 
There is a Danifh fort, named Dun 
Elvine Nean Ruarie. There are alfo 
several druidical edifices. 

Benchochan; a mountain in the 
parilh of Aberfoyle, in Perthfhire, 
jifing to the height of 3000 feet above 
the level pf the fea. 


Bencloch, or Bencleugh ; the 
higheft of the Ochil hills, is fituated 
in the psrifh of Tillicoultry, in Clack- 
mannanfhire. It is moftly compofed 
of granite, containing large cryltals of 
blzckfcheorl. It rifes to the height of 
2420 feet above the level of the river 
Devon, which runs at its bafe. 

BENDOTHY; a parilh in Perth- 
fhire, fituated in the valley of Strath- 
more, near the borders of the county 
of Angus. It extends from the Gram- 
pian to the Sidlaw hills, occupying the 
low ground of the ftrath, The length 
of the parilh is about 12 miles, and 
its breadth from 6 to 8. The lfla 
bounds it on the W. and the fmall ri-i 
ver Erocht divides it into 2 diftridg, 
running nearly W. to fall into the lfla. 
The banks of the Ilia are very fertile ; 
but often the floods of that river carry 
away the labours of the farmer. The 
foil is various, but on the low ground 
of the ftrath, it produces excellent 
crops. The Highland diftrict, if we 
may fo term the front ridce of the 
Grampians, which is incluued in the 
parilh, is fit only for pafture. A fine 
ftone bridge of 5 arches is thrown 
over the Ifia, upon the road from Cu- 
par Angus to Fort George. There 
was anciently a chapel at St. Fink, 
dedicated to that faint. Flere feveral 
ftone coffins have been dug up. In the 
neighbourhood is a very large cairn, 
containing a great quantity of human 
bones. There are alfo feveral fubter-, 
raneous houfes, which are evidently of 
Pictiih conftruction. Loch Stormont, 
which gives its name to a diftrict of 
Perthfhire, contains a great deal of 
mar!, but has not yet been drained. 
There are, befides, a number of fmaller 
lochs, which contain that excellent 
manure. The parilh alfo abounds with 
excellent freeftone, and fome granite, 
Population in 1796, 878. 

Bene vis ; the higheft mountain in 
Britain, is fituated in the parifh of 
Kilmalie, Invernefsfnire. It elevates 
its rugged front to the height of 4370 
feet above the level of the fea. Its 
fummit and broken fide are covered 
with eternal fnow. The extent of 
profpect is grand and magnificent; 
A great part of Benevis is compofed 
of porphyry, which is remarkably fine, 
of a brownifh colour. There are alfo 
many fpecimens of green porphyry 
intermixed, with angular fpecks cf 



•white quart-z. The red granite of 
Benevis is Said to be the moil beauti- 
ful in the world. There is aTme vein 
of lead ore, very rich in Silver, found 
imbedded in the granite. From this 
mountain riSes the fmall river Nevis, 
which glides through a glen of the 
fame name. 

BEN HOLME; a parifn in the 
county of Kincardine, forming a fquare 
of nearly 3 miles. The Surface is con- 
siderably diverfified, and the foil is 
various ; but being Sheltered from the 
N. wind with a S. expofure, it is very 
fertile. John's-haven, a thriving frfhing 
village, diftant abcut 8 miles from 
Montrofe, is in this parilh. Here a 
fail-cloth manufactory was eftabliShed 
fome time ago, by a company of Dun- 
dee merchants, which has been of 
great fervice to the neighbourhood. 
There are Several quarries of excel- 
lent freeftone. The town of Benholme 
has been a Strong place of detente, be- 
fore the invention of gunpowder. 
Population in 1793, about 1560. 

Benivenow ; a mountain in the 
parifh of Aberfoyle, in Perthshire, is 
moftly compofed of calcareous matter, 
many pieces of which, from its fine 
polifh, is ufed inftead of marble. The 
elevation of the mountain is nearly 
3000 feet above the level of the Sea. 

Benlawers ; a mountain near Ken- 
more, in Perthshire; is fuppofed to be 
next in height to Benevis. It is Situ- 
ated on the banks of Loch Tay ; riling 
in a conical Shape to the height of 
4015 feet above the level of the Sea. 

Benledi", oi-Benledia, " the hill 
of God .,•" a mountain in the parifh of 
Callender, Perthshire. It riSes from a- 
fmall bale to the height of 3009 feet 
above the level of the Sea, command- 
ing an extenfive profpec"t of the wind- 
ings of the Forth. On the top are tire 
remains of a druidical temple. 

Benlomond; a mountain in the 
parifh of Buchannan, in Dumbarton- 
shire ; is Situated on the borders of 
Loch Lomond, from the level of which 
it rifes majestically to the height of 
3240 feet, and 3262 feet above the le- 
vel of the fea. Its height is Surpafied 
by Benevis, Benlawers, and Some other 
mountains ; but the difference is more 
than compensated by the magnificence 
of its infulated Situation, with reipecl 
to the neighbouring hills. Its form is 
a truncated cone, and its- Sides, parti- 

cularly towards the lake, are finely 
covered with natural wood. The ac- 
cent is eaSy on the S. W. Side ; but 
the N. fide is. exceedingly Steep, having 
at one place a perpendicular precipice 
nearly 300 fathoms deep. The view 
from the Summit is moft extenfive. On 
the N. E. fide is the Source of the ri- 
ver Forth. Here an inconsiderable rill, 
but very foon augmented to a river, 
by the numerous Streams which join 
their waters as it paffes through the 
valley, Sometimes expanding into a 
fmall lake, and immediatelyarter pour- 
ing its torrent over a fhipendous pre- 
cipice. Benlomond is chiefly compofed 
of granite, interfperSed with immenfe 
maifes of quart-z; considerable quanti- 
ties of micaceous fchijlus are found 
even at the top, and many rocks near 
the baSe* of the mountain are entirely 
compofed of that mineral. To the 
botanift, Benlomond (from the num- 
ber of rare plants it pofieifes,) will af- 
ford great amufement. 

Ben more, a mountain in the pariSh 
of Killin, in the county of Perth. It is 
Situated by the fide of Loch Dochart, 
in the pafs between Glendoehart and 
Strathfillaur. Its figure is conical, 
and by Stobie's map of Perthshire, its 
elevation above the level of the fea is 
3903 feet. 

Benuaish; a mountain of great 
height, in the parifh of Killearn, in the 
county of RoSs. Its top is constantly 
covered with Snow. 

Benvoirlich ; a mountain in Bal- 
quhidder parilh, in the county of 
Perth ; is eitimated by Mr. Stobie to 
be 3300 feet above the level of the fea. 

Bf.regonivm ; the ancient metro- 
polis of Scotland, is Said to have beea 
lituated in the parilh of Ardchattan, 
Argyllshire. It was the chief reiidence 
of the Scottish kings, from Fergus IL 
till the removal of the feat of the go- 
vernment to Dunftaffnage. Vide Ard- 
chattan and Muckairn. 

BERNE RA; one of the weftern 
ifies, is a beautiful and fertile ifland, 
about 5 miles in circumference. The 
foil is fandy, but when manured with 
Sea weed, extremely productive. It 
was formerly a druidical Sanctuary ; 
has Still a wood of yew trees, with 
which the groves were planted when 
devoted to religious purpofes. In the 
center of the ifland is a frefn water 
lake, called Loch-Bruift, diverfified 


•with finall iflfets. There are 2 chapels 
on the ifland, dedicated to St. Afaph 
and St. Columbus. 

BiikThJ ; the name of an ancient 
city in Perthshire, at the time of the 
invalion of Britain by the Romans 
under Agricola. , It was fituated on a 
point of land, formed by the con- 
fluence of the Tay and Almond, a- 
bout 4 miles above Perth. Here the 
remains of a timber bridge are to be 
feen, confining of Hones and beams, 
on which the Romans palled over the 
Tay into Stiathmore. Tradition re- 
ports Bertha to have been fwept a- 
way by a flood. 

royal burgh in the county of Kincar- 
dine. It is fituated at the mouth of 
the fmall river Bervie, which forms a 
fmall and inconvenient harbour for 
Sihing boats. The original plan of 
the fcreets of the burgh appears to 
have been very regular, and judiciouf- 
ly laid out, but it has not been adhered 
to, every houfe being put down ac- 
cording to the fancy of the builder. 
A fine bridge was lately thrown over 
the water of Bervie, the dead arches 
of which have been fitted up as a 
town-hall, &c. Bervie was constituted 
a royal borough by a charter from 
king David, in the year 1342, as a re- 
turn for the kindnefs and hofpitality 
with which the inhabitants received 
him, when he was forced in here by 
ftrefs of weather. The place on which 
lie landed to this day bears his name, 
and is called Craig David. James VI. 
in 1595, renewed the charter, and con- 
firmed all the privilegesandimmunities 
granted by king David. It appears in 
former times to have been a conlider- 
able fiihing Station, but all the fiSher- 
men are now removed to the village of 
Gourdon, a more eligible Situation, a- 
bout 2 miles farther S. This is the fea 
port of Bervie, to which 8 or 9 fmall 
veSTels belong. There is a machine for 
Spinning linen yarn, which was the firft 
of the kind in Scotland ; alio a Salmon 
fifhery, belonging to Vifcount Arbuth- 
not and Mr. Barclay of Ury, of 120I. 
Sterling yearly rent. The revenue of 
the burgh does not exceed 3 81. per an- 
num. The population of the burgh 
is about 607. 

The pariih of Bervie is fmall, ex- 
tending only 2 miles in length, and It 
in breadth. The Soil on the low 


grounds is a fine deep loam, and the 
higher a mixture of clay and gravel ; 
nearly one half of the parish is under 
crop. A considerable quantity of fea 
ware is thrown afhore, which is much 
eSteemed as a manure for raifmg bear 
or barley. Water has been lately 
brought into the town by means of 
pipes ; the expence of which was de- 
frayed by a voluntary tax amongft the 
inhabitants. Population of the whole 
pariSh in 1792, including the burgh of 
Bervie, about 1000. 

Bervie Brow, or Craig David; 
a bold promontory, fituated on the 
N. fide of Bervie water, in the pariih 
of Kinneff; it is a conSpicuous land- 
mark for mariners, and is feen at fea 
at the distance of 15 leagues. 

Berv 1 e ; a fmall river in Kincardine- 
Shire. It takes its riSe in the parish of 
Glenbervie, and after a courfe of 9 
miles, falls into the German ocean. 
Near its influx into the Sea, is the 
royal burgh of Bervie, where a hand- 
fome Stone bridge has been lately built. 

BERWICKSHIRE i« of an irregular 
fquare form, bounded on the N. by 
Eaft-Lothian ; on the E. by the Ger- 
man ocean ; on the S. by the river 
Tweed, and the English border ; and 
on the W. by the counties of Rox- 
burgh, Peebles, and Mid-Lothian. Its 
extent in length may be Stated at 34 
miles, and its breadth 19. This county 
is nominally divided into 3 diftri&s, 
viz. Lauderdale, Lammermuir, and 
Merfe or March. The firft is that 
opening or valley in the Lammermuir 
hills, through which the river Leader 
runs. Lammermuir comprehends the 
ridge of hills which feparate this coun- 
ty from Eaft-Lothian, extending from 
the head of Leader water to the fea, 
below the town of Berwick. The 
Merfe or March includes that fertile 
and populous plain, Stretching from 
the hills, along the banks of the Tweed. 
Berwickshire contains one royal bo- 
rough, viz. Lauder; and feveral large 
towns and villages, as Dunfe, Cold- 
Jlream, Coldingham, Ayton, and Eye- 
mouth. It is divided into 32 parochi- 
al diftricls ; and contains, by the late 
enumeration in 1801, 29,908 inhabi- 
tants. The chief rivers are the Tweed, 
the Leader, the Eye, the Whittadder, 
and Blackadder. The two roads to 
London pafs through the county. In 
the MerSe the ftate of agriculture is 


excellent 3 and, though fa late as 60 
years ago, the greater part was barren 
and uncultivated, it is now moftly en- 
clofed and improved. Many farms, 
which at that time brought no return 
to the proprietor, or fo fmall as fcarce- 
ly to dtferve notice, are now rented 
as high as 300I. or 400I. In no coun- 
ty in Great Britain is there a more re- 
fpeftable tenantry than there is at pre- 
fent in the county of Berwick ; many 
of them rent from 500I. to 1500I. per 
annum ; they are moftly men well in- 
formed in fcience, intelligent and in- 
duftrious in their profeffion, and are 
generally enabled in a few years to 
purchafe property to the amount of 
200I. per annum, on which they en- 
joy, otium cum dignitate, the juft re- 
ward of their labour, attention, dili- 
gence, and good fenfe. The county 
of Berwick exports from the ports of 
Berwick and Eyemouth, above 80,000 
bolls of victual; and the fame quantity 
is annually carried to the weekly mar- 
kets of Edinburgh, Dalkeith, Had- 
dington, and Dunbar. There is plen- 
ty of marl in the county ; but the 
farmers prefer lime as the moft pro- 
fitable, though at the diftance of 18 
or ao miles. The minerals in this dif- 
trict hitherto discovered, are few, and 
thefe are by no means valuable. Coal 
has been found only in fmall quanti- 
ties near Eyemouth. There is plenty 
of freeftone fit for building, and both 
rock and ihell marl are found in dif- 
ferent places. Copper hasbeen wrought 
in the neighbourhood of Lauder ; and 
fome years ago, a mine of the fame 
metal was difcovered in the parifh of 
Bonkle. The parifh of Mordington 
contains ironftone, but of too fmall 
value as to render it an object of 
manufacture. The rocks which com- 
pofe the Lammermuir hills, are chiefly 
fchiftus, with alternate ftrata of fand- 
ftone. At Eyemouth is a rock of the 
lpecies called puddingftone, in the 
pieces of which it is not uncommon 
to find fragments of porphyry, gra- 
nite, and even limeftone. Near the 
Whittadder, in the parifh of Chirnfide, 
is a fpecies of gypfum, which has been 
of great ufe as a manure. The cele- 
brated mineral well, called Dunfe Spa, 
which is fomewhat fimilar to Tun- 
bridge, is fituated about a mile from 
the town of Dunfe. The rivers con- 
tain trout, and falmon ; of which laft 


a great quantity is annually exported 
from Berwick to London. The prin- 
cipal refidences in the county are Hir- 
fel, the feat of the Earl of" Home ; 
Marchmont-houfe, the feat of the Earl 
of Marchmont; Ayton, the feat of 
Mr. Fordyce ; and Dunfe-caftle, the 
feat of Hay of Drumelzier. Befides 
thefe, are many other elegant feats. 
From the fituation of this county, on 
the border of England, it was necef- 
fary that it fhould be ftrongly fortified, 
to guard as far as poffible againft the 
inroads of the Englifh, during the wars 
which exifted between the two nations ; 
accordingly, we find numerous ftrong 
caftles and fortified places in almoft 
every parifh in the county. The va- 
lued rent of Berwickfhire is 178,3651. 
Scots, and the real land rent may be 
eftimated at u8,8ool. fterling. 

BERWICK ; a royal burgh, on the 
borders of England and Scotland, and 
a county of itfelf. It ftands on the N. 
or Scots fide of the river Tweed. It 
was originally a Scots town, and ftill 
is a liberty of itfelf diftinct from Eng- 
land. It was formerly the chief town 
of Merfe or March, which ftill is gene- 
rally called the county of Berwick. 
This was always a bone of contention 
betwixt the Englifh and Scots ; and 
we have accounts of its frequent 
change of matters. It is pleafantly 
fituated, on a gentle declivity, clofe 
by the fea ; ■ and furrounded with high 
walls, regularly fortified, having a 
ditch on the N. E. ; the river ferving 
for a moat on the fouth fide. It is 
joined to England by a bridge 947 
feet long, with 15 arches. The town 
is well built, and governed by a mayor, 
recorder, town-clerk, and 4 bailies. It 
had a ftrong caftle, which is now in 
ruins. Though this town is not ac- 
knowledged either to be in England 
or Scotland, its church is a rectory 
in the diocefe of Durham. The Eng- 
lifh judges alfo hold affizes here, and 
it fends two members to parliament. 
It has barracks fufficient to accommo- 
date 2 regiments of foot. A vaft quan- 
tity of corn and eggs are annually ex- 
ported ; but the principal trade is the 
falmon caught in the Tweed, part of 
which are fent to London alive, and 
fome pickled in large kits. 

BERWICK (NORTH) ; a royal 
burgh in the county of Haddington, 
of verv ancient erection ; but its old 


original charter being loft or deftroyed, 
it obtained a new one from King James 
VI. It anciently enjoyed a confider- 
able trade ; but no manufactures are 
at prefent carried on to any extent ; 
and a few cargoes of grain are the only 
exports at its harbour. The parifh ex- 
tends along the fea coaft about 3 miles, 
and is about 2=§ miles in breadth, and 
is wholly arable, with the exception 
of a beautiful conical eminence, called 
N. Berwick Law, and about 80 acres 
of links. The foil is generally rich, 
fertile, and well cultivated. The an- 
cient caftle of Tamtallan ftands about 
2. miles from N. Berwick, on a high 
rock, furrounded on 3 fides by the fea, 
and on the 4th by a deep fofle, with 
a draw-bridge. The ifland Bafs is an- 
nexed to this parifh ; (vide Bass.) 
Population in 1793, 1300. 

Biel ; a fmall river in the- county 
of Haddington, which empties kfelf 
into the Frith of Forth near Dunbar. 

BIGGAR •> a town and parifh of 
Lanarkshire, extending in length about 
6 miles, and 3 4- in breadth. The fur- 
face is partly hilly, and partly level ; 
with heathy muirs, and fertile fields 
interfperfed, The foil is in general 
poor and thin, and a conhderable por- 
tion of it covered with natural grafs. 
A large tumulus, and the veftiges of 3 
Roman camps, are in the parjfh. Tra- 
dition reports a fevere and bloody en- 
gagement to have taken place in the 
vicinity of the town, betwixt the Scots 
under Sir W. Wallace, and the Eng- 
Mi army. Population of the pariih 
about 1000. 

Bin n-n a-bai rd, and B'inn-na- 
muick-duidh ; two lofty mountains 
in the parifh of Crathy, in Aberdeen- 
fhire. They are covered conftantly 
with fiiow ; and extending in the fame 
ridge with the Cairngoram mountain, 
furnifh the fame fpecies of topaz, which 
has got the name of Cairngoram ftones. 
Emeralds have alfo been found ; and 
a fpecies of brown/F/c ceous ftone, which 
takes a fine polifh. 

Birnam ; a hill in the parifh of Lit- ' 
tie Dunkeld, rendered claffic ground 
by the magic pen of Shakefpere. It j 
rifes with a rude and ftriking magnifi- 
cence to the height of 1580 feet above 
the level of the fea. Near the foot of 
the hill is a round mount, called Dun- 
can's hill, where it is faid that un- 
fortunate monarch held his court of. 


(juftice; higher up is the ruin of £ 
ftrong fquare fortrefs, with circular 
turrets at each corner. Birnam was 
anciently a foreft, and a part of the 
royal domain of Scotland. It is dif- 
tant about J 2 miles from Dunfinnan, 
once the feat and fortrefs of Macbeth- 

BIRNIE ; a parifh in the county of 
Elgin, about 5 miles in length, and z 
in breadth. The general appearance 
is bleak and rugged, the greateft part 
being covered with heath and rnofs. 
The parifh is interfered with three 
rivulets, viz. Lennock, Barden, and 
Rufhcrook, which fall into the Loffie. 
The arable land lies principally on the 
banks of thefe rivulets. The foil is 
fandy and thin ; but agriculture is 
much attended to, owing to the exer- 
tions of the Earl of Findkter. There 
;are fcveral natural caves, which are 
much admired by vifitors. Population 
in 1 7 9:3 > 402. 

BlRSE ; a parifh in Aberdeenfhire, 
lying on the S. banks of the river Dee, 
and forming nearly a fquare of io- 
miles. The furface is uneven ; in fome 
places rocky and mountainous ; and 
beautifully diverfified with hill and 
dale, wood and water. There are 3 
diftricls or ftraths in the parifh, di- 
vided by 3 ridges of hills, which take a 
S. W. direction towards the' Grampi- 
ans from the river Dee. In the valleys, 
formed by the 3 ridges, run 3 ftreams 
of water, viz. the Feugh, the Ghattie, 
and the Birfe j all of which difcharge 
themftlves into the Dee. All thefe 
abound with excellent trout and fal-- 
mon. Of the whole extent not more 
than 2500 acres are under cultivation; 
the reft of the pariih being hill, mofs, 
or covered with that extenfive foreft 
of natural wood, called the foreft of 
Birfe. The arable foil is light and 
fharp ; but in fome places it inclines to 
loam, and even clay. Agriculture is 
yet in its infancy ; prejudices are with 
great difficulty overcome. The whole 
abounds with excellent limeftone, of 
which a conhderable quantity is burnt • 
on the eftate of the Earl of Aboyne. 
The road from. Dundee to Invernefs, 
by the Cairn 0' Mount, runs through 
the parifh. Large upright ftones, 
cairns, and, other relics of druidical 
worfhip, are frequent. At Tillyfrifky 
there is a fubftance Avhich has the ap-< 
pearance of volcanic lava. In 1793, 
the population amounted to 1253.. 

B L A 


Blackburn ; a fmall river in the 
parifh of Caftktown, in Roxburgh- 
shire. It is celebrated for the roman- 
tic falls and cafcades which are form- 
ed by its it-ream. One of the falls is 
3 7 \ feet in height, and %o feet in 
breadth. One of the greateft curiofl- 
t'ies in the county, or perhaps in Scot- 
land^ is a natural bridge of ftone, over 
the river. It ftr-etches acrofs the 
ftrea'm, uniting the oppofite hills. It 
is 55 feet long, ic-J broad, and the 
thicknefs of the arch is i\ feet of folid 
ftone, and is not compofed of an en- 
tire rock, but has the appearance of 
Several fquare ftofies united together 
in the neateft manner; the height of 
the arch from the water is 31 feet. 

BLACKFORD ; a parifh in Perth- 
shire, of a circular figure, having a 
diameter of nearly 6 miles. A ridge 
of the Ochill hills occupy the South- 
ern part, which on the S. fide, towards 
the river Devon, is fteep and craggy ; 
but on the N. it defcends gently to 
the flat part of the parifh, watered by 
the Allan, which abounds with trout. 
The foil is by no means good, being 
thin, with a gravelly bottom, and 
leaked with water from numerous 
fprings. A great part ismarfhy; and a 
heathy muir of considerable extent oc- 
cupies the northern part of this dis- 
trict. The vicinity to the Ochils ren- 
ders the climate moift, and unfavour- 
able to vegetation. There are a few 
fmall lakes, from which the Ruthven 
and Allan take their rife. The quar- 
ries afford ffeeftone of a very hard 
quality, which is admirably adapted 
for making m'31ftones ; and detach- 
ed whinftones are Scattered- over the 
whole furface. There are the remains 
of feveral ancient chapels; and the fite 
of a fmall Roman camp is eafiiy dis- 
covered, by the profile of the vallum 
being distinctly marked. Population 
in 1782, 1360. 

Blackford Hills. This ridge of 
hills, which lies about 3 miles S. W. 
of Edinburgh, may almoft be consi- 
dered as a part of Braid Hills, being 
-compofed of the Same materials, and 
only Separated from them by a Small 
rivulet; (vide Braid Hills.] But 
•there is found here another mineral, 
which has not been discovered in the 
laft mentioned hills : this is a greeniih 
earth compofed of copper pyrites, and 
Jparry crystallizations, which indicate 

very Strongly a vein of copper ore. 
The higher!' of thefe hills is only j-fSb 
feet above the level of the Sea. 

Blackhouse Heights; a ridge 
of hills in the county of Selkirk. The 
higheft point of elevation of thefe hills 
meafures 2373 feet above the level of 
the lea. 

BLACK ISLE ; a diftrict in Rofs- 
fhire. Vide Ardmeanach. 

Blackwater, or Blackadder j a 
river in Berwickshire. It takes its rife 
in the Lammermuir hills, and after a 
courfe of 16 or 18 miles, falls into the 
Whittadder, near the village of Allan- 
town, in the parifh of Edron. It is 
celebrated for the excellence of the 
trout caught in it.' 

Blackness-Castle ; an ancient 
fort or garrifon, in the pariih of Cam- 
den, in Linlithgowfhire. It is one of 
the oldeft fortifications in Scotland, 
built on a fort of peninfuia, on the S. 
fide of the river Forth, being a regular 
fort of 4 ban ions, which, along with 
the fortifications on the fmall ifland of 
Incbgarvy, feems completely to com- 
mand the pafSage of the Forth to Stir- 
ling. It is one of the 4 forts, which, ' 
by the articles of Union, are to be 
kept in conftant repair. It has a go- 
vernor, lieutenant-governor, and a 
fmall company of invalids- 

Bladen och ; a river in the county 
of Galloway. ' It rifes in the hills, 
which divide Galloway from Carrick, 
and after a winding courfe of 24 miles, 
empties itfclf into the bay of Wigtom 
Several ifiands are formed in its bed, 
which are famous for the refort of 
eagles, which have chofen them as a 
place of Safety. 

BLAIR-ATHOL; an extenfive 
Highland pariih, in Perthshire, being 
in length about 30, and in breadth 
about 1 8 miles. In So large a tract of 
country, the appearance, furface, and 
foil, iauil be exceedingly various. The 
pinnacle of the high mountains prefent 
to the eye nothing but bare rocks, the 
weather haying warned away the foil. 
A little farther down, heath, and a few 
other plants, exhibit the appearance, 
of vegetation ; defcending lower, a few 
green Spots, interfperScd with heath 
and mofs, afford pafture to a few cat- 
tie. Below this the foil becomes bet- 
ter, and the glens between the hills 
are capable of cultivation, and yeiid 
tolerable crops. There are many 

B L A 


lakes and rivers in the parifh, which 
run in the valleys between the hills. 
The names of the principal mountains 
are Beinn-deirg, 3550 feet, and Beinn- 
glo, 3724 feet above the level of the 
fea. Befides thefe, Strathgroy, Rata- 
mhili, &c. are elevated to a confider- 
able height. The rivers are, the Tum- 
mel, and Garry, Erochty, Bruar, and 
Tilt. There is no extenfive wood ; 
though it is probable, from many ap- 
pearances, that the whole was a part 
of the ancient Caledonian foreft. The 
language fpoken here is the Gaelic ; 
very few, unlefs the higher claffes, un- 
derftand Englifh ; confequently, all 
the names of places are derived from 
that language, and are defcriptive of 
fome peculiarity of the place. Loch 
Tummel contains a fmall fortified 
ifland. The defcription of Athol- 
houfe, and of the extenfive policies 
and natural curiofities that furround 
it, would extend this article far be- 
yond our limits, particularly as every 
tourift, who has vifited this neighbour- 
hood, has given a minute account of 
all that is worth notice. There are a 
number of antiquities, as forts, cairns, 
tumuli, &c. Granite of different co- 
lours compofe the greater part of the 
hills. LimeftSne is found in 3 exten- 
five veins ; and many other minerals, 
as pebbles, agates, &c. abound in the 
diftrict. Population in 1791, 3120. 

BLAIR-Gl)WRIE, a village and 
parifh in the county of Perth. The 
village was erected into a burgh of 
barony in 1634, of which Colonel 
M'Pherfon is fuperior. The parifh 
extends in an irregular form in length 
about 1 1 miles, and about 3 in breadth. 
It is divided into 2 diftricts by the 
Grampians, which form the northern 
boundary of the valley of Strathmore. 
The hills are covered with heath, and 
there are confiderable tracts of muir, 
mofs, and natural wood. The arable 
foil is generally a ftiff loam, and part 
is gravelly. The Ifla, Ericht, and Ar- 
dle, are the rivers which abound with 
trout and falmon. The Ericht is a 
very rapid river, and has fome very fine 
cafcades; its banks are highly orna- 
mented, and many gentlemen have put 
down fummer quarters in its vicinity. 
There are many lakes of different fizes, 
fome of which when drained have 
yielded great quantities of excellent 
larl. There are two freeftone quar- 

ries, but the fione is of inferior quality ; 
and muirftone abounds in every part. 
There are feveral chalybeate fprings, 
one of which is particularly reforted 
to. Confiderable quantities of houfe- 
hold linen are manufactured. The 
new method of hufbandry is practifed 
here with great fuccefs. Newton- 
houfe, the birth-place of the juftly ce- 
lebrated George Drummond, Efq. fix 
times elected Lord Provoft of Edin- 
burgh, is a fine old manfion, com- 
manding an extenfive profpect. There 
are feveral cairns and druidical circles 
in the parifh. Population returned to 
Sir J. Sinclair, 165 1. 

Blane ; a fmall river in the county 
of Stirling. It has its fource in Earl's 
feat, one of Lennox hills ; and after 
running 3 or 4 miles S. W. is precipi- 
tated over feveral very high falls. The 
moft remarkable is the fjbot/t of Ealla- 
gan, a cafcade of 70 feet. Here the 
fide of the hill, cut through by the ri- 
ver, difcovers 192 alternate flrata of 
earth and limeftone. After a courfe of 
8 miles farther, it joins Endrick, a fhort 
way before it talis into Loch Lomond. 
Several fpecimens of antimony are 
found in its bed ; but the mine from 
which they have been wafhed is not 
yet difcovered. 

BLANTYRE; a parifh in the 
county of Lanark, about 6 miles in 
length, and on an average 1 in breadth. 
In the whole pariih there is neither 
hill nor valley. The foil is various ; 
but though part is clay, loam, and 
fand, the whole is very fertile, except 
towards the fouthern extremity, where 
it becomes a deep peat mofs. It is 
watered by the Calder ; and the Clyde 
forms the northern boundary. There 
is lately erected a very extenfive cot- 
ton-fpinning machinery, which gives 
employment to a great number of 
children, and has increafed the popu- 
lation at leaft one half. On the banks 
of the Calder there has lately been 
difcovered a vaft quantity of ironftone, 
of excellent quality, which is now 
wrought to great advantage. The 
ftone is dug out, and carried to the 
diftance of 7 miles, to be fmelted in a 
furnace, near Glafgow. Many of thefe 
ftones bear diftinct imprefiions of pine 
leaves, oak branches, &c. There is 
a mineral fpring, ftrongly impregnat- 
ed with fulphur, diffolved by means 
of hydrogen gas, which ufed to be muc\ 


reforted to, and is ftill famed in fero- 
phulous and fcorbutic cafes. The 
ruins of the ancient priory of Blan- 
tyre are fituated on the top of a rock, 
which rifes perpendicularly from the 
Clyde, commanding a very romantic 
and extenfive view. Blantyre gives the 
title of baron to the noble family of 
Stewart. Population in 179a, 1040. 

Bogie; a river in Aberdeenfhire. 
It rifes in the parifh of Auchindoir, 
and after running through a rich and 
beautiful valley or ftrath, to which it 
gives its name, and Supplying the 
bleachfields at Huntly with fine foft 
water, falls into the Deveron, a little 
below that town, 12 or 13 miles from 
itsfource. It abounds with trout; and 
a fine bridge of 3 arches is thrown 
over the river at Huntly. 

BOHARM ; a parifh fituated part- 
ly in Bamffshire, and partly in the 
county of Moray. Its figure is fo ir- 
regular, that no accurate idea can be 
given of its extent. The rivers Spey 
and Fiddich run at the bottom of an 
extenfive valley, which is furrounded 
with high mountains, of which the 
hill of Benlageen is the moft remark- 
able. The foil is in general a {tiff, 
rich, deep clay, lying on a bed of 
limeftone, which is very retentive of 
moifture ; but is, however, tolerably 
fertile, particularly in dry feafons. The 
houfe of Airndilly, belonging to Col. 
M'Dowal Grant, is delightfully fitu- 
ated on a riling ground, on the banks 
of the Spey, and commands an ex- 
tenfive profpecT:. The caftle of Gal- 
val, which was in the year 1200 named 
Caftellum de Bucharin, is a ruin of 
great extent and folidity. Population 
in 1793, 1294. 

Thefe united pariihes are fituated in 
the county of Invernefs. They ex- 
tend in length about 24, and in breadth 
about 12 miles. The country, as 
might be fuppofed from its extent, is 
various in its furface. The W. part 
of the diftricl:, fituated at the weftern 
extremity of Loch-Nefs, is very level; 
the eaftern diftrict is mountainous. 
The foil is as various as the furface, 
affording fpecimens from the fineft 
clay or light loam, to the worft gra- 
vel or deep y?ew mofs. Farmers have 
not begun to employ lime as a ma- 
nure, though plenty is to be got in 
the parilh. There are a great many 


black cattle and fneep fed in the hilly 
part of the country. A great deal of 
natural wood ftill remains ; and, from 
the remarkable large trunks of oak 
trees found in all the modes, we may 
conclude the whole country has been 
an extenfive oak foreft. Fort Augus- 
tus, the center of communication be- 
twixt the eaftern and weftern coafts 
of the kingdom, is in this diftrift . The 
fall of Foyers, near which the feat of 
Frazer of Foyers is fituated, is a re- 
markable cafcade. The parifh abounds 
with a number of lakes, which contain 
a variety of fifh, and feveral rivers in- 
terfect it. Granite, of beautiful ap- 
pearance, is found in the hills. In- 
exhauftible quarries of limeftone are 
wrought in feveral parts. On one of 
the hills are the remains of an old for- 
tification, the only relic of antiquity. 
Population in 1790-8, including port 
Auguftus, 1 741. 

BOLTON ; a parifh of a very ir- 
regular figure, in Haddingtomhire. 
Its extreme length may be about 6 
miles, while its breadth is not more 
than i\. The furface is level, with 
the exception of a gentle riling about 
the middle of the parifh. The foil is 
fertile, and the farms enclofed. They 
fhew a camp of 5 or 6 acres extent, 
with a rampart and ditch ; but, con- 
cerning it, even tradition does not ha- 
zard a conjecture. Population in 1793, 


BONHILL; a parifh in Dumbar- 
tonshire, forming a fquare of about 4 
miles. It lies on both fides of the 
Leven, on the banks of which are ef- 
tabiifhed feveral extenfive printfields 
and bleachfields. The parifh is all 
enclofed. On the banks of the Leven 
the foil is partly loam, and partly gra- 
velly ; backwards, the rifing ground 
is wet, and in fome places covered 
with heath. There are fome very 
large trees in the parifh, and fome ex- 
tenfive plantations of larix and Scots 
fir. Population in 1793, 2310. 

united parifhes, lying in Berwickshire, 
form a fquare of nearly 6 miles. The 
foil on the high lands, towards the 
Lammermuir hills, is thin, dry, and 
poor ; but has of late been much im- 
proved with lime and marl. The reft 
of the parifh, particularly on the banks 
of the Whitadder, which runs through 
it, is a fertile loam. A considerable 


somber of fheep are fed for the Eng- 
Bih market. Clay marl is found in 
great abundance on the banks of the 
Win tadder, which has be -_n of great ui'c 
as a manure. There is plenty of muir 
and freeftone. A copper mine was 
lately difcovered on Lord Douglas : s 
cftate ; but, though very rich at lirft, 
it became ib poor, that it was given 
up. Population in 1793, 622 ; ini8oi, 

a {mail ifland, S. of the ifland of Staf- 
fed from which it is feparated by a 
ftormy channel, about 30 yards wide. 
It is of an irregular pyramidal form, 
entirely compofed of bafaltic pillars, 
Inclined in. every direction, but prin- 
cipally pointing towards the top of 
the cone, refembling very much billets 
of wood, piled up in order to be char- 
red. Many of the columns are hori- 
zontal, and fome of them bent into 
fegmeats of circles. 

BORERAY ; a final! fertile ifland 
of the Hebrides, lying northward of 
N.. Uiflr. It extends only a mile and 
a half in length, and half a mile in 
breadth; and rents at only 12I. ster- 

BORGUE ; a parifh in the ftewartry 
of Kirkcudbright. Its extent is in length 
about 10, and its extreme breadth is 
7 miles ; but, from its irregularity, 
the fuperficial contents are not more 
than 40 fquare miles. It is bounded 
nearly one half of its circumference 
by the fea, having an extent of eoaft of 
upwards of 15 miles, indented with 
ieveral bays, where veffels may anchor 
with fafety ; in other places of the 
coaft it prefents a perpendicular cliff, 
300 feet high to the fea. The furface 
is very unequal, but there are no high 
hills. The foil is a fine loam, toler- 
ably productive in fhowery feafons. 
Though rnoftly arable, a great part of 
the parifh is under pafture, and a good 
number of black cattle and fheep are 
reared. A fmall manufactory of cotton 
was lately begun. There is plenty 
of marl in many parts of the parifh ; 
and a fmall vein of limeftone has lately 
been difcovered. Shells are found in 
great abundance in the different bays, 
and have been fuccefsfully ufed as a 
manure ; and freeftone and whinftone 
are abundant. There are two fine 
ruins, called the tower of Balmangari, 
and Plunton-caftle. Bcfides, there are 


many remains of ancient fortifications. 
Population in 1793-8, 771. 

BORTHWICK; a parifh in the 
county of Edinburgh, of an irregular 
form ; but its extent in length may on 
an average be faid to be 6 miles, and 
its breadth about 4 miles. It lies in a 
pleafant valley, having an uneven fur- 
face. The foil varies according to the 
ground, from a light loam to a mofiy 
foil, on a cold till bottom. The ftate 
of cultivation is perhaps equal to any 
other part of Scotland, and the vicinity 
to Dalkeith affords a ready market to 
the corndealer. There are 2 fmall vil- 
lages in the parifh, viz. Ford and Mid- 
dleton ; at the laft of which is a re- 
gular port-office. Lime and coal a- 
bound in the parifh. About a mile 
and a half from the church, there is 
beautifully (ituated by the fide of the 
water, the ruins of Borthwick, built 
in the year 1436, by Lcrd Borthwick. 
It is an amazing mafs of building, 
feemingly of great ftrength, furround- 
ed on every iide with water, except 
on the W. where the entrance was 
defended by 2 towers. Oliver Crom- 
well belieged this caftle in 1650, and 
it was furrendered to him on his fum- 
mons. Here alio the Earl of Bothwell, 
and his fair confort, the unfortunate 
Mary, took refuge, till after the battle 
of Carberryhill. This parifh has pro- 
duced many eminent men ; whole 
names and character are fowell known, 
as to need only to be mentioned. In 
literature, the late Principal Robert- 
fon, and in law, the different Dun- 
dalfes of Arnifton, are yet unrivalled, 
In mechanics alfo, we may mention 
James Small, the inventor of the new 
plough, and other excellent agricul- 
tural inftruments. Population in 1792, 
8 j 8. 

NESS ; a barony and parifh in the 
county of Linlithgow, extending 4 
miles in length, and 2'! in breadth ; on 
the banks of the Frith of Forth. The 
furface is various, inclining gradually 
on the N. toward the Forth, and on 
the W. to the river Avon. The foil is 
a deep loam, well cultivated. Bo-nefs 
is a burgh of barony, governed by a 
bailie, appointed by the Duke of Ha- 
milton, the fole heritor. The Duke 
began lately to build a prifon and 
court-room ; but the defign is now ar 
bandoned. The harbour of Bc-nefs 


is one of the fafeft and moil commo- 
dious in the Frith of Forth. The flap- 
ping belonging to it, amounts to about 
io,oool. There is a very confiderable 
trade in fhipbuilding, for which this 
place has been long very famous. 
There are feveral excellent coal pits 
in the neighbourhood, the exportation 
of which is a great increale. to the 
trade of the town. There is alfo an 
extenfive manufactory of fait, and 
ftoneware. Ironftone abounds, and 
thei-e are great beds of limeftone ; 
but the quality is not good. Quarries 
of freeftone and granite are wrought 
in the parifh. The houfe of Kinniel, 
belonging to the Duke of Hamilton, 
is a great ornament to this part of the 
country. Population in 1793, about 

BOTH-KENNAR ; a fmall parifh 
in the county of Stirling, forming a 
fquare of about i-'-mile. It is perfectly 
level through its whole extent, and 
every acre is enclofed and cultivated. 
The foil is moftiy a deep clay, pro- 
ducing plentiful crops. There are 1 z 
Orchards of confiderable extent, which 
are very productive. The river Can-on 
interfects the parifn, over which there 
is a bridge at this place. A confider- 
able portion of ground has been lately 
gained by embankments from the 
Forth, which forms the boundary. 
Population in 1793, about 600. 

BOTH WELL is a great, noble, 
and ancient barony, fituated on the 
banks of the Clyde, in the county of 
Lanark. It is nearly an oval figure, 
extending 8|r miles in length, and 4 
in breadth. Upon 'the banks of the 
river there is an entenfive flat country, 
which is terminated by a gentle rifing 
towards the N. and E. The foil is 
excellent ; and the expofure renders it 
particularly adapted for culture. There 
is neither muir nor mofs in the parifh. 
Befides the Clyde, it is interfected by 
the Calder, which are beautifully fkirt- 
ed with wood. The roads from Edin- 
burgh to Glafgow, and from Glafgow 
to Carlifle, pafs through the parifh. 
There are a number of excellent quar- 
ries of freeftone, and fome excellent 
coal. Bothwell-caftle, the feat of the 
family of Douglas, is an extenfive and 
noble ftructure. The ruins of the cha- 
pel, and the old caftle of Bothwel, are 
much admired by all vifitors. Wood- 
hall, the feat of Col. Campbell of Shaw- 


field, is alfo an elegant houfe. Pop«- 
ation in 1795. 2707. 

BOTR1PHN1E ; a parifh in Bamff- 
fhire, extending in length 4-}-, and in 
breadth 3 miles. The greater part of 
the parifh corJifts of one beautifiji 
itrath, between two ridges of hills, 
with the little river Ifla runnrngthrough 
the middle. The banks of the ftream 
are adorned' with fine plantations of 
birch and alder. The foil is fertile, 
being generally of a rich black loam, 
and in fome places a ftrong clay. Lime- 
ftone is to be found in every field; 
but it is not much ufed in agriculture. 
Only 2 or 3 farms are enclofed. The 
neighbouring hills fupply peat mofs 
for fuel. Population in 1793, 620. 

B'J-URTIE ; a parifh 4 miles long* 
and 2 broad ; fituate in the county of 
Aberdeen. Two ridges of hills ran 
through the whole extent of the parifh; 
but they are fo little elevated, that 
the marks of the plough are vifible 
within 50 yards of the top. A great 
part of the parifh is enclofed, and well 
cultivated. The foil is generally clay, 
tolerably fertile, .and oxen are much 
ufed for the purpofes of agriculture. 
The great difadvantage is the diftance 
from lime, which prevents its general 
ufe as a manure. On the hill of Barra. 
are diftinct veftiges of an extenfive cir- 
cular camp, which occupies nearly 3 
acres, and is furrounded by 3 ditches ; 
and tradition reports, that here Tho- 
mas de Longueville, the brave aiTociate 
of Sir William Wallace, was killed. 
There are alfo 3 druidical circles, 
which are pretty entire. Population 
in 1793, 450. 

BOWDEN, extending in length a- 
bout 6, and in breadth 44 miles, is a. 
parifh in the county of Roxburgh. 
There are a few eminences, but it is 
in general level, and about three- 
fourths are under crop ; the remaind- 
er is mofs, and a fmall plantation of 
Scots firs. The foil is fertile, and agri- 
culture is practiced by fyftem. The 
farmer labours under great difadvan- 
tage from its dihance from lime and 
coal. There are remains of a militaiy 
road through the par fh, and a ruin of 
Holydean, once a ftrong fortification, 
and the rcfidence of the Dukes of Rox- 
burgh. The family of Cane of Ca- 
vers, one of the moft ancient of Scot- 
land, have their refidence in this pa- 
rifh. Population in 1793, 860. 


BOWER ; a parifh in the county of 
Caithnefs, extending about 7 miles in 
length, and 3 in breadth. The pariih 
is fiat, and the cultivated land confifts 
principally of a long ftrath, bounded 
on the N. and S. by a ridge of hills. 
Moft of the commons are capable of 
being converted into excellent arable 
ground, but from the practice of cul- 
tivating the land in patches, with a 
runrig to every pendicle farm, much 
good land is neglected. The foil is 
generally a ftrong clay, and loam. 
Peat mofs is the only article of fuel, of 
which there is great abundance. There 
are feveral cairns s and remains of druid- 
ical circles in the pariih, one of which 
bears a name fimilar to Loda, one of 
the Scandinavian deities. Population 

in 1793? J 59 2 - 

BOYNDIE; a fmall pariih in 
Bamfffhire, extending inlength5 miles, 
and from a mile to a mile and a half 
in breadth. About one half is arable ; 
the reft being being hilly, and fitter for 
pafture. The foil is various ; and 
upon the whole, agriculture is well 
attended to. This may be afcribed to 
the example of the Earl of Findlater, 
who firft introduced into this diftrict 
the practice of green crops, and fum- 
mer fallow. The fea bounds the pa- 
rifh for about 3 miles ; and a thriv- 
ing fifhing town called Whitehills, is 
built on one of the creeks. This vil- 
lage, contains about 460 perfons, moft 
of whom are employed in the fifhery. 
There are feveral flourifhing young 
plantations. Population in 1793, 1260. 

BRACADALE; a pariih in the 
ifland of Sky. Vide Sky. 

BRADWOOD ; a thriving and po- 
pulous village in the parifh of Car- 
luke, Lanarkshire, the fuperiority of 
which belongs to the Earl of Lauder- 
dale, and Lockhart of Carnwath. The 
great Roman road, called Watling- 
fcreet, paffes through the village. It 
is diftant about 8 miles from the town 
of Lanark. 

BRAE-MARR ; a mountainous dif- 
trict of Scotland, in the county of A- 
berdeen. Here the laft Earl of Marr 
began to raife the rebellion of 17 15. 
Vide Crathy and Marr. 

Braid Hills are a continuation of 
the fame ridge of hills, of which the 
Pentlands are a part. They are fitu- 
ated about 2 miles S. of Edinburgh. 
They are not of any remarkable height; 


but are noted for the numerous mine- 
rals with which they abound. A ftra- 
tum of the petunft runs through them, 
continued from the ftratum of the 
fame mineral in the Pentland hills. 
This mineral is fimilar to the pe- 
tunfe of the Chinefe, and has been 
employed with great fuccefs in the 
manufacture of Britifh porcelain ; (vide 
Pentland Hills.) Befides this mi- 
neral, pet rojilex, terra ponderofa, zeolites, 
and agates, have been found in confi- 
derable maffes. Several fine fpecimens 
of molybditna have been alfo found. 
The furface of the hills is covered 
with whins, and a coarfe benty grafs. 
Thefe are feparated from the Black- 
ford hills by a fmall rivulet, named 
Braid's burn, near which Mr. Gordon 
the proprietor has erected a retired 
villa, which from its fituation has been 
named the hermitage of Braid. The 
moft elevated point of Braid hills is 
about 700 feet above the level of the 

BRAID ALBIN ; a diftrict of Perth- 
fhire, bounded on the N. and E. by 
Lochaber and Athol ; on the S. by 
Stratherne and Monteith ; on the W. 
by Lochaber, Lorn, and Knapdale. Its 
extent in length is about 2,i miles, and 
in breadth 31. It is a very mountain- 
ous country, lying amongft the Gram- 
pians, and is fuppofed to be the high- 
eft land in Scotland. It has feveral 
extenfive lakes, the fides of which are 
finely ornamented. The foil of the 
valleys of this diftrict is fertile, and 
productive of heavy crops. The high 
mountains, by their attraction of the 
clouds, caufe the rain to fall in great 
abundance ; the fnow, too, lies long 
upon the hills ; and owing to thefe 
circumftances, the fpring is generally 
late and cold ; but when fummer 
commences, by the reflection of the 
fun from the adjacent hills, the heat 
is much greater than in the level coun- 
tries, and vegetation advances with 
great rapidity. In fome of the valleys 
of the Grampians, barley has often 
been reaped in good order, 9 weeks 
after it has been fown. On the hills 
a great many flieep are reared, and 
much wool is fent out of the country. 
A number of the inhabitants are em- 
ployed during the fummer in gather- 
ing from the rocks corcur, or lichen, a fpecies of mofs, which 
is ufed by dyers ; it is fold from is. 


4cL to is. 6d. per ftone. Braidalbin 
contains inexhauftible quarries oflime- 
ftone. The high hills, of which Ben- 
liwers is the chief in this diftrict, are 
moftly ctimpofed of a gray granite, 
containing beautiful cryftals oi fcbeorl, 
and micaceous fragments. There is a 
copper, mine at Aithra, and a lead 
mine was formerly wrought at Tyn- 
dnim. In a mountain near Loch Do- 
chart, is a fine fpecimen of Jleatites, 
or rock foap ; and befides thefe, every 
mountain in the county contains am- 
ple fund for the investigation of the 
mineralogift. Peat mofs is found in 
abundance, and is the only fuel of the 
county. Towards the beginning of 
the prefent century, the people were 
adverfe to induftry ; indeed, the dan- 
ger they were conftantly expofed to 
from the incurfions of the lawlefs ban- 
ditti, was a great obftacle to improve- 
ment, either of the land or their con* 
dition. Braidalbin, and even the whole 
county of Perth, fo late as the year 
1 745, were obliged to fubmit either to 
be plundered, or to pay an infamous 
tax, called black mail or meal, to the 
plundering chieftains, as the price of j 
their fecurity. Lord Braidalbin, who \ 
had more fpirit than fubmit to thefe 
conditions, generally kept up a fmall | 
army of militia, for the defence of the i 
tenants on his eftates. The act of par- j 
liament, however, which abolifhed he- | 
reditary jurifdictions, and vefted the j 
power of punifhment in ftronger and . 
more determined hands, foon put an j 
end to thefe depredations. Since that 
period the people have become more j 
iuduftrious, and their condition has . 
much improved. Kenmore, Killin, I 
and Clifton, are the principal villages j 
in the diftrict. Braidalbin is well fup- 
plied with roads and bridges, render- 
ing communication more eafy than | 
could well be fuppofed in fo moun- ; 
tainous a county. This diftrict gives '■ 
title to a branch of the family of Camp- ! 
bell, to which the princely feat of Tay- j 
mouth is attached. 

Bran ; a fmall river, which falls 
into the Tay near Dunkeld. It pafles 
through the pleafure grounds of the 
Duke of Athol, where it forms one of 
the nneft cafcades in the kingdom. 
Here the Duke has erected an elegant 
boudoir, named " Offian's Hal," from 
whence the cafcade is feen to the beft 
advantage. Mr. Gilpin, whofe tafte 

mud he admired by all lovers of pic^ 
turefque fceneryj fpeaks of this fcene 
as the moft interefting of the kind he 
ever faw. « The whole fcene and its 
accompaniments/' he obferves, " are 
not only grand, but picturefquely beau- 
tiful in the higheft degree. The com- 
poftiion is perfect, but yet the parts fo 
intricate, fo various, and fo compli- 
cated, that I never found any piece of 
nature lefs obvious to imitation ; it 
would coft the readied: pencil a rum- 
mer's day to bring off a good refem- 
blance." A little below the fall is 
the ferry of Invar, on the road from 
Perth to Dunkeld. 

BRECHIN; a royal borough of 
the county of Angus, which was in 
former times an epifcopal fee, and the 
county town. It is fituaced on the 
fide of a hill, the foot of which is 
warned by the river Southefk. The 
royalty extends half a mile every way 
from the crofs, but the fuburbs extend 
a confiderable way further ; towards 
the E. and S. are the tenements, as 
they are called ; they are independent 
of the borough, and held in feu from 
Sir David Carnegie of Southefk. At 
the end of the tenements is a ftone 
bridge over the Southefk, of % large 
arches. Brechin in former times was 
walled about, and fome relics of the 
ancient gates ftill remain. It has 
twice been ruined by fire ; firft by the 
Danes, in A. D. ioiz; and next by 
the Marquis of Montrofe, in the year 
1645. It now confifts of a hand fome 
ftreet, with by-lanes ; and is well water- 
ed by means of leaden pipes, laid down 
at the expence of the late Earl of Pan- 
mure. Brechin was a rich bilhopric, 
founded in the year 1150, by David I. 
and very richly endowed. The ca- 
thedral is an ancient Gothic pile, fup- 
ported by 12 pillars ; the length is 116 
feet, and the breadth 6r; and is orna- 
mented with ahandfomefquare ftceple, 
120 feet high ; the top has battlements, 
out of which rifes a fine fpire. Near 
the churchis oneof thofe roundtowers, 
of which there is only another in Scot- 
land, at Abernethy. Antiquarians have 
been long divided, and are ftill not 
agreed, with regard to the erectors of 
thefe towers, or their ufe : while feme 
attributetheirconftruction to the Picts, 
others are inclined to fuppofe them to 
have been fubfervient to the purpofes 
of religion ; and others are of opinion 



that they have been of a warlike na- 
ture : but we are neither difpofed, nor 
have we room, to enter into the dif- 
pute. ' The tower of Brechin is a cir- 
cular column, with a ftaircafe to the 
top ; its height is 80 feet, and the oc- 
tagonal ipire which covers it, 2.3 feet 
high making in all 103 feet ; its dia- 
meter at the bottom is 16 feet. Mr, 
Grofe, whofe defcription is very ac- 
curate, has noticed that the regular 
courfes of ftone amount exactly to 60 :- 
upon the whole, the proportion gives 
the building a look of great elegance. 
The foil of the country round Brechin 
is in general very good, and fertile ; 
and its vicinity to Montrofe, from 
which it is diflant 8 miles, gives the 
farmer a near port for the fhipping of 
his fuperabundant grain. The tide 
comes within z miles of the town ; 
said, at a very trifling expence, vefTels 
of ro tons might be brought within a 
mile or half a mile of it. There are 
feveral well attended fairs or markets 
held in the parifn, particularly Trinity 
fair or Trinity muir, the beft market 
for cattle, fheep, or horfes, in the north 
of Scotland. There is a falmon nihery 
' juft below the bridge, belonging to 
the Hen. W. R. Maule, who lets it 
from id. to 20L per amium. The of- 
naburgh and brown linen manufactory 
has been carried on to conficlerable 
extent, and of late a good deal has 
been done in the fail-cloth trade. There 
are the remains of a Danifli camp in 
the northern part of the pariih. Bre- 
chin-caftle, a feat of the Hon. W. R. 
Maule, is built on the brink of a 
perpendicular rock, overhanging the 
Southefk, a little to the S, of the town. 
It underwent a long fiege in 1503, a- 
gainft the Englifh army under Edward 
I. and notwithftanding every effort of 
that prince, it held out for twenty days, 
till the brave governor, Sir Thomas 
Maule, anceftorof the Panmm-e family, 
was killed by a ftone thrown from | 
fome engine, on the aoth Auguft ; j 
when the place immediately furrend- 1 
ered. A defcendent of this brave j 
man, was created in 1646, Lord Maule ' 
of Brechin, and Earl of Panmure. The | 
prsfent caftie'of Brechin is a modern ' 
edifice, and is much admired for its 
ro ratic fituaticn. The Hon. pro- 
prietor has lately laid out gardens of 
sreat extent, in a very fuperior ftyle. , 
YVilham Maitland, F. R. S. who pub- 

lifhed hiftories of London and Scof* 
land, was a native of Brechin-; and 
Dr.' Gillies, the hiftorian of Greece, 
whofe writings are too well known to 
need any recapitulation;, was born in 
this pariih. Population in 1790, 5000. 
BRESSAY; one of the Shetland 
ifles, being about 4 miles long, and % 
broad. The foil is a fine clay, fit for 
pafture ground. It has feveral mofies 
of confiderable extent, which fupply 
great part of the Shetland ifles with 
fuel. It is alfo famous for excellent 
dates. Number of inhabitants about 

Bressay Sound is one of the fmeft 
harbours in Britain \ it is the rendez- 
vous of the Englifh and Dutch bujjes % 
employed in the herring -fifhery, and 
is often reforted to by the whale fhips, 
on their paffage to Greenland and Da- 
vis's Straits. 

Broom (Loch) ; an extenfive fait 
water lake, or arm of the fea, in Rofs- 
fhire, noted for excellent herrings. It 
contains many excellent harbours, on 
one of which the newly erected village 
of Ullapool is iituated. 

Brora (Loci;); a beautiful lake 
in the county of Sutherland, extending 
in length 4 miles, and near one mile in 
breadth. It abounds with falmon and 
other fifh ; it has an ifland in the cen- 
ter, which has much the appearance 
of being artificial. Near it are lofty 
mountains, and fome beautiful villages 
and plantations. 

Brora River rifes from the lake 
of that name, and after forming feveral 
beautiful cafcadts, falls into the ocean 
a little below the village of Brora. 

Brothock; a fmall river in the 
county of Angus. It takes its rife in 
the pariih of Inverkeilor, and after 
being joined by feveral fmall burns, 
falls into the fea at the burgh of A- 
berbrothock, about 6 miles from its 
fource. By a fluice, its current is let 
at pleafure into the harbour of Aber- 
brothock, to carry off the mud. 

BROUGHEAD; a village in the 
pariih of Duff'us, county of Aberdeen, 
the property of Sir Archibald Dunbar. 
It contains 400 inhabitants. Near it 
is a fine bay, which is laid to be one 
of the beft road-lteads on the eaft 
coaft north of Leith. A few hundred 
pounds would render it an excellent 

BROUGHTON, a pariih lying in . 



the diftrift of Tweedale, confifts of 2 
tfidges'of hiils, with a valley betwixt 
the n. about 4 miles in length* and 3 
in breadth. The foil is a deep clay, 
producing good crops, especially in 
dry feafdns ; and agriculture is much 
attended to. The principal' difacrvan r 
tage it labours under is the fcarcity of 
fuel, the neareft coal being 16 miles 
diftant. There are the remains of 10 
caftles or towers, which appear to 
have been of great ftrength ; in one 
of them Macbeth is faid tj have lived, 
and it (till retains his name. The fmall 
river Big-gar runs through the parilh. 
Population in 1793, 264. 

P'iUAR ; a fmall turbulent ftream 
in Athol, celebrated for the romantic ■ 
beauty of its cafcades. The upper 
fall is eftimated at near 200 feet. It 
joins the Garry, a fhort diftance below ' 
the inn of Dalnacardoch. 

Bruiach (Loch): a lake in In- 
vernefsfhire, about 2 miles long, and 
1 broad ; it abounds with trout and 
char ; and there is a fmall ill and, with 
ruins in the middle of it. 

_ BUCCLEUGH ; a village in Sel- ■ 
kirkfhire, from which the noble fami- 
ly of Scott takes the title of Duke. 

BUCHAN; a d ftrict on the eaft 
coaft, comprehending part of Banff- 
fhire and part of the county of Aber- 
deen. The ratface is in general bleak 
and barren, but in fome places fertile, 
•and well cultivated. The coaft is bold 
and rocky, prefenting perpendicular : 
precipices to the fea. The whole drf- 
trict formerly belonged to the Earls 
of Buchan ; but, upon the attainder 
of that family in 1320* Robert Bruce 
divided the lands amongft his friends; 
and, though the title has been renew- 
ed in the family of Erlkines, the pre- 
fent Earls of Buchan poffefs little pro- 
perty in this diftrict. 

Buchanness ; a cape or promon- 
tory in Aberdeenfhire, not far from 

BUCHANNAN ; a parifh extend- 
ing 1 8 miles in length, and 6 in breadth, 
along the N. fide of Loch Lomond, 
in the county of Stirling. The fur- 
face is mountainous, w r ith the excep- 
tion of 2 fertile valleys, cai|£d Glcn- 
doqp and Glenarclei. The river En- 
drick runs through the parifh, and of- 
ten overflows the ground on its banks. 
Buchannan muir, an extenfive wafte, 
-lies towards the S. Some of the iflands 

in Loch Lom ind be 6n.g to this parilh ; 

on one of which, bicJjcai i'u -Ay 

ftood the parifh -church, Th'eVd are, 
befides, 3 final! lakes, which abound 
with trout and pike ; and alio ibme 
very extfcniive oak woods. A lifrie- 
ftone quarry, which was lately be- 
gun to be wrought, promifes to b>. of 
great advantage in meliorating the foil. 
On the fide of Loch Lomond fta'nHs 
the houfe cf Biichahnan, the prefent 
feat of the Duke of Montrofe, who is 
fuperior of the whole parifh. Ai Tn- 
•verfnaid is a fmall fort, on winch a 
guard is mounted by a detachment 
from Dunbarton-eaftle. Population 
in 17935 liii; 

BUCKHAVEN; a fifhing village 
in the county of Fife. The inhabi- 
tants are frldom known to intermarry 
•out of the village, and confequently 
retain a phrafeology and accent pecu- 
liar to themfelves. It is conjectured 
that they originally were from Brk- 
bant, their veffel being ftranded on this 
coaft about the time of Philip II. The 
village contains about 6oo inhabitants. 
BUCKIE; a confiderable fifhing 
village in -the pariih of Rathven ; coun- 
ty of Banff. It has been a fifhing fta- 
tion for at. leaft 200 years. It has a 
tolerable harbour, to which belong % 
or 3 (loops. One half belongs to the 
Duke of Gordon, and the other half 
to the Hon. Baron Gordon. The 
number of inhabitants is about 700. 

BUITTLE ; a parrfti on the banks 

of -the Solway Frith, in the county of 

Galloway. Its extent in length may 

I be about 8 miles, and its breadth 3 . 

I The furface is unequal, but the hills 

' are not of great height; they are cc- 

j vered with verdure, and moft of them 

exhibit marks of tillage to the very top, 

l The foil is kindly and fertile ; almoft 

! the whole is-enclofedwith ft one fences ; 

J and agriculture is much improved with- 

! in thefe 40 years. The river Urr, which 

: bounds the parifh on the E. is navi- 

1 gable at prefent to vcffels of 50 tons, 

but the gradual reoefs of the fea from 

1 the W-. coaft of Scotland renders it 

i probable, that, in a fhort time, it will 

' not afrord draught of water to more 

than a Mining boat. The coaft, on 

the Solway Trrith, abounds with fifn 

of all kinds. Rock cryftals, talis, $>Ms, 

i are frequently met with ; and iron ore 

is fo plenteous, that it has been pro- 

pofed to eftablifh an iron work in the 

J Ga 


parifli. Marl is found in great plen- 
ty ; but; as it is not of the beft quality, 
and lime may be had at a fmali expence 
by water, it is not much ufed as a ma- 
nure. Antiquarians mjght here find 
ample room for refearch ; but our li- 
mits confine our remarks to the rnofl 
prominent fpecimens of antiquity. 
Buittle-caftle is a very confiderable 
ruin ; the ditches and vaults, which 
ftill remain, fhew it to have been a 
place of great extent and ftrength. In 
the neighbourhood are fome fubter- 
raneous pafiages, to the inner recefies 
of which no one has ventured to pe- 
netrate. There is alfo a yitrified fort 
on the top of one of the hills. Popu- 
lation in the Statiftical Account, 857. 
BURNTISLAND; a royal borough 
in the county of Fife. The town is 
pleafantly fituated on the banks of the 
Frith of Forth, upon a peninfula fur- 
rounded by hills towards the N. in 
the form of an amphitheatre. Thefe 
lie about half a mile from the town, 
and afFordmuch fhelterfrom the north- 
erly blafts. It is nearly oppofite to 
Leith, from which it is diftant 6 miles. 
It was constituted a royal burgh by 
James VI. The town appears, in form- 
er times, to have been fortified 5 part 
of the walls, and the remains of in- 
trenchment, are yet to be feen, It is 
faid that Cromwell befieged it} and it 
held out till it procured honourable 
terms of capitulation. It is well fuppli- 
ed with excellent water, and pofiefles a 
harbour inferior to none in Scotland ; 
being eafily entered, and affording the 
greateft fafety, let the wind be at any 
quarter ; it is very capacious, and of 
great depth. The pier, which is faid 
to' have been erefted by Cromwell, is I 
capable of much improvement; and j 
it is the opinion of many profeffional 
men, that., at a fmall expence, docks 
for the reception of fhips of war could 
be erected ; and, if the quays were a 
little lengthened .vefiels of considerable 
burden might come in or go out, at 
any time of tide. Before the Union, 
the trade of Lurntifland was very con- 
fiderable : it carried on a great trade 
in the exportation of corn and malt to 
England; afitr That period, little bu- 
iinefs of any kind was done, till with- 
in thefe is or 15 years, that trade has 
begun to revive. In confequence, a 
fugar-houfe, a vitriol work, and a dif- 
Jillery, are canned on to great advan- 


fcage. Ship-building, for which this 
port is peculiarly adapted, is alfo car- 
ried on, and may be increafed to any 
extent. There is a regular ferry to 
Leith, at full and half tide. 

The parifli forms a fquare of nearly 
3 miles. A plain extends from the 
lea about half a mile, when the fur- 
face becomes hilly and mountainous. 
The foil cf the lower ground is rich 
and fertile, but the reft of the parijh 
is of very inferior quality and yalue. 
Agriculture is wejl attended to, but 
there is much room for improvement. 
To the weft ward of the town the more 
is rocky; and from a quarter of a mile 
eaftward it is fandy, as far as Pettycur 
harbour, near Kinghom. The rocks 
are a great defence to the harbour, and 
every year afford fea weed to produce 
12 or 15 tons of kelp. Within the rocks 
alfo are excellent beds of oyfters, and 
other fhell fifh. The hills in the neigh- 
bourhood of the town exhibit many 
appendices of volcanic fire; one is 
extremely like an extinguilhedvolcano, 
the crater being converted into a lake 
on the top of the hill, fimilar to thofe 
obferved by the Abbe Spallanzani ; 
(vide Spall. Travels in the Two Sici- 
lies.) There are feveral bafaltic co- 
lumns, particularly on the N. fide of 
the hill ; on this hill alfo are the re- 
mains of an encampmentv called A- 
gricoia's camp. On fome of the other 
hills there are feveral cairns, and tu- 
muli of great fize. There is a very 
fine quarry of free/tone, and over the 
whole pariih, inexhauftible quarries of 
limeftone ; in one of which the grain 
of the limeftone is fo fine, as to receive 
the higheft polifli, and is much admir- 
ed. Befides this marble, there are 
other veins pf very fine ihelj marble, 
along the coaft. A mineral fpring, 
containing lime, near Stanly-burn, af- 
fords beautiful fpecimens ofJlala3jfes> 
and incruftations of mofles and wood. 
Diamonds are faid to be found on one 
of the hills. Population in 1790-8, 
12.10 ; in 1801, 15 ?o. 

BTJ RRA ; a fmall ifland of Shetland, 
about 3 miles in circumference ; very 
fertile, and affording excellent pafture. 
Two other fmall iflands are near to it, 
Papa and Havera. The population of 
all the 3 may be eftimated at about 

BURR AY; one of the Orkney 
iflands, about 4 miles long, and 4 



broad. It is good for pafture ; and 
the inhabitants are nearly 400 in num- 
ber, whofe chief employment is fiihing. 
BUTE ; an ifland in the Fritn of 
Clyde, feparated from Cowal. a dif- 
tnct of Argyllihire, by a narrow chan- 
nel. It feems to have been very anci- 
ently known by this name ; it extends 
in length about 18 miles, and from 4 
to 5 in breadth. The northern parts 
of the ifland are rocky and barren, but 
the fouthern extremity is more fertile 
well cultivated, and enclofed. This 
ifland, conjoined with the ifiands Ar- 
ran, Greater and Lejfer Cumbray, and 
Incbr.iamock, form a county under 
the name of the fhire of Bute. This 
fhire, and that of Caithnefs, fend a 
member to parliament alternately. It 
has one royal borough, Rotbefay, which 
is alfo the chief town of the fhire. The 
ifland of Bute contains two parifhes. 
The coaft is rocky, but indented with 
feveral very fafe harbours, from which 
are annually fitted out a number of 
bujj't's for the herring fifhery. This is 
the principal trade carried on, and of- 
ten caufes confiderable detriment and 
neglect to agriculture. The climate, 
though damp is mild and temperate ; 
and the foil is favourable for agricul- 
ture, if it were fuffieiently attended to. 
There are feveral remains of antiquity 
#n the ifland; in particular, near Rothe- 

fay, the ruins of an ancient cattle, with 
a fort, barracks, and draw-bridge, 
which was formerly the refidence of 
the kings of Scotland. There are alfo 
feveral Dani fli towers. Bute gives title 
of Marquis to a branch of the family 
of Stewart, who is proprietor of the 
greateft part cf the ifland. The Mar- 
quis is admiral of the county, by vir- 
tue of a commiffion from his majefty, 
and is no way dependent on the Lord 
High Admiral of Scotland ; fo that in 
any maritime cafe, (even as in high a 
crime as murder or piracy,) that occurs 
within this jurisdiction, his Lordihip is 
fufficient judge, or may delegate his 
authority to deputies. Mount Stuart, a 
feat of his lordfhip, and from whence 
he takes his fecond title, is an elegant 
houfe, fituated about 200 yards from 
the E. fhore, having a fine view of the 
Frith of Clyde, and of the fhipping 
which enter that river. There is a fo- 
reft of fine trees round the houfe ; and 
the natural beauties of the place have 
been much increafed by the tafte of the 
noble owner. Freeftone of a reddifh 
colour abounds in the ifland, and lime* 
i ftcne is met with in every part of it= 
I Coal has never been difcovered, though 
there are many flattering Symptoms of 
' the exiftence of that mineral. Popu- 
lation of the whole ifland in 1791, 
I 6470- 


CAAF ; a Small rivulet in Ayrfhire, 
which takes its rife in the high 
fnuir grounds, feveral miles above the 
village of Dairy, and after a courfe of 
10 or ia miles, falls into the river 
Garnock, near its confluence with the 

CABRACH ; a parifh in the coun- 
ty of Banff, extending in length 5 
miles, and in breadth about 3. Its 
Surface is mountainous, and more a- 
dapted for pafture than cultivation : 
indeed, very fmall fpots are under 
crop ; no more corn being attempted 
to be raifed than is abfolutely neceflary 
for the fupply of the inhabitants. The 
Jieveron and the Fid die b are the rivers 
}n the parifli. The mountains So a- 


bound with game, that the Duke of 
Q ordon has lately built a fmall hunt- 
ing feat in the neighbourhood. Lime- 
ftone is found in moft parts of the pa- 
rifh, which they burn with peat mofs. 
There is a hill which affords a light 
gray flate. The Summers in this dif- 
trici: are very pleafant, but the winters 
are long and fevere. Population in 
1792, 700. 

CADDER, or CALDER ; a parifh 
in the county of Lanark. It extends 
13 miles in length from E. to W. and 
between 3 and 4 miles in breadth. 
The whole face of the country is ge- 
nerally level, with the exception of 3. 
fmall eminences, which do not deferve 
the name of hills. The foil varies from 



a light fandy till, progreffively to a 
deep earth, and blade mofs. Much has 
been done of late years in tne way of 
improvement by the plough, and by 
the ufe of lime as a manure. Tne 
improvements in agriculture in this 
neighbourhood are much owing to the 
great canal between the Forth and 
Clyde, which runs through the pariih 
for 5 miles. The in/pop's Loch, a fmall 
lake, one mile in length, and a quarter 
of a mile in breadth, is occupied as a 
refervoir for fupplying the canal with 
water. Some years ago, a lake was 
completely drained by a mine driven 
a full mile in length under a hill, by 
which 1 20 acres of the fineft arable 
land has been gained. The roads from 
Glafgow to Edinburgh, and from Glal- 
gow to Falkirk by Cumbernauld, pafs 
through the pariih. The river Kelvin 
forms its northern boundary for near- 
ly 1 % miles, and ufed to overflow its 
banks in time of rain., and do confider- 
able damage, efpecially in feed time 
and harveft. Antoninus' wall can be 
traced diftinctly for 4 miles, and one 
of the watch towers on it is hill very 
vifible. At Robroyjlone, on the 13th 
Sept. 1303, Sir William Wallace was 
betrayed to Edward I. of England, by 
whom he was ignominioufly put to 
death. Population in 1792, 1767. 

CAERLAVEROCK, a pariih in 
the county of Dumfries, is a kind of 
peninfula, formed by the river Nith, 
Lochar water, and the Solway Frith. 
The middle and weftern part is hilly ; 
towards the E. the furface becomes 
low and level. The high land has ge- 
nerally a light, dry, and fertile foil, in- 
terfberfedwith patches ofwet, muirifh, 
and fhsllow foil. The whole of the 
parifh lies on a bed of red freeftone, 
which is quarried in many places. 
The greater part of the arable ground 
is enclofed, and well cultivated. There 
are two fmall harbours, where veflels 
of 70 or 80 tons burden may unload. 
The Nith and Lochar abound with 
fifh. Lochar mofs, which borders 
with this parifh, fupplies the inhabi- 
tants with fuel. Near the mouth of 
the Nith are to be traced the veftiges 
of a moated triangular caftle, fuppofed 
to be the Garbuntorigum of Ptolemy ; 
to the N. E. of theft remains, is the 
venerable ruin of the ancient caftle of 
Caerlaverock, built about the year 
3:424, and long the residence- of the 

noble family of Marwell. Several 
moats and Roman encampments are 
eaiily traced. Dr. John Hutton, frrit 
phylician to king William and queen 
Mary, was a native of this pariih, and 
endowed it with many liberal bene- 
factions. Population in 179 1, 955. 

Cairngorm, or Blue Moun- 
tain; one of the higheft of the 
Grampian hills, is iituated betwixt the 
counties of Banff and Moray ; its 
height, by an accurate calculation, 
was found to be 4050 feet above the 
level of tire fea, and 1780 feet above 
Loch Avon, though this lake is only 
a mile from its bate. It is of a coni- 
cal lhape ; the fides and bafe are 
clothed with extenfive fir woods, 
while its top is covered almoft all the 
year round with fnow. It is celebrat- 
ed for thole beautiful rock cryltals, of 
various tints, which are called Cairn- 
gorm Jto-nes ; though other places in. 
Scotland afford them in great abund- 
ance. They are a fpecies of topaz, 
much admired by lapidaries. 1 Hey 
were formerly found in great quanti- 
ties ; but, of late, are more fcarce, and 
only found amongft the rubbiih of the 
mountain, brought down by the cur- 
rents after a ftorm. They are regular 
6 fided cryfcals, with a 6 lided pyra- 
midal top ; the other extremity is 
rough, and often a part of the rock to 
which it was attached adheres to it. 
Some have been found weighing 3 or 
4 ounces. Befides thefe ftones, fine 
fpecimens of qjbeftos, covered with 
calcareous cryftalhzations, ta/'c, -zeoiite t 
cryjiallized quartz, and /pars, are fre- 
quently found. Cairngorm is thus 
defcribed in a poem lately publifned : 

" In flony bed, his clannifh ftrath along, 
The boitt'rous Spey, his roaring torrent 

By brown Cairngorm ; whofe feet with 

native pine 
Are, ever -during, girt ; his frozen head 
Is fprinkled early with autumnal fnows ; 
His crumbled rocks art; llrew'd with bril- 
liant gems, 
Whofe brightness, fparfeling in Altera s hair, 
Or blifsful on her panting bofom bung, 

The topaz envies. 1 ' 

Wallace's Views. 

CAIRNY, a parifh in the county 
of Aberdeen, forms part of the lord- 
fhip of Strathbogie, granted by Robert 
Bruce to Sir Adam Gordon, after the 



defeat and attainder of Cummine Earl 
of Badfinpchi It extends along the 
hanks of the river Logi , in the neigh- 
bourhood of the thriving town of 
Huntly, a place which promifes to be 
the Paifley of the north. The furface 
is hilly, but in the low grounds the 
foil is deep, and abundantly fertile. 
The hills were formerly covered with 
oak forefts, but now the appearance 
is bleak and naked. The parifh con- 
tains about gooo black cattle, and a 
few iheep. Population in 1792, 2,600. 

CAIRNEY-HILL ; a populous vil- 
lage in the parifh of Carnock, Fife- 
fhire. It is fituated on the great road 
leading from Dunfermling to Alloa 
and Stirling ; it is the property of 
Sir John Halket of Pitfirran, and con- 
tarns nearly 400 inhabitants, who are 
principally employed in the manufac- 
ture of cloth and linens. 

CALDER ; a parifh chiefly fituated 
in the county of Nairn ; but a final] 
part lies in that of Inverneis. Its fi- 
gure is irregular ; but, from a furvey 
lately made, the number of acres it 
con'rans are eftimated at 26,000, of 
which 18,000, at leaft, are muir and 
mofs. The foil of the arable part is 
thin and fnarp, but very fertile. The 
low lands are liable to be overflowed 
by the burn of Calder, and the water 
of Nairn. Befides thefe, the rapid river 
of Fiudhorn, abounding with faSmon, 
runs through the upper part of the 
parifh. A confiderable part is covered 
with natural forefts of oak, afh, alder, 
and other trees. Calder-caftle, from 
which Macbeth drew his fecond title, 
is in this parifh. It has formerly been 
a place of great if rength ; and the draw- 
bridge is ftill to be feen, but there is 
no water in the moat. The tower is 
very ancient ; its walls are of great 
thicknefs, arched at top with ilone, 
and furrounded with battlements ; the 
reft of the houfe is later, though far 
from modern. The wood which fur- 
rounds the caftle, and the burn which 
runs through it, afford moil delightful 
fcenery. Its deep and dark channel, 
with the high, fteep, and rocky banks, 
are covered with natural trees of all 
kinds, of great fize ; and here and 
there, the moft beautiful fhrubbery 
decorates the fcene. Population in 
179;,, 1062. 

Calladi:r (Loch); a fm all lake, 
about jor j miles in circumference, 

on the eftate of Mr. Farquharfcn of 
Invercauld, in the parifh of Crathy, 
Aberdeenfhire. It abounds with trout, 
and contains a few falmon and eel ; it 
difcharges its water by the river EidJa', 
1 fmall tributary, ftreain of the Dee. 

CALLANDER; a village and 
parifh in the diftrict of Monteath, 
county of Perth. From the banks of 
the Teath, one of the moft confider- 
able branches of the Forth, the parifh 
extends amongft the Grampian hills 
about 16 miles in length ; its greafceft 
breadth being about 10. The appear- 
ance of the county on the W. and N. 
is mountainous, and covered with 
black heath. At the village of Cal- . 
lander is a beautiful valley, in which 
are fituated another village, Kilnuikag? 
and feveral extenfive farms, on a fine 
plain, formed by the confluence of z 
confiderable branches of the Forth, 
covered with meadows and fertile ara- 
ble ground. The higher grounds are 
here and there clad with oak woods, 
and thriving plantations of various 
kinds of trees ; and a bold ftupendous 
rock, above Callander, diverlifies the 
fcene, and forms a ftriking contrail 
to the valley, and the meanderings Gf 
the rivulets below. The foil is m 
general a light gravel, capable of high 
cultivation; but there is much rich 
loamy foil : the arable land is moftly 
enclofed, either with ftone dykes or 
hedge-rows. Callander is remarkable 
for the wild and romantic fcer.ery of 
its profpecls. The Trofachs, Loch 
Catherine or Ketterin, and the other 
lakes which are formed by the waters, 
of the Teath, are vifited bythofc who* 
are defirous of feeing nature in her 
rudeft and moft unpolifhed ftate. The 
defcription of the fcenery in this quar- 
ter, given by Dr. James Robtrtfon 9 
minifter of Callander, in the Statiftical 
Account, is too elegant to admit a- 
bridgment, and too particular for ad- 
miffion into our work. The Trofachs 
are compofed of argilaceous Jcbijiur, 
ftratified and imbedded in veins of 
quartz ; the ftrata are in fome inftan- 
ces perpendicular to the horizon, and 
in all dip very much ; a proof that 
fome convulfions or powerful caufes 
have torn thefe rugged mafles from 
their original fituation. Above the 
Trofachs, Benledi, whofe elevation is 
.,009 feet, Benvenu, and other lofty 
mountains, raife their reeky head; ,; . 


while the valleys every where exhibit 
beautiful expanfes of water, r ormed by 
the Teath, which is immediately after 
poured over perpendicular precipices. 
Near Loch Lubnaig, the fcenery is 
grand, and ornamented by the woods 
and pleafure grounds of Kinnaird, the 
hunting feat of the late Mr. Bruce, 
the Abyffinian traveller. There is a 
fine quarry of limeftone, or rather mar- 
ble, on the eftate of Leney; the 
ground of which is a deep blue, with 
Sender variegated ftreaks of a pure 
white. Slate of the fineft azure blue 
and purple, are wrought in many 
places. There is a remarkable vein, 
or rather ridge of rocks, compofed 
entirely of a coarfe phi?npudding-Jlonc, 
which runs all the way from Callan- 
der to Crief ; many pebbles and agates 
are enclofed in the cementing matter, 
which is uniformly of a dark brown 
colour. In Benledi, fometime ago, a 
vein of lead ore was difcovered, and 
wrought for fometime; but the ex- 
pence of working was found to be 
greater than the produce, and it was 
given up. On the burn of Kelly is a 
cafcade 50 feet in height. There are 
feveral remains of extenfive fortifica- 
tions on many of the hills ; and near 
the manfe is the foundation of an old 
fquare caftle, built or repaired in 
1596, by Livingftone Earl of Linlith- 
gow. Drummond of Perth, is the 
principal proprietor. 

The village of Callander is of confi- 
derable extent, fituated on both fides 
of the Teath, and built on a regular 
plan ; the houfes are good, and cover- 
ed with flate. A fettlement for the 
foldiers, difcharged after the German 
war, was eftabliihed here by govern- 
ment in 1763 ; fince which time Cal- 
lander has been gradually increafing. 
Of late it has been much extended by 
the introduction of the cotton manu- 
facture. In the weaving of muflin, 
about roo looms are employed in Cal- 
lander, and the adjoining village of 
KUmahog ; and upwards of 100 girls 
find employment in a tambour work. 
The church ftands on one lide of a 
fort of fquare, in the middle of the 
village ; it has a pavilion roof, with a 
fpire over the pediment, which is a 
great ornament to the place. John 
Hamilton Buchannan, Efq. of Leflfey, 
is fuperior and proprietor of the vil- 
lage, which contair.3 upwards of icoo 


inhabitants. The population of the 
parifh of Callander (including the vil- 
lages of Callander and Kilmahogj a- 
mounted in 179.3 to 2100. 

CALLIGRAY j one of the weftern 
ifles, in the diftrict of Harries. It is 
fituated about \\ league E. of Beme- 
ray, and is about 1 miles long, and 1 
broad. The S. end of the ifland is a 
deep mofs, almoft entirely uncultivat- 
ed. The N. end is an early foil, which 
is cultivated with care. Here, as well 
as in the other iflands of the diftrict, 
the inhabitants live by fifhing, and the 
manufacture of kelp. In the N. end 
of the ifland are the faint traces of a 
very ancient building, called Teampull 
na b'slnnait, the temple of Annat, a 
goddefs of the Saxon mythology, who 
prefided over young maidens. There 
is alfo a well, called Tobar na h' An- 
nait, where the worfhippers are fup- 
pofed to have purified themfelves. 

BRAES; an ifland in the Frith of 
Clyde, diftant from the coaft of Ayr- 
fhire about 2. miles ; from the ifland 
of Bute, (to which it is attached in 
the county divifions), about 3 miles, 
and feparated from the Little Cam- 
bray, upon the S. by a channel of 
three quarters of a mile broad. The 
length of the ifland from N. E. to S. W. 
is ai miles ; the breadth from E. to W. 
about a mile and a half. The furface 
contains about 3300 acres, one third 
of which is, or might be cultivated. 
With a few exceptions, the hills rife 
with a gentle afcent to the center 
of the ifland, where they are elevated 
nearly 400 feet above the level of the 
fea. The foil is jn general a gravelly 
loam, and in fome places a mixture 
of clay. There are a few enclofures ; 
and fome plantations have been lately 
made by the Earl of Glafgow, who 
is proprietor of the greateft part of 
the ifland. A conliderable manufac- 
ture of coarfe linen is carried on in 
rhe village of Milnport, which is plea- 
fantly fituated on the S. W. fide of 
j the ifland. Here is a commodious 
dry harbour, where in fpring tides 
! there is water to the height of 11 feet* 
j There is alfo a fafe anchorage, fhelter- 
• ed by a reeky iflet. There is plenty 
1 of limeftone, and an inexhauftible fund 
I of excellent fiveftone, of which laft 
' there i3 expert a to the value of 200L 
\per aumn-.. There are 2 roqks on the £<• ' 



fide of the ifland, which have joints and 
feams like the bafaltic rocks of StafFa, 
but are not fo regularly columnar; 
they have the fame chemical proper- 
ties, and may be eftimated as the pro- 
duction of volcanic fufion and erup- 
tion. The real rent of the ifland is a- 
bout 700I. 

CAITHNESS; otherwife called 
the Jfcire of Wick, is the moft norther- 
ly county of Scotland. It is bounded 
on the N. and E. by the Pentland 
Frith, and the German Ocean ; on 
the W. and S. W. by the county of 
Sutherland; and on the S. terminating 
in an extremity, called the Ord. It 
extends 35 miles from N. to S. and a- 
bout 22 from E. to W. According to 
Mr. Pennant, Caithnefs may be term- 
ed an immenfe niorafs, interfperfed 
with fome fruitful fpots, producing 
oats and barley, but which are as yet 
poorly cultivated. The country can- 
not be called mountainous, though 
in many places the hills are elevated 
to a confiderable height. The coaft 
is rocky, and remarkable for a num- 
ber of bays and promontories. Of 
the latter, the chief are Land-head, 
Ealborn-bead, and Dunnet-head, to- 
wards the Pentland Frith and Dungif- 
bay-head, and the Ord running out into 
the German Ocean ; there are alfo 
two fmaller promontories, dy'thenefs 
and Nofs-head, near which the fea is 
remarkable for the great impetuofity 
of the waves, even in the calmeft wea- 
ther. The principal bays are Scribijfer 
and Rice bays, and the bay of Thurfo. 
The only ifland annexed to Caithnefs 
is Stroma, in the Pentland Frith ; the 
property of which was once claimed 
by the Earls of Orkney, but decided 
in favours of Caithnefs by a Angular 
andwhimfical experiment; (videSxRO- 
ma.) Caithnefs is well watered with 
fmall rivers, and contains a few woods 
of birch, but the plantations are in 
general unthriving, and the trees ftunt- 
ed in their growth. The fea coafts a- 
boundw r ith fifh, in the fame abund- 
ance as the iflands of the Hebrides ; 
but the want of harbours in Caithnefs 
renders it impoffible to eftablifh any 
fifheries of importance. There are a 
great many caves on the rocks, inha- 
by vaft numbers of feals, many of which 
are killed by the inhabitants. The 
common people and farmers are kept 
under great fervitude, and much of 

their time claimed by the lairds by 
way of bonnage, an invincible obftacle 
to improvement. The women alfo 
were formerly condemned to great 
drudgery, being obliged to carry dung 
to the field in bafkets ; but we hope 
this practice is now aboliihed, or ra- 
ther that it has been much mifrepre- 
fented. Caithnefs is peopled by a race 
of hardy inhabitants, who are remark- 
ably induftrious, and apply themfelvea 
chiefly to fifhing, and the breeding of 
fheep and black cattle ; of which laft, 
according to Mr. Pennant, they fend 
out in fome years no fewer than 20,000. 
Caithnefs contains one royal borough, 
Wick, and the town of Thurfo, a ba- 
rony, under the fuperiority of Sir John 
Sinclair of Ulbfter, and 10 parifhes. 
It fends a member to parliament alter- 
nately with the county of Bute. The 
principal proprietors are, the Earl of 
Caithnefs, Sir John Sinclair of Ulbfter, 
Bart. Sir Benjamin Dunbar of Hem- 
priggs, and Sinclair of Frefwick ; all 
of which poflefs elegant feats. Many- 
monuments of antiquity are to be feen 
in Caithnefs, which fhew it to have 
been early inhabited. The ruins of 
Cajlle-Sinclair and Geniiengo, of Auch~ 
navern, Dirlet, and Lochmore, exhibit 
much of the grandeur of the nobleft 
edifices ; and the tumuli, duns, and 
cairns, fhew it to have been often the 
fcene of warlike exploits. In mine- 
ralogy, Caithnefs poflelfes fome ar- 
ticles of value, as excellent freeftone, 
and limeftone often approaching to 
the nature of marble. There are alfo 
ores of copper, lead, and iron, which 
might be wrought in many places to 
great advantage. In the burn of 
Sempfter is a fpecies of fluat of lime, 
which emits a phorphorefeent light 
when heated ; and in the neighbour- 
hood of Thurfo, fome argillaceous 
ftones have been found, which exhibit 
-impreGipns of fifh and plants ; many 
of the caves abound with Jialaclical 
petrefactions. In 1798, the population 
of the county was 24,802. The va- 
lued rent is 37,256!. Scots, and the 
real land refit is eftimated at 19,96c!. 

CALDER was anciently the name 
of a diftrict in the county of Edin- 
burgh, which is now divided into the 
paiiihes of Weft and Mid-Calder, Eaft- 
Calder being joined to the latter in 
the parochial divifion. 



CALDER (MID). -The parifh of 
Mid-Ca!der extends from N.- to S. a- 
bout 7 miles, and its greatefl breadth 
is no where above 3. The furface is 
generally level, and the foil tolerably 
fertile, though light and dry ; agricul- 
ture is well attended to ; and the farm- 
er finds his advantage in green and 
meliorating crops. Calder wood co- 
vers a confiderable extent of ground, 
though far Iefs than it did formerly. 
There are every where indications of 
coal in the neighbourhood, fuch as in- 
durated clay, and petriolic fchi/fus, 
which bairns readily, but leaves a large 
refidue of Schiflus of this kind 
is faidto differ from coal only in being- 
combined with a fmaller quantity of 
bituminous principle. There is alfo 
plenty of freeftone, and, inEalt-Calder, 
the Earl of Morton has a quarry of 
lime'ftone, the Jiratum of which is 60 
feet thick. Belide thefe minerals., is 
found a great quantity of excellent 
ironftone, which points this place out 
as a proper ftation for manufactures 
and ufeful improvements. On the ef- 
t'ate of Letham, the property of Sir 
W. A. Cunyngham, is a powerful ful- 
phureous fpring, fimilar to Harrow- 
gate. The town of Mid-Calder is 
pleafantiy fituated near Calder wood ; 
and many of the fcenes and profpecls, 
which the wood prefents, are roman- 
tic, grand, and delightful It contains 
about 650 inhabitants. A little to the 
W. of the town Hands Calder-houfe, 
the feat of Lord Torphichen. The 
picture of John Knox is hung up in 
the fame hall Avhere he difpenfed the 
facrament of the Lord's fupper for the 
firft time in Scotland, after the Re- 
formation. The houfe of Green-bank, 
near tlie village, is celebrated as the 
birth-place of John Spottifwood, arch- 
bifhop of St. Andrews. The popula- 
tion of Mid-Calder parifh (including 
the town) in 1793, was 12 51. 

CALDER (WEST), is irf length 
10, and in breadth 5-% miles. The 
foUthern part, which borders on La- 
narkshire, confifts of high and muiriih 
grounds, interfperfed with moffes of 
coniiderable extent ; thefe grounds, 
for the moft part incapable of cultiva- 
tion, are parcelled out in fheep farms; 
the arable parts vary confiderably in 
their value, either from the degree of 
improvement, or the local fituation ; 
but the whole foil is a black molly 

earth, or ?, wet clay, on a til! bottom.. 
From the elevation of the ground', be- 
ing nearly 500 feet above the level' of 
the fea, it is cold and moift, expofed 
to ftorms of wind and rain from the 
S. and S. W. The modes of hufbandry 
are nearly the fame, which have been 
generally practifed fince the parilh be- 
gan to be cultivated : hence agricul- 
ture is in its fimpleft and rudeft ftate : 
one proprietor, indeed, has done much 
in the way of improvement, having 
found lime a moft powerful folvent of 
the moffy earth. He has applied it 
with the greateft fuccefe, in improving 
that fpecies of foil. The greater part 
of the parifh lies upon coal, which has 
been dug for in various places, but to 
little advantage. There is plenty of 
excellent limeftone, the great ftratum 
of which Is nearly 12 feet thick. In 
the fouthern extremity ftands an old 
caftle, laid to have been fortified by 
Cromwell; and at. Cafth-G raig, are 
the remains of a Roman camp, in a 
pretty entire ftate. Population of 
Weft-Calder in 1792, 968. 

Calder (South) ; a fmall rivulet 
in Lanarkshire, which falls into the. 
Clyde near Cambufnethan. 

Calder (North); another rivu- 
let in Lanarkfhire, riling in the parifh 
of Shotts, and falls into the Clyde, a- 
bout 5 miles above Glafgow. 

Cambray (Little or Lesser) ;. 
fituated three quarters of a mile from 
.Greater Cambray, is about a mile in 
length, and half a mile in breadth. The 
ftrata of the rocks are nearly hori- 
zontal, and, as you recede from the 
ihore, they rife one above another to- 
the top, like the ftepsof a ftair; upon 
the S. fide are a few dwelling houfes, 
asd an old Gothic caftle, furrounded 
by a rampart and tone, over which 
has been a draw-bridge. There are 
feveral caves in the ifiand, two of 
which are very remarkable. Upon the 
iinoft eminent part of the ifiand, a 
light-houfe was erected in the year 
1750; but, as from its elevated fitua- 
tion, the light was liable to be obfeured 
in fogs, another, with a reflector, was 
lately erected upon a lower ftation. 
The whole ifiand belongs to the Earl 
of Eglintoun, and rents at nearly 200I. 
per annum. 

CAMBUSLANG, a parifh in the 
county of Lanark, fituated on the S» 
of the river Clyde, about 3 miles 

C A M 

iqunrc. The furface is beautifully di- 
versified With hill and dale, confifting 
of a ridge of about half a mile broad, 
formed by Dick-mount, and Surnlea 
hills, extending nearly 2 miles from 
E. to W. From this central ridge the 
ground declines in a gradual manner 
to the Clyde on the N. and to thew*- 
ter of Cadder on the S. The foil is 
different ; on the ridge it is gravelly ; 
the banks of the Clyde are light loam, 
and the reft of the pariih is clay, with 
a tilly bottom. The Clyde is about 
350 feet broad at this place, and ge- 
nerally overflows part of Cambuflang 
3 or 4 times a year. The principal 
.employment is weaving, and (pinning 
of cotton. Coal abounds in the dii- 
trict, where it has been wrought for 
upwards of 300 years. Vaft beds of 
-excellent freeftone are alfo found in 
•every part of the pariih ; the ilrata of 
which, as well as of the coal, dip to- 
wardsthe river ; and what is fingular, 
■on the N. fide of the Clyde, the dip is 
alfo towards the river. A flratum of 
marble, 6 to 12 inches thick, extends 
over a coniklerable part of the parifh ; 
it is found in coal pits at the depth of 
180 or 200 feet ; the dip is alio to the 
Clyde ; it is of a beautiful dark brown 
coluur, with whitifh (freaks and-fpots, 
and receives a very high pojiih. Dick- 
mount hill feems to have .been ancient- 
ly a place of ftrength, and from its ex- 
tenfive profpect, muft have been well 
•adapted for a watch tower. Latrick 
and Gilbertneld, where Hamilton the 
poetical correfpondent of Allan Ram- 
'fay lived, are in this pariih. Popula- 
tion in i-gz, 1288. 

CAMBUSNETHAN ; a parifh Si- 
tuated on the banks of the Clyde, in 
the middle ward of the county of La- 
nark. It extends in' a N. E. direction 
from the river, nearly 12 miiesin length, 
and on an average about 3 in breadth. 
The haughs on the Clyde and Calder, 
another fmall rivulet, are exteniive 
and beautiful. A confiderable part is 
occupied by a lawn, in front of the 
manfion-houfe of Cambufnethan, the 
property of Mr. Lockhart of Caftle- 
hill ; the reft of the haughs are en- 
clofed, and well cultivated ; on the 
bank, which riles above the haugli- 
grounds, the foil is clay, covered with 
extenfive orchards, well lheltered from 
the N. and E. winds by coppice woods, 
and regular plantations j farther up 

C A M 

the foil becomes moffy, or mixed with 
a black land, peculiarly unfavourable 
for vegetation. The principal enclo- 
fures are thorn hedges, which give the 
country in rummer an agreeable and 
regular appearance. The village of 
Cambufnethan is fituated on the great 
road leading from Glafgowto Lanark, 
and contains nearly 400 inhabitants. 
Here is eftabliihed a library, fupported 
by annual iubfcription, and containing 
a judicious fele&ion of books. In the 
parifh is abundance of excellent coal, 
capable of being wrought with great 
eafe ; there are alfo great quantities 
of ironftone and freeftone. Popula- 
tion in 1791, 1684. 

- CAMERON ; a -village and parifh 
in the county of Fife. The parifh ex- 
tends about 4 miles in every direction, 
exhibiting a bleak naked country, al- 
moft a continued tract of heathy rnuir. 
Coal and limeftone abound ; and this 
laft mineral has been of the utmoft 
fervice in improving the land,andrend- 
ering fertile tins barren fpot. A. great 
part is enclofed ; but mare attention 
is paid to the rearing of fheep, than 
the cultivation of the foil. Mr. Dur- 
ham of Largo has lately erected 2 
powerful fteam engines for working 
his coals. The village lies about 4 
miles S. W. of the city of St. Andrews. 
Population in 1794, 11 65 ; in 1801, 

CAMPBELLTOWN ; a royal bo- 
rough in the county of Argyll. It 
was originally a fmall fifhing village, 
and was erected into a royal borough 
in 1701. It is fituated in that diftrict 
of Argyllfhire called Kintyre, of which 
it is the preibytery feat. It received 
its prefent name at the time of its e- 
rection into ahorough ; .before which 
period, it went by the name of Cean?i- 
loch (Loch-head.), which it ftill retains 
in the language of the country ; but 
its oldeft name is Dalruadkain, from 
having been the capital of the ancient 
Scottifh or Dalreudinian kingdom. It 
is now a. large and flourishing town, 
and is daily increafmg. The harbour is 
about 2 miles long, and 1 broad, in the 
form of a crefcent ; from 6 to 10 fa- 
thom water; excellent anchorage ; fur- 
rounded by high hills on each fide, 
with an ifland to fhelter the entrance. 
1 It is appointed the rendezvous of the 
1 bufies employed in the herring fifhery. 
1 This fifhery is the principal tjrad of 
I H a 



the place, for the carrying on of which 
it is admirably fituated ; its fine har- 
bour, and its vicinity to the markets 
of Ireland and the Clyde, are advan- 
tages which very few fea ports enjoy. 
Befides the fifheries, there is carried 
on a confiderable trade in the diftilla- 
tion of whifky. The parifli of Camp- 
belltown takes in a large portion of 
Kintyre ; its length is computed at n 
miles, and its breadth varies from 6 to 
10. It is narrowed in the middle by 
the bay of Machir-hani/Jj on one fide, 
and the lech of Kilkerran, or harbour 
of Campbelltown, on the other fide, 
running inland a confiderable way, 
leaving the fpace between a large plain 
of 4 miles in length by 3 in breadth, 
not 40 feet above the level of the fea. 
From this plain both ends of the pa- 
rifii gradually become hilly, rifing to 
the height of 1200 feet. The foil is 
various, and the arable land is fertile 
and well cultivated, There is abund- 
ance of excellent coal, at the diftance 
of 3 miles, and a canal has been lately 
put, to convey it to town ; but not- 
withstanding its vicinity to that mine- 
ral, the common fuel of the poorer 
fort is peat or turf. There is alfo a 
great quantity of fuller's earth, or ibap 
rock, in the parifh. There are no an- 
tiquities of any note, as might have 
been expected, in the fcite of the moil 
ancient capital of the Scottifh kingdom. 
In 1 791, the population was 8700. 

Camplk ; a fmall tributary ftream 
of the river Nith, in the county pf 

CAMPSIE ; a parifh in the county 
of Stirling, meafures 8 miles in length, 
and 7 in breadth, containing about 
36 fquare miles. It conlifts of a ridges 
of hills, with a confiderable valley or 
ftrath running E. and W. between 
them ; the g. ridge being a continua- 
tion of the Braes of Kilpatrick, and 
the N. being known by the name of 
Campfie Pells. The furface of the 
ftrath is uneven, except on the banks 
of the Kelvin and Glazert. The foil 
is various ; and, pft.n on the fame 
farm, we meet with clay, haugh. 
loamy, boggy, and gravelly ground. 
The haughs on the Kelvin and Gla- 
zert are very fertile. Some of the hills 
are covered with natural trees, of 
great age and fize ; and where there 
there is no wood, the hills afford 
pafture to numerous flocks of fheep. 

The two great roads from Kippin to 
Glafgow, and from Glafgow to Edin- 
burgh, pafs through the parifli. Two 
very extenlive printfields have been 
erected within thefe 1 8 years, with 
moft elegant and expenfive machinery. 
The firft is the Kincaid printfteld, un- 
der the firm of Henderfon, Semple, 
and Co. and the Lennox-mill pr'mtUdd 
of Lindfay, Smith, and Co. Near the 
latter work is the new village of Len- 
noxtown, where the printers are com- 
modiouily lodged. Each work em- 
ploys nearly 300 perfons. The village 
of Campfie confifts of a new and old 
town ; the former of which is increaf- 
ing very rapidly, fince the printfields 
and other manufactures have been in- 
troduced. It is a very proper ftation 
for a manufacturing village, having a- 
bundance of coal, lime, and water, 
and being only 9 miles diftant from 
Glafgow, to which city the roads are 
excellent. The minerals found in this, 
diftrict will be mentioned in the fol- 
lowing article. Population in 1794, 

Campsie Fells or Hills, run in 
a bold ridge along the whole length 
of the Strath of Campfie. The face 
of the hill is broken, with crags and 
glens ; on the fummit and back part 
is a deep muir ground, interfperfed 
with mofs. The hills have the ap- 
pearance of volcanic or igneous ori- 
gin ; in many parts rude bafahic pil- 
lars are to be feen, particularly on the 
road which Hopes down the hill, a* 
bove the village of Campfie. In thefe 
hills are found beautiful agates, as wel} 
as confiderable quantities of chalcedony. 
Though, in many places, thefe hills 
appear evidently of volcanic origin, 
yet in others they are unratified ; but 
the ftrata dip fo much, and are even 
fometimes nearly perpendicular to the 
horizon, having moil probably been 
raifed from their natural horizontal 
ftate by the action of fubterraneous 
fire. The fecondary, or ftratified 
mountains, abound with coal ; and 
limeftone, freeftone, ironfione, indur- 
ated clay, and marl. In one place we 
can eafily count a dozen or more ftrata 
of ironftone, with alternate layers of 
argillaceousy^.6i/?«j. In feveral places 
there are appearances of copper ; but 
no vein of that mineral has yet been 
difcovered. A few years ago, when 
a hew road was making ever the bills. 


feme veins were cut through, con- 
taining caivk, or the fulpate of barytes, 
with fome beautiful calcareous cryftais, 
and fome cryftais of the fluat of lime, 
which, by experienced miners, is laid 
to be the regular attendant of lead 
mines : indeed, it is very probable, 
thatthefe ftratified mountains, fo much 
difturbed in the difpohtion of their 
ftrata, abound with numerous fiffures, 
containing metallic fubftances. The 
higheft ridge of Campfie Fells is ele- 
vated 1 200 feet from its bafe, the 
elevation of which is about 300 feet 
above the level of the fea, making the 
height in all 1500 feet. 

Canal (Forth and Clyde); that 
navigable cut or canal, which forms 
a communication between the eaftern 
and weftern feas, by the two rivers 
Forth and Clyde. Scotland is almoft 
divided into two parts by thefe two 
rivers, the Forth falling into the eaft- 
ern fea below Leith, and the Clyde 
falling into the Atlantic Ocean below 
Greenock. This circumftance early 
fuggefted the idea of forming a com- 
munication acrofs the kingdom, by di- 
viding the narrow neck of land be- 
tween thefe rivers, and thereby faving 
the long and dangerous navigation 
round the Land's End, or the more 
dangerous paffage of the Pentland 
Fiith. So early as the reign of Charles 
II. this idea was indulged ; but the fi- 
nances of the kingdom were at that 
time fo low, that it could not be car- 
ried into execution. It was after- 
wards revived in 1733 ; again in 1761; 
and, the year after, a furvey was made 
by Mr. Smeaton, who was convinced 
of the pciTibility of the defign, but 
his eftimate of the expence (8o,oool.) 
was deemed too great for the trade 
which was likely to pafs through it. 
In 1766, feveral refpef table merchants 
in Glafgow fet on foot a fubfeription 
for making one 4 feet deep, and 24 in 
width, the eftimate of which was 
30,000!. ; but parliament refufed af- 
fent to the bill, on account of the fmall - 
nefs of the fcale ; and a new fubferip- 
tion was begun for one 7 feet deep, 
eftimated at 150,000!. The fubferip- 
tion was foon filled up, and received 
the fanclion of parliament. On the 
10th of July, 1768, the company be- 
gan to break ground, under the direc- 
tion of Mr. Smeatcn, and, after having 
pact with many and alrnofc unfur- 


mountable difficulties, in 1775 it was 
rendered navigable as far as Stocking- 
field, the point from which the Fide 
branch to Glafgow goes off. The ca- 
nal remained in this ftate till 1784, 
when the company having received 
50,0001. from the annexed forfeited 
eftate, profecuted the plan with great 
vigour and attention ; and, on the 
28th of July, 1790, the navigation was 
opened between fea and fea. Thus 
was one of the moil arduous under- 
takings accomplifhed. The whole 
length of the canal is 35 miles, begin- 
ning at Carron-mouth, and ending at 
Dalmure burnfoot, on the Clyde, 6 
miles below Glafgow, rifing and fall- 
ing 160 feet by means of 39 locks. Iu 
its courfe it paffes over rocks, preci- 
pices, and quickfands ; in fome places 
it paffes through a deep mofs ; in o- 
thers, it is banked 20 feet high; it 
crofies many fmall rivulets, as well as 
2 considerable rivers, the Kelvin and 
Luggie, over which are large aqueduct 
bridges ; that over the former is 420 
feet long, and 6s high. To fupply 
this canal with water was a laborious 
undertaking of itfelf. There is one 
refervoir of 50 acres, 22 feet deep, and 
another 70 acres, 24 feet deep, which 
are fuppofed to contain fufneient wa- 
ter for that purpofe. Veffels of 39 
feet beam, drawing 8 feet of water, 
and not exceeding 73 feet in keel, can 
pafs with great eafe. The fharts in 
the company are now felling at up- 
wards of 25 per cent, above par* 

CANISBAY; the molt northern 
parilh in the ifland of Great Britain, 
being fituated in the latitude of 5 8 e 
45' N. and about s Q 4' W. longitude 
from London. It is fituated in the 
county of Caithnefs, and is fomewhat 
of a triangular figure, each of the fides 
being nearly 8 miles in length. The 
furface is rather level than hilly ; only 
one eminence, the Warth, deferring 
the name of a hill. The E. coaft is 
every where exceeding bold ; and the 
wild and varied magnificence of the 
rocks are peculiarly ftriking to the eye 
of a ftranger ; Dungijbay-head, the N.E. 
promontory of the diftrict, prefentmg 
one continued precipice to the fea. 
W. from Dangijbay-he-ad the ccaft b§- 
conies level, having fields of the raoft 
fertile foil, and luxuriant verdures i ; 
proaching to the very beach. " 
is here corapoied of ihells, and iheU- 



und of the pureft white, which con- 
tribute alike to beautify the coaft, 
and to enrich the foil : the coaft af- 
fords only % or 3 bays, where, in mo- 
derate weather, veffels may take in 
cargoes ; but none are fafe with a 
rough or ftormy lea. The Stores of 
Canifbay'are exceeding valuable, yield- 
ing about ioc tons of kelp in a favour- 
able feafoR. The foil, wherever cul- 
tivation prevails, is a light black loam, 
with an intermixture of mofs ; there 
are coniiderable trads of pafture 
ground, which require only the ad- 
vantage of cultivation to be rendered 
productive ; the reft of the parifh is 
cither heath or mofs, yielding peats in 
the greateft abundance, and of excel- 
lent quality. The ifiand of Stroma, 
in the Pentland Frith, belongs to this 
parifh ; (vide Stroma.) The rocks 
of the coaft are moftly oompofed of 
freeftone. Near Ba'rrogil-cajlk is a 
fpecies of bituminous coal, which e- 
snits a hot vivid flame m burning, but 
without much diminution of its fize, 
or difiblution of its parts ; it is found 
near the furface, and there is every 
reafon to fuppofe that coal of a fupe- 
xior quality might be found under it. 
In the burn of Sempfler is found a 
fiuoric fpar y of the pureft white colour ; 
when put into the fire it emits a con- 
siderable portion -of phofphoric light, 
which gradually decays as the ftone 
cools, and is again emitted when the 
ftone is heated anew ; when reduced 
to powder, and heated in a crucible, 
it puts on a beautiful and brilliant ap- 
pearance during ignition ; it is a non- 
conductor of electricity, and is infolu- 
"ble in any of the mineral acids. Fref- 
nvick, the feat of Robert Sinclair, Efq. 
is a large elegant modern building ; 
ibme years ago, one of the wings was 
much damaged by lightning. Burrogil- 
caftle, a feat -of the Earl of Caithnefs, 
is an old and venerable pile ; it has 
been of late much embellifhed and 
■enlarged by its noble owner. Rr.ahjler 
is alfo an old caftle, the refidence of 
the Sinclairs of Brabfter. There are 
3 ancient towers or cafties, built on 
xocks furrounded by the fea, which 
have been occupied as places of de- 
fence. John o' Groat' s-houfe, fo often 
vifited by travellers, is fituated about 
a mileand a half from Dungifbay-head ; 
(vide John o' Groat ? s-house.) Po- 
pulation, in 1793, -195s. 

CANNA ; one of the 4 iflands of 
the Hebrides, which form the parifli 
of Small Ifles, and is annexed to the 
county of Argyll. It is about 4 com- 
muted miles in length, and 1 in breadth; 
its furface is partly high and rocky, 
producing excellent pafture, and partly 
low, and tolerably fertile. The horned 
cattle of Canna grow to a larger fize 
•than any in the neighbouring iflands, 
owing to the finenefs of the grafs. 
Cod and ling abound on the coaft ; 
and the harbours are moft conveniently 
fituated for the fiihing grounds. On 
the S. E. fide of Canna lies Sand i/land, 
feparated by a channel, which is dry 
at low water. This fmall ifiand is 
valuable, and fit both for crop and 
pafture ; it has 4 tenants, who pay 
about 60I. of yearly rent. Between 
this ifiand and Canna lies the well- 
known and much frequented harbour 
of that name. A great many bafaltic 
pillars are to be feen in Canna : one 
of the hills is remarkable for its effecls 
on tlte mariners compafs, having pow- 
er to reverfe the directions of the 
poles : many other places are magne- 
tic, but in a lefs degree. There is alfo 
a great deal of cozxiz plumpudding-jtone 
in many places, connected with the 
bafaltic rock. Population of Canna 3 
about 30c. 

Camnich; a ftream in Invernefs- 
Shire, which, united with other itreams 
near Erchlefs-caftle, forms the river 

CANOBY ; a parifh in the county 
of Dumfries. It extends about 9 miles 
in length, and 6 in breadth ; it may 
be confidered as the low lands of Elk- 
dale ; for, its higheft grounds, which 
rife gradually towards the E. and N.E. 
cannot be called mountains, contrafted. 
with the elevated peaks in the con- 
terminous pariihes ; at the fame time 
the furface is uneven, and diverlified 
by a variety of ridges and flats, ex- 
cepting the banks of the Efk, which 
are level. The central part is inter- 
fered by the Elk, and the great road 
from Edinburgh to London pafles in 
the fame direction. The foil is a light 
loam, fheltered by aprofufion of wood 
in every part. Befides the Elk, the 
parifli is watered by the Liddal, which 
divides it from England, and the 
Tarras, remarkable for its romantic 
fcenery. The number of acres occu- 
pied by wood cannot be kfs than ioooj 



of which the 03k is the chief, Anum- 
ber of orchards have been lately made 
out byorder of the Pukeof Buccleugh, 
who is fole proprietor. A Roman 
camp and military'road are diftinctly 
to be traced ; and the ruins of a pri- 
ory are ft ill viiible, about half a mile 
from the church. Free'lone, lime- 
ftone, and coal, are found in great 
abundance. There is a powerful chaly- 
beate fpring near the Liddal, and a 
fpring on the banks of the Tarras, 
which has a petrifying quality. Po- 
pulation in 1794, 272$. 

CArt TYRE or KINTYRE ; a pe- 
ninfula or diftriift of Argyilfhire. Vide 
Kin tyre. 

Cape Wrath. Vide Wrath 

CAPUTH ; a panfli in the diftricr. 
of Perthfhire, called Stormont. It 
comprehends an extenfive portion of 
the vale of Strathmore, ftretching in 
length nearly 13 miles, and varying in 
breadth from 1 to 6. The Tay, the 
Ida, and water of Lunan, are the ri- 
vers of the pariih. The Lunan in its 
courfe, forms a fuccefiion of fmall 
lakes, and at laft falls into the IQa. 
The furface is mountainous ; the foil 
of the arable part is moftly a deep 
clay, except on the banks of the Tay 
and Ida, where it is a light loam. 
There are 5 or 6 fmall villages in the 
pariih, in one of which a ftamp-ofiice 
is efcablifhed, where is ufuaily ftamped 
upwards of 100,000 yards of linen. 
There is a good deal of natural wood, 
and new plantations have lately been 
made out. The hills afford a very 
fine blue flate. There are feveral an- 
tiquities, as druidical circles, cairns, 
&c. ; of the laft, one called Cairnmuir, 
is efteemed the largeft in the country. 
Population in 1792, 2045. 

CARA ; a fmall ifland of Argyll- 
fhire ; lies 34 miles W. of the penin- 
fula of Kintyre, and about 2 miles S. 
of the ifland of Gigha, to which it is 
attached in forming a parochial dif- 
trhfl. The extent of Cara is about a 
mile in length, and half a mile in 
breadth. The more is high and rocky, 
except at the N. E. end, where there 
is a landing-place. The S. end, call- 
ed the Mao:/, or Mull of Cara, which 
is the higheft part of the ifland, is a 
perpendicular rock, meafuring 117 feet 
in height ; from the fhore to the foot 
of this precipice there is a fteep afcent, 

equal fed 50 feet, which makes ths 
whole 167 feet. This rock contains 
a great deal of iron ore, and in one: 
place, which was (truck with lightning 
about the year 1756, large pieces of' 
metallic ore was thrown down, which 
feemed to be a mixture of copper and 
iron. Clofe by this part of the rock 
is a cave 40 feet long, 5 high, and 5 
broad, which communicates at the end 
with another 37 feet in length, 9 in 
breadth, and 9. in height. The N. E. 
part of the ifland abounds with rab- 
bits, where the foil is a mixture of 
fliells, fand, and earth ; the reft is 
rnoffy, and the greater part might be 
cultivated, but it is thought more pro- 
fitable to keep it under pafture. It is- 
the property of Mr. McDonald of Lear- 
gie, who rents it at about 35 L iterling. 
Adjoining to the houfe of the farmer, 
is an old chapel, 26 feet long, and 12. 
broad, with a Gothic arched door on 
the N. fide. Tu 1793, the number of 
inhabitants amounted to 22. 

a fmall pariih in the county of Angus, 
extending about 3 miles in length, and. 
1 in breadth. The furface is beauti- 
ful, and well cultivated, with a gentle 
flope from N. to S.; thei'e are no 
rocks or hills. The foil is deep and 
fertile ; and the banks of the rivers 
Southefk and Norin, are beautifuly 
ornamented with various plantations. 
There are fed annually a confiderable 
number of black cattle, but very few 
fheep. Mr. Skene of Careiton is the 
proprietor and patron of the parifh.. 
Population in x 790, 260; in 1801 229. 

Garden ; a hill in the county of 
Peebles, about 1400 feet above the le- 
vel of the Tweed. 

CARDROSS; a parifh in the coun- 
ty of Dunbarton, about 7 miles in 
length, and from 3 to 4 in breadth. 
The fituation is peculiarly beautiful, 
waflied on the eaftern border by the 
Leven, and on the S. by the Frith of 
Clyde. The ground rifes with a gra- 
dual afcent from the fhore for up- 
wards of 2 miles, till it terminates in 
a ridge of hills which feparate it from 
the lands in. the neighbourhood of Le- 
ven and Loch Lomond. On the fhore 
the foil is gravelly ; at a fhort diftanee 
it becomes clay ; and the lands adjacent 
to the Leven, are of the nature of 
Carfe. The natural wood and planta- 
tions ate coniiderablc, and from aoooi* 



to 3000I. worth will be fold at one 
cutting. The printfields olDalquhurn 
and Cordale are by far the moft con- 
fiderable and extenflve in Scotland ; 
the latter employs no fewer than 880 
perfons. The village of Rent own, fitu- 
ated on the eftate of Mr. Smollet of 
Dalquhum, is rapidly increafing in 
fize, and another village has lately been 
built on the eftate of Graham of Garth- 
more. Near the village of Rentoivn, 
in theold maniion-houfe of Dalquhurn, 
was born Br. Tobias Smollet, the well 
known author of Roderic Random, and 
other entertaining works. His " Hif- 
tory of England," though perhaps in- 
ferior to Hume or Robertfon in refine- 
ment of thought and political obferva- 
tion, is noted for the beauties of def- 
cription, and the ready delineation of 
character. After a chequered life of 
51 years, he died at Leghorn, whither 
he had gone for the recovery of his 
health, in 1771. Adjacent to the place 
of his nativity, Mr. Smollet of Bonhill, 
his coufin, has erected a lofty column 
to his memory, with an elegant Latin 
infcription. Population of Cardrofs 
in 1793, 2194. 

CARGILL ; a parifh in Perthfhire, 
fituated in the valley of Strathmore. 
It is nearly an oblong fquare, about 6 
miles in length, and from 4 to 5 in 
breadth. The furface is finely diver- 
fified with wood and water, and varie- 
gated by gentle afcents and declivities, 
riling gradually to a ridge for about a 
mile from the Tay, which bounds it 
on the N. ; it reaches a plain, which 
extends to the Sidlaw hills, which 
form the S. boundary : except the 
wood lands, it is moftly arable, and 
many improvements have been lately 
made. The foil, on the banks of the 
river, is a deep rich clay ; towards the 
middle it is loamy ; at the foot of the 
hills it becomes gravelly, and unpro- 
ductive. Near the W. end of the pa- 
rim, the Tay forms what is called the 
Linn of Campfey, by falling over a 
rugged bafaltic dyke, which crofTes 
the river at this place, and is found to 
extend in a right line many miles to 
the N. and S. of the Tay. The Ifla 
runs into the Tay about a mile above 
the village of Cargill ; the fifheries on 
both thefe rivers are of confiderable 
value, and moftly all held in leafe by 
a company in Perth. In former times 
this pa$ifh abounded with wood ; at 

prefent there are only about ioo acres 
of natural coppices, and 400 acres of* 
plantation. Several freeftone quarries, 
of excellent quality and good colour, 
have been wrought to a confiderable 
extent ; limeftone alfo is found, and 
might, it is faid, be wrought to good 
account; there is alfo great abundance 
of rock marl. Near the confluence 
of the Tay and Ifla, are difcovered 
plain veftiges of a Roman encamp- 
ment ; ihefoja are perfectly diftinct, 
and the aqueduct by which they were 
filled from a neighbouring river, is in 
a ftate of high prefervation. On a ro- 
mantic rock, which rifes perpendicu- 
larly over the Linn of Campfey, are 
the ruins of an ancient religious houfe, 
faid to have been dependent on the 
abbey of Cupar. A Roman road, a- 
bout 20 feet broad, compofed of rough 
round ftones, rudely laid together, 
paries along the high grounds. Stob- 
hall, a feat of the family of Perth, is 
an old fabric, fancifully fituated on a 
narrow peninfula, on the banks of the 
Tay. A confiderable manufacture of 
brown linens and filefias is carried on 
in the pariih, and 3 bleachfields have 
been lately eftablifhed. There are 3 
villages; one of which, named Strelitz, 
in honour of her prefent Majefty, was 
erected in 1763, as a place of refidence 
for the difcharged foldiery, at the con- 
clufion of the German war. Popula- 
tion of the pariih of Cargill, as return- 
ed to Sir John Sinclair in 1793, 1720. 

Carity ; a fmall river, which takes 
its fource in the pariih of Lintrathen, 
county of Angus, and after a mean- 
dering courfe of 5 miles, is loft in the 
Southefk, at a fmall village called In- 
vercarity, to which it gives its name. 

Carletonhill, in the parifh of 
Coimonell, in Ayrfhire, rifes with a 
fteep afcent to the elevation of 1554 
feet above the level of the fea. It is 
fituated fo near the fea, at the bottom 
of a bay of the fame name, that, at 
full tide, there is little more than room 
forthe traveller to pafs without danger, 
from the rocks threatening on the one 
hand, and of falling into the ocean 
on the other. 

CARLUKE ; a village and parifh 
in the county of Lanark. The pariih 
is about 7 miles in length, from the 
Clyde to its boundary on the E. and 
fully 44 miles in breadth. The fur- 
face rife-, to a confiderable height in- 



the eaftern border; it has in confe- 
quence a great declivity, but aim oft 
the whole is arable. The foil, on the 
banks of the river, is light and fertile ; 
farther up it becomes a rich mellow 
clay, excellently adapted for trees ; it 
is therefore generally covered with 
woods and orchards. In the more 
diitant fields, the foil is in general 
fhallow and poor, with a bad bottom, 
and unproductive. The banks of the 
Clyde are famous for fruit ; and in 
the parifh of Carluke, apples and pears 
are produced in more abundance than 
perhaps any other diftrict in Scotland ; 
the orchards extend in length 5 miles, 
and are fuppofed to comprehend near- 
ly 80 acres. There are feveral little 
hills or laws, which have had, or ftill 
have, cairns of (tones upon them, and 
bear marks of great antiquity; Coal 
abounds every where, the ftrata of 
which are in general thin, not exceed- 
ing 26 or 30 inches; freeftone, lime, 
and ironftone, are abundant; and me- 
tallic calces, and calcareous petrifac- 
tions, are fornetimes met with. 

The village of Carluke is about 5 
meafured miles from Lanark, on the 
road leading to Glafgow ; it is a large 
and decent village, increasing very ra- 
pidly in fize and population, fince the 
introduction of the cotton manufac- 
ture ; round it the wood lands and 
neighbouring fcenery is much admir- 
ed. Mauldflie, the elegant feat of the 
Earl of Hyndford, is fituated near the 
village. There are 3 caftles, which 
have a venerable appearance and ro- 
mantic fituation, called HalI-Bar,Ha!l- 
Craig, and Hal I -Hi 11 ; and the fcite of 
an old abbey ftill retains the name of 
the Abbey-Steads. The Roman road, 
called Watling's-ftreet, (perhaps a 
corruption of I'ltellhts'-ftreet), paffes 
through the village of Brad wood, which 
is fituated in the N. W. corner of the 
parilh. This parifh gave birth to Ma- 
jor-General William Roy, whofe abi- 
lities as a profound mathematician are 
well known, and the rev. Dr. Dick, 
late minifter of Edinburgh. Popula- 
tion in 1 791, 1730. 

Vide Castle-Douglas. 

Carlinwark (Loch); a lake in 
the parifh of Kelton, in the ftewartry 
of Kirkcudbright, along the W. fide 
of which runs the military road. It 
formerly covered 116 acres of land, 

but has been drained fo, that only 80 
acres are now under water ; it has 
been a great fource of improvement 
in the neighbourhood, in containing 
an inexhauftible fund of iTiell marl ; it 
alfo abounds with pike, perches, and 

CARMICHAEL ;, a parifh about 5 
miles in length, and from 3 to 4 in, 
breadth ; is fituated on the banks of 
the Clyde, in the county of Lanark. 
The furface is very unequal. In it 
there are feveral hills of conliderable 
height, covered for the moft part with 
fhort heath ; the foil towards the 
Clyde is gravelly, in the higher parts 
clay and wet. The Earls of Hyndford, 
who are the chief proprietors, have en- 
clofed and planted a great part of the 
parifh. There are both coal and lime- 
ftone, of excellent quality, on Lord 
Hyndford's lards. Population in 
1791, 781. . 

CARMUNNOCK ; a parilh in La- 
narkfhire ; the extent from E. to W. 
is about 4 miles in length, and 3 in 
breadth from N. to S. The greater 
part is elevated, and commands a moft 
extenfive profpecT. ; the foil is partly a 
light quick mould, and partly a ftrong 
deep clay, which when properly drain- 
ed produces excellent crops ; there, 
are other grounds alfo, the foil of 
which is a fhallow clay, mixed with 
fand : this kind of foil is poor, and 
will not bear a fuccefhon of crops,, 
without being every year nourifhed 
with rich manure. Of the whole ex- 
tent, which may be nearly 2500 acres, 
about 1000 are employed in pafturage; 
the reft is generally eneloied. The 
river Cart runs along the weftern 
boundary with great rapidity ; its 
banks are in moft parts covered with 
wood, which, together with its mean- 
derings, and the rapidity of its cur- 
rent, renders the fcenery highly pictu- 
refque and romantic. The great road 
from Glafgow to England by Muirkirk 
and Dumfries, paffes through the eaft- 
ern diftrict. In many parts there are 
coal and lirneftone, neither of which 
has been wrought to any extent ; 
there is alfo plenty of ironftone, and 
extenfive quarries of freeftone; the 
eftate of Cathkin abounds with whin- 
ftone, appearing in many places in the 
form of regular bafaltic columns of 5 
and 7 fides. Many tumuli are to be 
met with, and when opened, have ai~ 


ways been found to contain human 
bones, and inftruments of war. In the 
eftate of Caftle-Milk are the remains 
of a Roman military road; near which 
are found various pieces of Roman 
armour and antiquities. Population 

* n 179.3* 5 7°- 

CARMYLEFIELD; a village in 
Old Monkland parifh, in the county 
of Lanark. It is noted for the beauty 
of its fituation, having a fine fouthern 
expofure, wafhed by the Clyde ; it 
was erecled as a muflin manufactory 
about 1 74 1, by a Mr. M'Kenzie, a 
merchant in Glafgow. 

CARMYLIE ; a parifh in the coun- 
ty of Forfar, extending in length about 
4 miles, and in breadth about 3. It is 
a hilly tradt of country, but the hills 
are capable of cultivation to the fum- 
mits. Almofl the whole diftrid is a 
wet, cold foil, on a till or gravelly 
bottom. There are feveral extenfive 
muirs and marfhes in the parifh, 
which might be drained and improved. 
A part of that extenfive mofs, called 
Dihy mofs, lies in this parifh. There 
are feveral inexhauftible quarries of 
gray flate and pavement ftones, which 
have been wrought for centuries, and 
fupplythe neighbourhood, befides ex- 
porting to Perthfhire, Fife, &c. Mr. 
Ouchterlony of Guynd, one of the 
proprietors, has lately made out fome 
extenfive plantations of oak and larch, 
which promife in a fhort time to re- 
move the preferit barren and inhof- 
pitable appearance of the parifh. The 
fmall river Elliot, which takes its rife 
in Dihy mofs, runs through the whole 
length of the parifh. Population in 
1791, 700; in 1801, 892. 

CARNBEE ; a parifh in the county 
of Fife. It is nearly of a fquare form, 
extending 4 miles each way. A ridge 
of hills runs E. and W. through the 
middle of the parifh ; one of which, 
Kellie Law, is elevated to th; 1 height 
of 810 feet above the level of the fea. 
On the S. fide of thefe high grounds, 
all the way down to the coaft of the 
Frith of Forth, is an extent of rich 
fertile foil ; N. of the hills the ground 
is much more adapted for pafture, 
though in dry feafohs, even there, the 
crops are abundant. Nearly two-thirds 
is fubdivided and enclofed, and many 
of the parks are let to graziers at 566. 
per acre. The caftle of Kellie, the 
feat of the Earl of Kellie, is a large 


and ftrong building, with ftately apart- 
ments', which the late Earl fitted up 
in a moft elegant manner, and laid out 
the pleafure ground about the caftle 
with great tafte. Sir Robert Anftru- 
ther of Balcafkie alfo poffdfes a fine 
feat. There are fome excellent lime 
and freeftone quarries, and great a- 
bundanceof coal. Population in 1793, 
1041 ; in 1801, 1083. 

CARNOCK ; a parifh in the weft- 
em extremity of the county of Fife, 
is nearly a fquare of 3 miles. The 
furface is level towards the E.but has 
a gentle declivity towards the S. and 
is bounded on the N. and N. E. by 
the hills of Craiglufcar ; the ground 
confifts moftly of gentle rifings and de- 
clivities. The foil is partly a black 
loam, and partly clay or till, and in fe- 
veral places with a mixture of gravel- 
The rivulets of Carnock and Pitdennies 
havetheir banks covered with extenfive 
plantations of fir, larix, and afh. Be- 
fides the village of Carnock, there is 
another, called Cairneyhill. There are 
no fewer than 5 excellent coal mines* 
belonging to different proprietors ; 
there is alfo fome ironftone, and plen- 
ty of freeftone of the fineft grit, and 
capable of receiving the higheft polifh. 
From the Ink Craig of Carnock, there 
continually drops a fluid refembling 
ink ; it has been analyzed by Dr. Black, 
and found to contain coal, flex, and 
pure day. The village of Carnock is 
pleafantly fituated on the rivulet of 
Carnock ; it contains nearly 200 inha- 
bitants; the chief manufacture iscoarfe 
linen. The late John Erfkine, Efq. of 
Carnock, profeffbr of municipal law 
in the univerfity of Edinburgh, and 
author of the " Infinites of the La<w of 
Scotland," was born in the houi'e of 
Newbigging, in this parifh. Popula- 
tion in 1791, 970 ; in 1801, 860. 

CARNWATH ; an extenfive parifh 
in the county of Lanark, forming 
nearly a regular oblong fquare, 17, 
miles long, and 8 broad. The foil is 
very different in the different parts of 
the parifh ; the Holms of the Clyde 
being of a deep clay, while on the 
Medwins it is inclined to fand. There 
is a very confiderable extent of muir 
land, of which the foil is a cold ftiff 
clay, mixed with mofs, On the eftate 
of Lockhart of Lee, agriculture is fo 
much attended to y that the tenants by 
I their leafes are obliged to follow a ro- 



tation of crops. Two brothers of the 
name of Wilfon, merchants in Lon- 
don, h.?ve lately erected a very exteri- 
five iron foundery, and have built a 
village, called Mifontoiun, for the ac- 
commodation of the workmen and 
their families. This work; is peculiar- 
ly happy in its fituation, as ironftone, 
coal, limeftone, and clay, articles ef- 
fentially neceflary. to the work, are 
found in the greateft abundance in the 
immediate neighbourhood. The Clyde, 
Medwins, and Dippool, are the prin- 
cipal rivers in the parifh ; all of which 
contain trout and pike.^ There is a 
fmall lake, about a quarter of a mile 
from the village of Carnwath, about a 
mile in circuit, containing perch. In 
addition to the minerals mentioned 
above, freeftone abounds in every part 
of the parifh. The ruins of the an- 
cient cattle of Coutba'ky, a feat of the 
noble family of Somerville, fhew it to 
have been of great extent and ftrength. 
Population in 1793 eftimated about 

CARRICK; the foathern diftrict of 
Ayrfhire. It is bounded on the N. by 
Kyle, or Ayr Proper ; on the E. by 
Dumfriesfhire, and the ftewartry of 
Kirkcudbright ; on the Wigtori; 
and on the W. by the Atlantic Ocean. 
Its furfaceis hilly, and the mountains, 
efpecially on the N. W. feem to be 
m-erely a continuation of that great 
ridge, which extends from the confines 
of England through the fhires of Sel- 
kirk, Peebles, Lanark, and Dumfries, 
and meets the Weftern Ocean between 
the diftricts of Carrick and Kyle. In 
the valleys between the hills, and along 
the fea fhore, are many {tripes of level 
ground, of a fine clay or loamy foil. 
The chief rivers are the Girvan and 
Stinchar, at the mouths of which are 
fituaied the towns of Stinchar and Bal- 
lantrae. There are feveral lakes, and 
a great part of the country is ftill co- 
vered with natural wood. The extent 
is about 32 miles in length, and 20 in 
breadth. Carrick fell into the hands 
of King Robert Bruce, by marriage 
with the heirefs of Duncan, the laft of 
the ancient Earls of Carrick, and the 
title is ftill retained by the royal fami- 
ly, the Prince of Wales, as Prince of 
Scotland, being born Earl of Carrick. 

CARRIDEN, or CARRIN ; a pa- 
rifh in the county of Linlithgow, fi- 
■tuated oa the S. fide of the Frith of 

Forth, extending about 2 miles in 
length, and one in breadth. Tbi foil 
is light and early, producing plentiful 
crops ; and the whole furface is arable 
and enclofed. There are 4 villages in 
the parifh, 2 of which have tolerable 
harbours. There is plenty of excel- 
lent freeftone, and the whole parifh 
lies on coal of the beft quality ; and 
a confiderable manufacture of fait 
is carried on. The celebrated Col. 
James Gardiner, who was killed at the 
battle of Preftonpansj in the year 1 745- , 
was a native of this parifh. Here is 
the termination of Graham's dyke, and 
the fortification of Blacknefs-caftle, 
one of the forts which, by the articles 
of Union, are to be kept in repair. 
Population in 1791-8, icoo. 

Vide Primrose. 

Carron ; a fmall but remarkable 
river in Stirlingfhire ; it rifes in the 
parifh of Fintry, nearly in the center 
of the ifthmus between the Forth and 
Clyde ; takes an eafterly courfe, and 
falls into the Forth a few miles below 
Falkirk. The ftream is but fmall, and 
the length of its courfe not above 14 
miles ; yet there is no river in Scot- 
land, and few in Britain, whofe banks 
have been the fcene of fo many me- 
morable tranfactions. When the Ro- 
man empire was in its glory, this river 
formed the boundary to its conquefts 
in Britain ; for the wall of Antoninus 
runs parallel to it for feveral miles.. 
The Carron, after it leaves its fource, 
flows towards the S. S. E. watering 
the Carron Bog in its progrefs ; leav- 
ing which, it rufhes over the Auch'm- 
lilly linn /pout, a tremendous cataract, 
correfponding to a defcription in the 
tragedy of Douglas* 

" Red came the river down," Sec. 

From this it continues its courfe eaft- 
ward, winding through the caife of 
Falkirk, and forming " the bonny banks 
of Carron water," long fince famed in 
fong. It paffes near the hills of Duni- 
pace, and the fite of the ancient ftruc- 
ture, called Arthur's Oven, which was 
indifputably of Roman erection. His- 
torians mention a bloody battle to 
have been fought near this river, be- 
tween the Romans and the confederate 
army of the Scots and Picts, about the 
beginning of the 5th century. The 
fcenes of the exploits of the heroes of 
I a 


Offian, in the opinion of Mr. M'Phet- 
fon, were on its banks. Here Fingal 
fought with Caracal, the fons of the 
king of the world ; fuppofed to be 
the fame with Caracalla, the fons of 
the Roman emperor Severus. Here 
the fon of Offian, the young Ofcar, 
performed fome of his heroic actions ; 
and tradition points out the vale where 
the Scqttifh heroes affembled to at- 
tack the warriors of the ftream of 
Caros. About half a mile from the ri- 
ver lies the field where a battle was 
fought by Sir William Wallace and 
the Englifh, in the beginning of the 
14th century. The river Carron, 
though it has long ceafed to roll its 
ftream amidft the din of arms, yet pre- 
ferves its fame, by lending its aid to 
trade and manufactures ; (vide Car- 
ron Village.) The great canal en- 
ters from the Forth at this river, which 
is navigable for feyeral miles near its 

CARRON; a village in Stirling;, 
fhire, fituated on the banks of the ri- 
ver Carron, about 3 miles from the 
entry into the Forth, and 2 miles N. 
of the town of Falkirk, celebrated for 
the moft extenfiye iron foundery in 
Europe. Thefe works employ about 
1600 workmen, and, on an average, 
the furnaces confume weekly 800 tons 
of coals, 400 tons of ironftone and ore, 
and 100 tons of limeftone. All kinds 
of caft iron goods are manufactured 
here ; not only the inftruments of 
war, but various implements of agri- 
culture, the arts, and for domeftic ufe ; 
and the greater part of thefe commo- 
dities, whether of ability or ornament, 
can be furnifhed at one third of the 
price they coft elfewhere. But labour 
and workman fhip are in this place af- 
fifted and haftened by fo many ma- 
chines and ingenious proceffes, that 
its commodities are executed both 
in a fhorter time, and in greater per- 
fection, than in any other eftablifh- 
ment of the fame kind. To a ftranger, 
the approach to the works is ftriking 
and terrible. The illumination of the 
atrhofphere produced by the burning 
matter, the roaring blafts of the im- 
rnenfe bellows, and the noife of the 
weighty hammers ftriking upon re- 
founding anvils, recals to the imagin- 
ation the idea of Vulcan and his 
cyclops occupied in preparing thunde 


whether it is not a volcano in actual 
irruption, ready to pour forth its melt- 
ed bowels. Three kinds of ore are 
employed, which are mixed together in 
regular proportions. The firft is a fpe- 
cies of decompofed hematites, brought 
from Cumberland, which ftains the 
hand of a blood-red colour; the fecond 
is of a yellowifh brown colour, and of 
a rocky hardnefs ; the third is the 
fpecies of ironftone, called theftptariaf 
or geodes of Dunbar, from being 
found in the neighbourhood of that 
town. From the proper proportions 
of thefe ores an iron is procured, 
equal, if not fuperior, to the fable iron 
imported from Ruffia. The works are 
carried on by a chartered company, 
with a capital of 150,0001. fterling, 
which is divided into 600 fhares, which 
belong to a few individuals. 

Carron; a fine clear rivulet in 
that diftrict of Dumfriesfhire called 
Nithfdale ; it rifes at the foot of the 
Lowther hills, and after a courfe of 
about 9 miles through the parifh of 
Durifdeer, falls into the Nith at Car- 
ron foot. 

Carron ; afmall river in Rcfsfhire, 
which falls into an arm of the fea, 
called Loch Carron. Both the river 
and loch abound with falmon. 

Carron ; a fmall rivulet in Kin- 
cardinefhire, which falls into the fea 
at the town of Stonehaven or Stonehive, 
forming a fine natural harbour. 

is that diftrict of Perthfhire, extending 
15 miles in length, and from 2 to 4 in 
breadth, fituated on the N. bank of 
the river Tay, between that river and 
the foot of the Sidlaw hills. This 
tract of land, which is a rich plain, " 
cultivated like a garden, feems to have 
been at one period covered with wa- 
ter ; nay, in the remembrance of feve- 
ral people ftill alive, many parts were 
a morafs, which, at this day, are ex- 
tenfive fields of arable ground. The 
river Tay has been fuppofed to have 
formed a circuit round the Carfe, 
wafhing the foot of the Sidlaw hills, 
and entering its prefent channel at 
Invergonvrie. Staples for holding cables 
have been found at the foot of the Sid- 
law hills, N. of the fiat land. The pa- 
rifh of St. Madois, which is now in the 
Carfe of Cowrie, is faid to have been 
once on the fouthern fide of the river. 

bolts, or raifes doubt3 in the mind j Such parts of the Carfe as are called 


inches (a word which fignlfies i/IanJs), 
are elevatedabovetheother flat ground, 
which has been covered with water. 
The foil cf thefe eminences is very 
different from that of the low ground ; 
the former being a red till, approach- 
ing to the nature of loam, and the lat- 
ter, like all land which has been im- 
merfed under water, is a blue clay, of 
a very rich quality. Previous to the 
year 1760, the Carfe was disfigured 
with many large pools of water ; hut 
thefe have all been drained, except the 
^l>a, which covers nearly 30 acres of 
excellent land. Lying on the banks of 
the river Tay, the Carfe of Gowrie 
poffeffes feveral tolerable harbours, 
the chief of which is at Errol, nearly 
in the center of the diftrict ; and the 
river abounds with falmon fifhings on 
every part ®f its banks. The quarry 
of Kingoodie, on the eftate of Mr. 
Mylne of Mylnefield, is unqueftion- 
abl'y the fineft of the kind in the coun- 
ty ; it is of a gray colour, and takes a 
very fine polifh. Many blocks of im- 
menfe fize have been raifed; fome be- 
ing 50 feet in length, 16 broad, and 3 
thick ; it employs between 50 and 60 
labourers, whofe families amount to 
about 120 fouls. Caftle-Huntly, the 
feat of George Paterfon, Efq. is an e- 
legant manfion, fituated near the E. 
end of the Carfe of Gowrie, com- 
manding a profpect extenfive, diverfi- 
fied, and grand beyond defcription. 
It was built by Lord Gray, in 1442, 
in honour c" his lady, who was of the 
family of Huntly. Befides this caftle, 
there are many other ftately manfions 
in the Carfe of Gowrie, which mult 
ftrike the eye, and attract the attention 
of every beholder. The elegance of 
the buildings, the tafte with which 
the ground is laid cut, ornamented 
with gardens and orchards, befides the 
general beauty of the country, evince 
the judgment and opulence of the 

Carse is alfo applied to different 
low grounds in Scotland ; as the Carfe 
of Stirling, Carfe of Kincardine, &c. 
but thefe will be noticed in the ac- 
count of the difrrids in which they lie. 
a parifh in the county of Wigton. 
The furface is all hilly, except a fmall 
plain on which the church is fituated, 
and a few fpots on the fides of the ri- 
vulets. The hills are in general green, 


interfperfed with mofs. From the ap- 
pearance of the country, it is evidently 
unfavourable for hufbandry : indeed, 
pafturnge is only attended to. Form- 
erly there were extenfive forefts of na- 
tural wood, and at that time iron 
mines were wrought ; but the decay 
of the forefts, and the want of coal, 
render ufelefs the iron ore with which 
this parifh abounds. Many of the 
fprings contain iron, diffolved by 
means of the carbonic acid, and are 
admired for their tonic quality. Popu- 
lation in 1792, 609. 

CARSTA1RS ; a village and parifh 
in the county of Lanark. The length 
of the pariih from N. to S. is 6 miles, 
and its breadth 3 from E. to W. It 
is divided into 2 diftricts by a ridge 
of rifing ground fo uniform, that it 
appears from the Lanark road to have 
been artificially formed. The higher 
ground is a mixture of clay and mofly 
earth, and the lower a fharp famly 
foil ; both divifions are of good quali- 
ty, and capable of producing excellent 
crops, were farming more attended to, 
and the land properly cleaned and cul- 
tivated ; but a great drawback on im- 
provement is the abfurd cuftom of 
ufmg peat for fuel, in a place where 
coal is fo abundant, and at a moderate 
price. Some of the farmers begin to 
fee their folly, and to be fenfible that 
the time they confume in bringing 
home peats would be much better 
employed in improving their fields. 
The village of Carflairs lies nearly e- 
quidiftant from Edinburgh and Glaf- 
gow, being 27 miles W. of the former, 
and 26 E. of the latter. Near the vil- 
lage is the houfc of Carftairs, the feat 
of Mr. Fullerton, where the gardens 
are extenfive, and laid out in the beft 
manner. There is a Roman camp on 
a riling ground near the Clyde, of 
which, notwithstanding the attempts 
of the plough to deftroy the works of 
that nation, the pratorium and walls 
of circumvallation are frill very vifible. 
Several Roman antiquities, as coins, in- 
! ftruments of war, and culinary uten- 
. ills, have been lately dug up. Popu- 
lation in 1 791, 924. 

Cart; a fmall river in P.enfrew- 

fhire, which takes its rife in Cafile-, 

. Semple loch, and after a circuitous 

I courfe of about 14 miles, falls into the 

Clyde near Renfrew. 

Cassly j a fmall river which iffues 


from the hills in the N. W. extremity 
cf Criech, in the county of Sutherland. 
It takes a courfe nearly S. and falls into 
the Frith or Kyle of Tain, about 12 
miles from its fource. The falmon 
©f this river are fmall and white, and 
are efte<£med very delicate. 

XINWARK. This village, fituated 
at the N.. corner of Carlin-jjark loch, 
in the ftewartry of Kirkcudbright, 
was lately erecled into a free and in- 
dependent burgh of barony, under the 
fuperiority of William Douglas, Efq. 
of Caftle-Douglas. It contains about 
750 inhabitants, and carries on a con- 
siderable manufacture of cotton, in 
which Mr. Douglas has a great con- 
-cern. One great hindrance, however, 
to the fucceis in- that line, or any other 
branch of manufacture, is the want of 
fuel, which is brought from a great 

Castlesemple Locu; a beauti- 
ful piece of water in the parifh of 
Lochwinnoch, Renfrewfhire. It co- 
vers about 400 acres, and contains 
plenty of pike and perch ; it abounds 
alfo with f'wans, geefe. and other aqua- 
tic fowls. The beauty is much in- 
creafed by the fine plantations which 
furround it, and by a fmall ifland on 
which is an old caftle, called the Paile 
or Pete, which appears to have been 
a place of confiderable ftrength. The 
river Odder flows into this lake, and 
the Black Cart is the outlet from it. 

CASTLETOWN; an extenfive pa- 
rifh in the county of Roxburgh, being 
upwards of 18 miles in length, and 14 
in breadth. It occupies that diftricr 
which was anciently called Liddifdalc, 
from the river Liddal, which runs 
through it from N. E. towards the S. 
The general appearance is hilly and 
mountainous, and, at a diftance from 
the rivers, bleak and wild in a high 
degree ; but on the banks of the ri- 
vers, it is very different ; thefe are 
covered with natural wood and ex- 
tenfive plantations, which afford an 
infinite variety of the moft picturefque 
fcenery. The mountains are high and 
iteep, fome being elevated 2000 feet 
above the level of the fea ; but they 
all afford excellent paflure for fheep. 
In the midft of thefe mountains is an 
extenfive bog or morafs, from which 
the rivers Tyne and Liddal take their 
rife, one running S. E. till it falls into 


J the fea at Newcaftle, and the other 
I turning to the W. empties its ftream 
j into the Solway Erith. Befides thefe, 
I the rivulets Hermitage, Tnveeden, Ker- 
\fiope, (which forms the boundary with 
' England), the Tinnis, and Blackburn, 
water this diftricr. The arable foil 
lies moftly on the banks of the rivers ; 
but many acres, formerly under til- 
lage, are now thrown into paflure. 
The romantic cafcade, and natural 
bridge on the Blackburn, is in this 
diflrict. There are feveral fulphure- 
ous mineral fprings, which are occa- 
fionally reforted to by invalids. Lime- 
ftone is found in great abundance, but 
only a few crop feams of coal have 
yet been met with. There is alfo 
plenty of freeftone. The Duke of 
Buccleugh has laid down a beautiful 
plan of a village, to be called Caftle- 
town ; it is fituated on the banks of 
the Lidded, and the inhabitants hold, 
at a fmall feu-duty, off the Duke. 
There are many ruins of caftles and 
fortified places ; in particular, a cir- 
cular camp of 100 yards diameter, on 
the top of Carby-hill, and alfo feveral 
cairns; and many gold raid filver coins 
of great antiquity have been found 
here. Dr. Armftrong, the author of 
the elegant claffic poem on " Health," 
was a native of this parifh, and has 
celebrated the beauties of the Liddal 
in this poem; (vide Liddal.) Popu- 
lation in 1791, 1418. 

Catertkun ; a hill in the parifh 
of Menmuir, in Angusfhire, about 3 
or 4 miles N. of Brechin ; it is re- 
markable for a very ftrong fortification 
on its fummit ; it confifts of an im- 
menfe quantity of loofe ftones, ranged 
round the fummit in an oval or ellip- 
tic form ; the convexity of which, 
from the bafe within to that without, 
is 122 feet: round the external bafe 
is a deep ditch, and 100 yards below, 
the veftiges of another furrounding 
the hill : the area within the ftony 
mound is flat ; the length of the oval 
is 436 feet, and the tranfverfe diame- 
ter 200 : this area is covered with a 
fine foft grafs, while without the ring 
the furface of the hill is covered with 
heath and mofs. Amongft the ftones 
fome plants appear, but of thefe the 
digitalis or foxglove is the moft con- 
fpicuous. Within the area is a fine 
fpring of the coldeft water ; and near 
the E. fide are the remains of a redan- 


gWar building, of which the dyke and 
' ditch are eafily to be ti need. What 
has been the intention of this enclo- 
fure is difficult to be determined, per- 
haps it might have marked the refi- 
dence of thole of high rank, or been 
fet apart for the purpofes of religion. 
The afcent of the hill is very fteep, 
and the fummit can only be approach- 
ed in one direction. There is another 
fortification in the neighbourhood, of 
inferior ftrength and note, called the 
Black Catertbun, from the colour of 
its ramparts, which are compofed of 
earth. It is of a circular figure, and 
coniifts of feveral concentric circles. 
On one fide a fmall riil takes its rife, 
which, in running down the hill, has 
formed a deep gully ; parallel to this 
rivulet is a rampart, wh-ch runs as 
far as the fortrefs, and forms an addi- 
tional poft or retreat. As Caterthun 
at a diftance has the refemblance of a 
fruftum of a cone, from the heap of 
ftones at its fummit, many travellers 
have Mated it to have been a volcano, 
the water of which is extincb ; but 
this is certainly a miftake ; there is 
neither the appearance of lava, nor of 
any other volcanic matter in the neigh- 
bourhood, and there is evidently a 
fyftematic arrangement of the ftones 
which compole its fortification. Mr. 
Pennant thinks it has been one of the 
pofts occupied by the Caledonians, 
previous to their engagement at the 
foot of the Grampians, with the cele- 
brated Agricola. 

CATHCART; a parifh fituated 
about 2 miles S. W. from Glafgow, 
partly in the county of Lanark, and 
partly in that of Renfrew. Its extent 
may be eftimated at 6 miles long, and 
its mean breadth at %\. The furface is 
agreeably diverfified with hill and dale, 
prefenting to the eye not abrupt 
ridges, but thofe alternate rifings and 
falls, which are fuppofed to conftitute 
picturefque beauty : many of the hills 
bear the marks of the plough to the 
very fummit, and none are fo fteep as 
to prevent cultivation. Through thefe 
hills the river Cart winds in an irregular 
and romantic courfe ; towards the 
fouthern part of the parifh the country 
is more bleak and barren, and the hills 
of greater height. The foil varies ac- 
cording to the fituation ; the lower 
parts are light and fandy, the middle 
a rich loam, and the. higher grounds 


clay. Agriculture is almoft the on7y 
occupation of the inhabitants, not- 
withstanding its vicinity to Glafgow. 
The Waterfalls on the Cart are well 
adapted for the erection of machin- 
. cry.; and the plantations on the banks 
of that river are much reforted to by 
the botanift, for rare plants. Coal, 
limeftone, and fome ironftone, are 
found all over the parilh. A fmall 
fpring is laid to poffefs a petrifying 
quality, and pieces of wood, mofs, See- 
completely converted into ftone, are 
found in it. Near it alio, beautiful 
/pars and cryjlaltizatioits, of a very cu- 
rious form and appearance, are found. 
The field of Langfide, rendered re- 
markable for being the fcene of the 
laft and decifive effort of the unfor- 
tunate Mary to regain her crown and 
authority, is in this parifh. A Roman 
military ftation is very diftinet. The 
ruined caftle of Cathcart has been a. 
very ftrong building, fecured by a. 
moat and draw-bridge. Population 
in 1792, 697. 

Cathel (Loch) is a fmail lake m 
the parifh of Halkirk, in the county 
of Caithnefs ; it is 3 miles long, and 
upwards of 2 in breadth ; it abound* 
with a fpecies of trout which are found 
no where elfe in the country, fuppofed 
to be what natur'alifts term frefh water 
herrings ; it empties itfelf by a fmall 
ftream into the river of Thurib, which 
falls into the Pentland Frith, at the 
town of the fame name. 


a beautiful lake in the diftrict of Mon- 
teith, in Perthihire. It is about 10 
miles in length, and 14- in breadth, 
exhibiting the moft romantic fcenery 
that imagination can fuppofe ; it its 
formed by the river Teath, in its paf- 
fage amongft thofe rugged mafTes 
which are called the Trofachs, form; 
of which appear on its level furface in- 
the form of bold and rugged iflands; 
and promontories. The fcenery i§ 
uncommonly fublime from the north- 
ern bank, where the road from Cal- 
lander is cut with great labour, in 
many places out of the folid rock 5 
but which is impaffable for a carriage, 
and can fcarcely be travelled over on 
horfeback with fafety. Here, towards 
the Trofachs, the view is very grand ; 
the rocky iflands are feen riling boldly 
from the fmooth expanfe, and, at a 
fhort diftance, the mountains of JJjw- 


C H A 

*uenu and Benlcdi are feen rearing their j 
lofty fummits far above the furround- 
ing hills. At the end of this lake, and 
at proper diftances on its banks, Mrs. 
Drummond of Perth has ereded fome 
huts of wicker-work, for the conve- 
nience of ftrangers who vifit this rude 
and picturefque fcene. Vide Tro- 
sachs, and Callander. 

Catlaw ; one of the Grampian 
mountains, fituated in the county of 
Angus ; the elevation of which, by 
barometrical menfuration, is found to 
be 2264 feet above the level of the 
fea. At the bafe, towards the N. E. 
is a chalybeate fpring, which is much 
efteemed as ufeful in weaknefs and 
hyfterical affections. 

'CATRINE; a village in Ayrfnire. 
It is beautifully fituated on the N. 
fide of the river Ayr, in the weftern 
extremity of the parifh of Sorn ; it is 
of a regular oblong form, in the mid- 
dle of which is a fquare of 300 feet, 
with ftreets leading from it on the E. 
S. and W. and thefe are interfecled 
with other crofs ftreets at right angles. 
This village is entirely anew creation, 
and owes its eftablifliment to the flou- 
riftiing ftate of the cotton manufacture 
in Great Britain. In the year 1787, 
Mr. Alexander of Ballochmyle, the 
proprietor, in partnerfhip with the 
well-known and patriotic Mr. David 
Dale of Glafgovv, eftablifhed extenfiye 
ipinning machinery, and built this vil- 
lage for the accommodation of the 
work people ; fince which time it has 
increased confiderably, and now con- 
tains nearly 1400 inhabitants. Catrine 
is diftant 14 miles from the town of 

CAVERS ; a parifh of irregular fi- 
gure, and confiderable extent, in the 
county of Roxburgh ; being upwards 
of 20 miles long from E. to W. and 
from 7 to 2 broad. The weftern part 
is' hilly and rugged, but towards the 
E. it becomes flat, with a rich fertile 
foil. The upper diftrifi is moftly ap- 
propriated to fheep pafture. The ri- 
vers Rule and liviot are the bounda- 
ries on the N.'E. and S. E. joining 
their ftreams at the extremity of the 
pariih. There is a fmall village, called 
Denholm, on the eftate of the Duke 
of Buccleugh. Cavers, the feat of 
George Douglas, Efq. is an elegant 
jnanfion. Population in 1793, 1300. 
CERES ; a pariih and village in the 

county of Fife, extending in length a- 
bout 8 miles, and in breadth from 1 tcf 
4 miles. The foil on the banks of the 
Eden, the N. W. boundary of the pa- 
rifh, is light and fandy, with a hard 
bottom ; the reft of the pariih (except 
a fmall part round the village, which 
is gravelly), is a deep cold earth, on a 
whin and limeftone rocky bottom. 
The furface is hilly, but all the hills 
are cultivated to the top. Some hills 
confift of bafaltic pillars of 5 fides. 
Agriculture is more attended to with- 
in thefe 50 years, but much ftill re- 
mains to be done in the way of im- 
provement. The Eden and Ceres, with 
two or three fmaller rivulets, wa- 
ter the pariih. Struthers, an ancient 
feat of the Earls of Craufurd, is a 
venerable houfe, with towers and bat- 
tlements. Upon the eftate of Scots- 
tarvet (the property of Mifs Scott), 
is a beautiful tower of jointed free- 
ftone, 24 feet fquare, and 50 or 60 
high. The walls are very thick, and 
from the windows being very fmall, 
and the whole being furmounted by 
a battlement, there can be no doubt 
of its being intended for a place of 
ftrength. Craighall and Magafk are 
2 other ruins of ancient caftles. Coal, 
lime, and freeftone are abundant. 
Lindfay of Pitfcottie, author of a hif- 
tory of Scotland, was a native of this 
pariih. Population in 1792, 2320; in 
1 801, 2352. 

CESSFORD ; a fmall village in Te- 
viotdale. Near it is the ancient caftle 
of Cefsford, which gives title of baron 
to the noble family of Kerr Duke of 

CHANNELKIRK; a pariih in 
Berwickihire ; is nearly of a circular 
form, having a diameter of 54 miles. 
It is fituated amongft the Lammer- 
muir hills, where they border with the 
counties of Eaft and Mid-Lothian. On 
the banks of the ftreamlets, which, u- 
nited, form the river Lauder or Leader, 
are about 2000 acres in tillage, having 
a light thin foil, on a deep bed of fandy 
gravel. The hills are moftly bieak, 
and covered with heath. A great many 
Pictifh or Scottifh military encamp- 
ments are to be feen in this neighbour- 
hood, all of which are oval or round, 
and are called rings by the common 
people. Population in 1791, about 

CHANONRY; a fmall town in the 



rriuMy of Rofs. It is fituated about 
a mile from the burgh of Rofem 
to which it was united by a chaster 
granted by King James II. anno 1444, 
under the common name of Fortrofs, 
wow foftened into Fortrofe ; (vide 
Rosemarkie.) It was called Cha- 
nonr\\ from being the chanonryof Rofs, 
and the refidence of the bifhop ; it is 
bqw a prefbytery feat. Chanonry 
contains about 450 inhabitants. 

CHAPEL of GARIOCH ; a parifh 
and prefbytery feat in the diftrict of 
Garioch, in Aberdeenfhire. Its greateft 
extent from N. to S. is about 8 miles ; 
and from E. to W. about 7. The ap- 
pearance is hilly, and the foil" various, 
though in general capable of cultiva- 
tion ; the W. end is fubject to inun- 
dation from frequent mowers, owing 
to the vicinity of feveral high hills. The 
river Don which ' forms the fouthern 
boundary, and the Urie, abound with 
l trout. There is a conliderable extent 
of wood land, and fome late planta- 
tions are in a thriving itate. In feve- 
ral parts are indications of limeitone, 
but none has yet been difcovered. 
Near the old caitle of Balquhain is 
a druidical temple, and one of the 
fineft echoes in Scotland. Befide the 
church is a large upright ftcr.e, 10 
feet high, 4 broad, and a foot thick ; 
it is called the maiden Jione, and Mr. 
Pennant has given a fine engraving of 
the hieroglyphics cut upon it. Near 
this village was fought the battle of 
Harlaw, in 141 1, between Alexander 
Earl of Man", and Donald Lord of the 
Ifles. Buchanan relates, that the num- 
ber of nobility which fell in this obfti- 
nately contelted action, was greater 
than had fallen in any foreign engage- 
ment for many years before. Popu- 
lation in 1792, 986. 

CHARLESTOWN ; a village in 
the parifh of Dunfermline, in the coun- 
ty of Fife, pleafantly fituated on the 
N. coaft of the Frith of Forth. It 
was built by the Earl of Elgin for the 
accommodation of the workmen, at .1 
the extenfive lime-works on his eftate ; I 
it has a tolerable harbour, where, in | 
the fummer months, from 30 to 50 , 
veiTels ufually lie, waiting their turns j 
of loading lime-ihells ; adjoining to it j 
is the populous village of Limehlh.s, \ 
Charleitown contains nearly 500 inha- ; 


is A pleafant little town, in the parifh 
of Aboyne, Aberdeenfhire. It is a 

burgh of barony, of which the Earl of 
Abyone is fuperior ; it has 4 fairs in 
the year. 

Charlotte (Fort) ; a fmall for- 
tification near the town of Lerwick, 
in Shetland, faid to have been built 
in the days of Oliver Cromwell. It 
was repaired in 1781, under the direc- 
tion of Captain Frazer, chief engineer 
for Scotland ; it is now garrifoned by 
a company of invalids ; it completely 
commands the entry to Breffay Sound. 
CKIRNSIDE ; a confiderable vil- 
lage in that divifion of Berwickfhire, 
called Merfi or March. The village is 
fituated on Chirnfide-hill, one of the 
eminences, which, disjoined from the 
Lammermuir ridge, project into the 
low country. It is diftinguifhed for 
its regular and femicircular afpect on 
the S. and for its gradual declination 
to the Whittadder water, and com- 
mands aviewof one of the richer! coun- 
ties in Scotland, with a prefpect of that 
various and rural beauty which never 
fails to expand and delight the mind 
of the fpectator. The village confifts 
of 2 ftreets, running over the fummit 
of the hill nearly half a mile in length ; 
but the houfes are generally mean, and 
built of clay. As a burgh of barony, 
it has the privilege of holding an an- 
nual fair, chiefly for the fale of fack- 
cloth and linen yarn, It is .the feat 
of a prefbytery, and contains upwards 
of 600 inhabitants. The parifh of 
Chirafide is of an oblong figure, the 
length of which is about 4, and the 
breadth 3 miles. The furface is fiat, 
with the exception of Chirnfide-hill ; 
and the foil a rich loam, abundantly 
fertile. As in the other parts of Merfe, 
the farmers here are a moft refpectabfe 
and well informed body of men. Many 
of the proprietors farm their own ef- 
tates, and have been always ready to 
adopt thole plans of agriculture which 
were likely to turn to advantage. On 
the fides of the hill • a conliderable 
number of fheep are annually reared. 
There is a conliderable quantity of 
marl found in a fmall lake, and the 
hill is almoft entirely compofed of 
freeftone, with itrata of ihell marl, lb 
hard as almoft to defcrve the name of 
limeitone. A fpecies of gypfum, nearly 
equal in quality to the tineft brought 
from France- is found on the banks of 

C L A 

the Whittadder, in very confiderable 
quantities, and has been ufed as a ma- 
nure to great advantage. There are 
fever?.! mineral fprings, ftrongly im- 
pregnated with iron ; and ieveral an- 
tiquities, fuch as caftles, tumuli, &c. 
but of too little curiohty to deferve 
particular notice. Population in 1791, 

final! county is- bounded on- the W. 
N. and E- by Perthfhire, and on- the 
S. and S. W. by the Frith of Forth 
and Stirliugfhire ; its greateft length is 
about 9 miles, and its extreme breadth 
does not exceed 8 ; it is a plain and 
fertile country towards the Forth, 
producing abundance of corn, as weH 
as pafture ; and the coaft poflefles fe- 
veral valuable and fafe harbours for 
fhips, and ci'eeks for the reception of 
boats employed in the fifheries. From 
the more the furface rifes into the 
Ochil mountains, the higheft of which, 
Bemleugh, lies in the parifh of Tilly- 
coultry. The tides of theie mountains 
afford excellent pafture for iheep, but 
towards the fummits the bare rocks 
are only to be feen. Confiderable im- 
provements in agriculture have been 
made in this county ; but rather more 
attention in general is paid to pafture 
than to tillage : however, the luxuri- 
ance of the crops generally enable 
them to export a confiderable quanti- 
ty of corn.. Clackmannanihire con- 
tains two confiderable villages, Alloa 
and Clackmannan, the countytown, 
and 4 pariihes. Till lately, the want 
of turnpike roads have been a great 
drawback on improvements ; but there 
is little reafon to complain of that 
circumftance at prefent. Clackman- 
nanihire abounds with coal in every 
part ; freeftone and granite are alfo 
in great plenty. In the Ochils, at 
various times, have been wrought va- 
luable ores, of filver, lead, copper, co- 
balt, ironftone, and antimony : many 
beautiful fpecimens offeptaria ov geo- 
tUs (iron ore) are alio found. Pebbles, 
agates, and a few, are fome- 
times difcovered amongft the rub- 
bifii, which is waihed from the hills. 
The pr-incfpal feats deferving notice, 
are Tullibody, the feat of the family 
of Abercromby; Clackmannan, the feat 
of Mr. Bruce of Kennet ; Shan.vpc.rk, 
the feat of Lord Cathcart ; and Alloa, 
the feat of the Erikines of Alloa. This 


county joins with that of Kinrofs ftf 
fending a member to parliament. Ths 
valued rent is 26,482!. Scots, and the 
real land rent is about 3.4,3001. fterlirrg. 
In the enumeration returned to Si? 
•John Sinclair, the population of the 
county was 8749. 

CLACKMANNAN is the head 
town of the county ; it is beautifully 
htaated on an emkreace, gently rifing 
out of a plain' from E. to W. to the 
height of 190 feet above the level of 
the Forth. On each fide of the town, 
the ground has a gradual defcent, but 
towards the W. it is bold and rocky,, 
where the old tower of Clackmannan, 
is placed ; the fcenery beheld from 
this towe? is uncommonly pichirefque 
and beautiful* and has been viewed 
with admiration by every traveller of 
tafte. The town' of Clackmannan it- 
felf, however, by no means correfponds 
with the beauty of its fituation. The 
psmeip'al ftreet is broad and fpaeious, 
but many of the houfes are mean and 
wretched ; in the middle of the ftreet 
ftands the- tolbooth and eourt-houfe, 
a heap of ruins, and a nuilance to the 
public here ; the fheriff fometimes 
holds his court, and here takes place 
the election of a member of parlia- 
ment. The harbour, or Clackmannan 
po~ua, is formed by the river Devon, 
where it falls into the Forth ; its mean 
depth of water is 10 feet at the ufual 
fhipping place, and 20 feet at the 
mouth of the harbour; it was former- 
ly crooked and inconvenient, but was 
much improved is 1772, by Sir Law- 
rence Lhmda-s. The village is fituated 
on the eftate of Clackmannan, and. 
pays feu-duty to the proprietor of that 
eftate. It contains about 640 inhabi- 

The parifh of Clackmannan is of 
an irregular figure, extending in length 
about 6, and in breadth nearly5 miles j 
the whole is arable, none of the emi- 
nences being fo fteep as to prevent the 
culture of the land ; the greater part 
is carfe ground, and highly productive^, 
a final! proportion is clay and wet. 
It is watered by the rivers Forth and: 
Devon, the laft of which is noted for' 
its falls and cafcades. There are near- 
ly 800 acres covered with natural 
woods and plantations, which are 
highly ornamental and ufeful. Agri- 
culture is much attended to, and is- 
indebted for many improvements to 



The Clackmannan farmer club, which 
was instituted nearly 20 years ago by 
the gentlemen farmers in the county. 
There are two extenfive diftilleries, at 
Kilbagie and Kennetpam ; at the laft 
of which is a tolerable harbour. On 
the eftate of Lord Cathcart, the De- 
von Iron Company have erected ex-. 
tenfive furnaces and machinery ; pear 
which the thriving village of Newton- 
Jhaw is lately built. Coal and lime- 
stone abound every where, of the belt 
quality ; and there is plenty -of free- 
itone, fit for building. Near the town 
itands a beautiful modem houfe, the 
property of Mr. Bruce of Kennet. 
The old tower of Clackmannan is faid 
to have been biuit by King Robert 
Bruce, and was long the chief feat of 
the family of Bruce in Scotland, Po- 
pulation in 1 79 1, 2518. 

CLATT ; a village and parifh in the 
diftrict of Garioch, Aberdeenfhire. It 
is lituated very high, fur-rounded with 
lofty hills, and fubject to be deluged 
with heavy rains. The foil is various, 
hut in general of excellent quality, and 
ealily cultivated. Were the climate as 
favourable as the foil, few diftricts in 
the county would rival it in fertility. 
Improvements and enclofures are yet 
in their infancy: indeed, the fmall 
farms, and the fhortnefs of the leafes, 
are an effectual bar to all improve- 
ments. A fmall river, Gadie, takes its 
rife here, and afterwards becomes a 
branch of the Urie. Granite is to be 
found in moll places, very tit for build- 
ing, and eaiily wrought ; and veins 
of beautiful variegated marble have 
been difcovered in front of Craig-hill, 
which have as yet been neglected. The 
village of Clatt was erected a burgh 
of barony, with power to hold weekly 
and annual markets. The fuperiority 
belongs to the family of Gordon of 
Knockefpock, who have done every 
thing in their power to render it a 
place of coniequence. The great fouth 
road, leading directly north from the 
Cairn o' Mount, paries through the vil- 
lage. Population ofthepariihin 1792, 


CLEISH ; a parifh of Kinrofsfhire, 
lituated along the N. fide of thofe hills 
which bound that county on the S. 
extending in length about 6 miles, 
and in breadth rather more than 1. 
The foil is various ; at the bottom of 
£he hills it is a ftrong clay, and very 

fertile; the middle is gravelly, and the 
hilly part cold and tilly. There are 
feveral fine lakes amongft the hills, 
which abound with pike, perch, eel, 
and a few trouts. The rivulets which 
proceed from the lakes have numerous 
falls of water, well adapted for the e- 
rection of machinery. Mr. Adam of 
Mf'tyburgh, the proprietor, has given 
an excellent example to his neigh- 
bours in the improvement of land, by 
enclofures, plantations, &c. and his 
example is now pretty generally fol- 
lowed. There is great plenty of ex- 
cellent freeftone; and limeftone is alio 
found, but at fo great a depth, that 
it is not confidered &s an object of 
importance. Coal is alfo found in the 
neighbourhood of Marjbttrgb ; but 
Mr. Adam has declined working it, 
on account of its vicinity to his houfe. 
The hills are chiefly compofed of 
whinftone. The road from Queens- 
ferry tfi Perth paffes through this pa- 
rifh. On feveral of the hills are the 
remains of forts, apparently conftruct- 
ed with great labour ; they are fup- 
pofedto be Roman, and to have form- 
ed a chain of polls to defend their 
conquefts from their northern ene- 
mies ; feveral urns containing human 
bones and afhes have been dug up 
near thefe fortifications. Population 
in 1792, 653, 

C.LOSEBURN ; a parifh in the dis- 
trict of Nithfdale, county of D umities ? 
the greateft extent of which is from 9 
to 10 miles in length, and the fame in 
breadth. The river Nitii forms the 
W. boundary, along which the foil is 
a fine rich loam ; to the eaftwarclj the 
ground rifes a little, and the foil be- 
comes light, dry, and iandy ; the E. 
diftrict is covered with extenfive muirs, 
unfit for tillage, but affording excel- 
lent pafture for fheep. The principal 
are ^ten/berry, Carrick Hills, and 
Auchinleck ; from the firft of thefe, 
which is elevated 2000 feet above the 
level of the fea, the Duke of Queenf- 
berry takes his title. Befxdes the Nith ? 
the fmall rivulet Crubup, noted for 
the romantic linn, called Cricbup linn, 
runs through the parifh. There is no 
coal nearer than 14 miles; but the 
limeworks of Clofeburn are very ex- 
tenfive, and have proved molt benefi- 
cial to the county. There are about 
200 acres of natural wood, and 350 
acres of thriving plantation. The caf- 
K 2- 



tie of Clofeburn is a ruinous building, 
furrounded by a folic, which commu- 
nicates with a loch a quarter of a 
mile in length. Near this cattle is a 
mineral well, which has often been of 
fervjce in fcrophulous cafes ; it is 
ftrongly impregnated with fulphur. 
There is alfo near the village of Clofe- 
burn a chalybeate fpring of coniider- 
able ftrength. Population in 1792, 


Cludem ; a river in Dumfriesfiiire. 
It takes its rife near the bafe of the 
Criffel mountains, and after a courfe 
of nearly 14 miles, falls into the river 
. Kith, nearly oppofite to the old col- 
lege or provoftry of Liticluden, in the 
parifh of Terregles. It abounds with 
excellent river trout, and contains 
a few falmon. 

CLUNIE ; a parifh of the Stormont, 
in Perthfhire. It extends in length 9 
miles, from the top of the lower tier 
of the Grampians towards the valley 
of Strathmore ; its breadth is about 4 
miles. The furface is mountainous, 
the lower parts being about 150, while 
the highelt are not lefs than 1800 feet 
above the level of the fea. About one- 
fourth part is arable, the reft being- 
mountain muir, and mofs. The foil 
is various ; in the valleys, however, it 
is good, and yields tolerable crops. 
Benachally is the higheft mountain ; at 
the foot of it, on the north fide, is a 
loch of the fame name, about a mile 
long, and half a mile broad ; it abounds 
with trout and pike. About 4 miles 
S. and 700 feet lower than this loch, is 
the loch of Clunie, about %\ miles in 
circumference, having a beautiful lit- 
tle ifland, on which is an old cattle, 
the occaiional refjdenc'e of the Earl of 
Airly. The banks of the loch are very 
picturefque, and feveral pleafure boats, 
with parties fifhing on the water, oft- 
en increafe the beauty of the fcene. 
The parifh is well adapted to the re- 
fearches of the botanift, as it abounds 
with rare plants. The natural forefls 
are extenhve, but not fi > much lb as 
they were fome years ago. There are 
two mineral fprings, containingEpfom 
fait, valued for their antifcorbutic qua- 
lity. The minerals already known are 
quartz, whinuone, granite, freeftone, 
and barytes : limeitone is found in one 
place, but the want of fuel prevents its 
being quarried. There is a vein of line 
blue Hate, interfperfed with large 

i quantities of copper pyrites ; and a 
deep peat mofs on the very 
of Benachally. There are veftiges of 
; religious houfes,and of feveral mi, 
litary ftations, and fortified place's. 
A great number of cairns and tumuli, 
which are faid to mark the places 
where the Romans under Agricola, 
and the Caledonians engaged, as de- 
fcribed by Tacitus. Forneth, the feat 
of the late patriotic Thomas Elder, 
Efq. is an elegant modern houfe, well 
iheltered with trees, and enjoying an 
extenhve profpeft. Gourdie, the feat 
of David Kinloch, Efq. is alfo a fine 
building. The rich and well cultivated 
eftate of Delvin, with its magnificent 
manfion, acids much to the beauty of 
the parifh. In the cattle of Clunie, on 
the ifland, as already mentioned, is 
faid to have been born the celebrated 
James Crichton, better known by the 
epithet of the admirable, whole adven- 
tures on the continent make fo diftin- 
guifhed a figure in the annals of liter- 
ature. Population of Clunie in 1793, 

CLUNY; a parifh. in Aberdeen- 
fhire, fituated between the rivers Dee 
and Don. Its extent in length may 
be about 10 miles, and its breadth a- 
bout % ; it lies very low, interfecTed 
by many rivulets from the furround- 
ing hills, forming a great deal of haugh 
ground, which is often overflowed. 
The foil is warm and dry, even in 
the low grounds. Though the parifh 
lies low, and is completely furround- 
ed with high hills, yet its climate is 
warm, and the winters are generally 
mild. Agriculture is much attended 
to, and the crops are productive. The 
only fuel is peat and turf; but thefe 
are beginning to be exhaufted, and in 
a fhort time the inhabitants will be 
obliged to fupply thtmfelves with 
coal from Aberdeen. The only ma- 
nufacture carried on is the knitting of 
ftockings, in which all the women, o)d 
men, and boys, are employed all the 
year round, excepting in the time cf 
harveft. The Hon. Baron Gordon, 

I and Mifs Frazer of Cafele-Frazer, the 
proprietors of the parifh, are carrying- 
on great improvements on their re- 
fpective eftates. Granite of excellent 
quality, is the only mineral of any va- 
lue discovered in the diftrict. There 
are 3 druidical temples, and feveral 
cairns of great iize. Population in 
1792, was 883. 


C L Y 

Clyde ; a large river in Lanark- 
Shire. It takes its life from ClydeSlaw, 
in the pariih of Crawford, one of thofe 
high hills which Separate Lanarkshire 
from the district of Anndndafc, hear 
to the fources of the Annan and the 
Tweed ; and dividing the county of 
Lanark through its whole length near- 
ly 55 miles, falls into the Frith of 
Clyde, oppofitetothe district of Argyll- 
shire, called Carval and the ifiand of 
Bute. Next to the Tay, it is the largeft 
river in Scotland, and is navigable 
for fmall craft as far as Glafgow. At 
Dalmure-burnfoot , 6 miles below the 
city, it is joined by the great canal 
from the Forth. In the courfe of this 
river, through that part of Lanarkshire 
to which it gives the name of Clydef- 
dale or Stathclyde, it waters the moil 
fertile vale in Scotland, and forms 
feveral romantic falls and cafcades. 
Nearly 20 miles from its fource the 
vale begins to be contracted, the banks 
become wide and deep, with a gradual 
declivity on both iides, which are co- 
vered by gentlemens feats, highly cul- 
tivated and embellifhed. Numerous 
orchards occupy its vales, loaded in 
autumn with the fineft fruits, and 
beautiful meadows covered with flocks 
adorn its holms and its plains. .Na- 
ture has agreeably diversified the whole 
Scene with hill and dale, contracted 
together in the fmeft manner. About 
Lanark the Scenery is particularly in- 
teresting, by its various and romantic 
appearance. The defcription of this 
Scenery, as given by Mr. Lockhart in 
the Statistical Account of Scotland, 
is fo accurate anil beautiful, that we 
have taken the liberty to tranferibe 
his words in this place. " The falls of 
Clyde principally intereft the Stranger, 
and we Shall begin with the uppermoit 
one, although to come at it, we are 

1 obliged to pafs the fecond fall, or 
Corra linn. The uppermoft one is 
Somewhat above i~ miles from Lan- 
ark, and from the eftate in which it 
is Situated, is called the Bonniton fall 
or lirinfi From Bonniton-houfe, a very 
neat and elegant modern building, you 
arrive at the linn, by a moSt romantic 
Avalk along the Clyde, leaving the^tz- 

* The word linn has not hitherto been 
explained by any writer. It is no other 
than the Gaelic, word hum, i. e. leap or 
fall, differently Spelt and pronoimjed. 

iv'/Vo.7, and Corra linn, on your right 
hand. At fome little distance from 
the fall, the walk, leading to a rock 
that juts out and overhangs the river, 
brings yon all at once within fight of 
this beautiful Sheet of water ; but no 
Stranger refts Satisfied with this view ; 
he ftill prefies onward along the walk, 
till from the rock immediately above 
the linn, he fees the whole body of the 
river precipitate itfelf into the chaiin 
below. The rock over which it fells 
is upwards of 12 feet of perpendicular 
height, from which the Clyde makes 
one precipitate tumble or leap into a 
hollow den ; whence fome of it again 
recoils in froth, and Smoking mift. A- 
bove, the river exhibits a broad, ex- 
panded, and placid appearance, beau- 
tifully environed w r ith plantations of 
foreft trees. This appearance is Sud- 
denly changed at the fall : and, below 
it, the river is narrow, contracted, and 
angrily boils and thunders, among 
rocks and precipices. The fame beau- 
tiful and romantic walk conducts you 
back again, along the precipice that 
overhangs the river, both fides of 
which are environed by mural rocks, 
equidistant and regular, forming, as 
Mr. Pennant expreSSes it, a " Stupen- 
dous natural mafonry," from whole 
crevices choughs, daws, and other 
wild birds, are incefiantly Springing. 
You defcend along the rWt:i- for about 
half a mile, till you arrive at the Corra 
linn, fo called from dn old caftle and 
eftate upon the oppofite bank. The 
old caftle fall, with Corra-hbuSb, and 
the rocky and woody banks of the 
Clyde, form of thernfelves a beautiful 
and grand coup d'oel; but nothing can 
equal the Striking and Stupendous ap- 
pearance of the fall itfelf, which when 
viewed from any of the different feats 
placed here and there along the walks, 
muft fill every unaccuftomed beholder 
with aftonifhment. The tremendous 
rocks around, the old caftle upon the 
oppofite bank, a corn mill on the 
rock below, the furious and impatient 
ftream foaming over the rock, the 
horrid chaSm and abyfs underneath 
your feet, heightened by the hollow 
murmur of the water, and the Screams 
of wild birds, form at once a Spectacle 
both tremendous and pleaSing. A fum- 
mer-houfe or pavilion is Situated over 
a high rocky bank, that overlooks the 
linn, built by S"ir James Carmichael of 



Bonniton in 1708. From its upper- 
moft room it affords a very ftriking 
profpect of the fall, for all at once, on 
throwing your eyes towards a mirror, 
on the oppofite fide of the room from 
the fall, you fee the whole tremendous 
cataract pouring as it were upon your 
head. The Ctirrb linn by meafurement, 
is found to be 84 feet in height. The 
river does not i~uih over in one uni- 
form iheet like the Bonniton linn, but 
in three different, though almoft im- 
perceptible, precipitate leaps. On the 
fo-uthtrn bank, and when the fun 
lihines, a rainbow is perpetually feen 
forming itfelf upon the mift and fogs, 
arifing from the violent dafliing of the 
waters. — The next curiofity, on de- 
fending the Clyde, that attracts the 
ftranger, is New Lanark, or the cotton 
mills. The fituation of this village is 
iit the w r eftern extremity of the Bonni- 
ton ground in a low den, and w'rthin 
view of another beautiful and roman- 
tic fall called Dzindaff linn, fignifying 
in Gaelic black cajile leap,; and, no 
doubt, formerly fome fortrefs has been 
fituated hereabouts, although no traces 
now remain, excepting in tradition, 
which ftili points out a rock called 
Wallace s chair, where the patriot is 
feid to have concealed himfelf from 
the Englifn. This fall is about 3 or 4 
feet high, and trouts have been ob- 
ferved to fpring up and gain the top 
of it with eafe. This fall, the village, 
four lofty cotton mills, and their bufy 
inhabitants, together with the wild and 
woody fcenery around, muft attract 
the notice of every ftranger. Below 
thefe are the romantic rocks and 
woods of Braxfield, the feat of the 
preient Lord Juftice Clerk, who, in- 
fluenced by the good of his country, 
very friendly feued the fite of the vil- 
lage and cotton mills to the benevolent- 
Mr. David Dale, at a very moderate 
feu-duty. — The next fall of confe- 
quence is the Stonyhyres linn, fituated 
about 2 miles below the Corra linn. It 
is fo called from the neighbouring ef- 
tate of Stonebyres, belonging to Da- 
niel Vere, Efq ; but the grounds adja- 
cent to the fall, on both fides of the ri- 
ver, have Lately been feued or pur- 
chafed by Mr. Dale. This cataract , 
which is about 80 feet in height, is the 
tie pins ultra of the falmon, as none can 
poflibly get above it, although their 
T.deayours, in the fpnwning feafon, 

are inceflant and amufing. It is equal- 
ly romantic with the others; and, like 
the Corra linn, has three diftinct, but 
almoft precipitate falls. Wild rugged 
rocks are equally vifible here, and they 
are equally fringed with wood ; the 
trees, however, are by no means lb tall 
and ftately, being compofed of cop- 
pice wood. Salmon, pars (famlets), 
horfe mufcle, or the pearl oyfter, 
though numerous below, are never 
feen above this fall. — The next piece 
of natural curiofity is Cartlane Craigs, 
upon the river Moufs, which enters 
Clyde about a mile L below the town of 
Lanark. This is a curious and roman- 
tic den, about a quarter of a mile in 
length, bounded on either fide by a 
reef of lofty, precipitous, and rugged 
rocks, which are fringed with coppice 
wood and thriving- plantations on the 
fouth. The rocky bank on the north 
fide is about 400 feet in height, and 
it is not much lower upon the fouth 
fide. Both banks are finely varied 
with the different appearances of rock, 
wood, and precipice. At the bottom 
runs the river Moufs, which fcarceiy 
leaves room for the lonely traveller to 
traverfe the den : however, here the 
celebrated botanift, Mr. Lightfoot, 
clambered in fearch of plants, and dif- 
covered fome rare and uncommon 
ones, as may be feen in his Flora Scot- 
ica. At every reach of the Moufs, of 
which there are many, the fcenery 
varies, and wherever you find a promi- 
nent rock upon the one fide, you are 
fure to meet with a regular recefs on 
the other. Caverns in the rock are 
here and there obfervable, but none 
of them worthy of any particular de- 
fcription. One, ftill called Wallace's 
cove, tradition tells us, was the hiding 
hole of that patriot. Another equally 
trifling, but which bears evident marks 
of the chifiel, is faid to have been the 
abode of a hermit in former times, 
but muft have been a miferable habi- 
tation, hardly affording room to lie 
down in. Confiderable veins of the 
fpatum ponderofum run through thefe 
rocks ; but no other mineral has hi- 
therto been traced in this dreary den 
of foxes, badgers, and wild birds. It. 
is fomewhat fingular how the Moufs, 
inftead of following its direct courfe, 
by Baronald-houfe, where the ground 
is lower and unobftrucfed by rocks, 
fhould have penetrated the hill of 


Cartlane, and formed a bed through 
i'olid rock. It teems prefamable that 
this vaft chafm has originally been 
formed by fome earthquake, which, 
rending the rocks, allowed the water 
to pafs that way." After palling Lan- 
ark, it proceeds by Hamilton to Glaf- 
gow, receiving in its comic many tri- 
butary ftreams, of which the Avon, 
the South and North Cotters i are the 
chief. Over the river, at Glasgow, 
is thrown a fine bridge ; and feveral 
ferial bridges are erected near its 
iburce. After palling Glasgow, it 
becomes navigable, receiving the river 
Lenten at Dumbarton, and the river 
Cart near Renfrew. Oppoftte New- 
port, Glafgow, the ft ream is about 2 
miles broad ; but only a fmall part of 
it is navigable by velfels of burden. 
After palling Greenock., it falls into the 
Frith of Clyde, oppolite to the ifland 
of Bute. The Clyde, every where be- 
low the Corra linn, abounds with fal- 
mon ; but above this fall river trout 
are only found. 

CLYDE; one of the three wards 
into which Lanarkfhire is divided, hav- 
ing the river Clyde running through 
and dividing it into two nearly equal 
parts. It gives title of Marquis to 
the eldeft lbn of the Duke of Hamil- 

Clyde slaw; a high hill in the 
pariih of Crawford, from which the 
river Clyde takes its rife. 

CLYNE ; a Highland parifn in the 
county of Sutherland, of which the 
inhabited part extends in length about 
24, and in breadth from 8 to 4 miles. 
It is fituated on the E. coaft, from 
which the Ihore Safes gradually to the 
mountains. There are a great num- 
ber of black cattle and fheep reared, 
but although many parts are capable 
of improvement, agriculture is little 
attended to. Loch Brora is a beauti- 
ful fheet of water, which difcharges it- 
felf into the lea by a rivulet of the 
fame name, at the entrance of which 
there is a tolerable harbour. The in- 
habitants on the coait are moftly fiih- 
ers, but their poverty and want of en- 
couragement, prevent the fiihery from 
being prolecuted to advantage. There 
is plenty of excellent freeftone, 3 or 4 
quarries of limeftone, and coal is faid 
to have been formerly wrought in the 
pariih. There are feveral Pictiih an- 

c o c 

tiquities; in particular, a flrongly For- 
tified hill, on the S. iide of Loch Bro- 
ra, which is eileemed ahnoft impreg- 
nable by any force, -even afiifted by 
modern artillery. Population in 1792, 

Cockburn Lav/; a mountain in 
the pariih of Dunfe, in the county of 
Berwick. It riles from a bafe of at 
leaft 6 miles in circumference to a co- 
nical top, which is nearly a mile from 
its bafe. The elevation is about 900 
feet above the level of the fea, which 
makes it a fine landmark for mariners. 
On the N. fide, a little below the mid- 
dle of the hill, are the ruins of a very 
old building, called Woden** or Ed- 
win's hall. It confifts of 3 concen- 
tric circles, the diameter of the inner- 
mofl being 40 feet, the thickaefs of 
the walls 7 feet, and the fpaces be- 
tween the walls 7 and 10 feet; fhefe 
fpaces have been arched over, and di- 
vided into cells of 12, 16, and 20 feet»- 
It is remarkable in this ftructure, that 
the ftones are not cemented by any 
kind of mortar ; they are chieSy whin, 
and made to lock into one another 
with grooves and projections, executed 
with vaft labour. It is fuppofed to 
have been a PicrHh building, and af- 
terwards ufed as a military ftation. 

COCKBURNSPATH ; a pariih on 
the fea coaft in the county of Berwick. 
It confifts of two parts- ; one high an tl 
mountainous, the other comparatively 
low and even. The upper divifioir 
makes part of the Lamraermuir hills, 
which approach within 3 miles of the 
ihore towards the W. ; the lower di- 
vifion on the fea coaft is light and 
fandy, interfperfed with fields of rich. 
deep clay. The Ihore is high, prefent- 
mg a fet of cliffs about 100 feet above 
the le'*el of the fea ; behind the cliffs 
the ground rifes gently towards the 
hills, having many deep dens or ra- 
vines, whofe fides are fometimes fiop- 
ing and covered with verdure,, but the 
general appearance is rocky, with 
overhanging woods. Over one of thefe 
ravines is thrown the Peaths or Peefe- 
brldge, planned and executed by Mr. 
Henderfon in 1786. This bridge is- 
123 feet from the furface of the water 
to the parapet, 300 feet in length, and 
15 feet wide, and is looked upon as 
a mafterpiece of architecture. About 
Dunglafs-, the feat of Sir James Hall, 
there is a great deal of fine wood, and 

c o c 

valuable trees ; Pemmijh'u-l wood con- 
tains nearly 100 acres of fine natural 
oak. Nearly a quarter of a mile above 
the Peefefbri'dge are the remains of an 
ancient caftle, called the old tower; 
it appears to have been a place of great 
ftrength, but the date of its erection 
is unknown. Situated near the bound- 
ary of the kingdom, and pofielhng 
many ftrong military partes, this pa- 
ri in has been frequently the fcene of 
war; this appears from the camps ftill 
vilible on the riling grounds, and the 
marks of military entrenchments in 
the glens. About 60 years ago, an 
attempt was made to clear a bafon, 
and form a harbour at the mouth of 
a fmall rivulet, called the Cove ; af- 
ter the work was confiderably ad- 
vanced, it was deftroyed by a ftcrm, 
and has never been renewed. A road 
was at that time cut through the 
rock, by which carts pais under ground 
for the fpace of 60 or 70 yards. In 
this parifh the mineralogift will be 
highly gratified with the appearance 
of the fcbijtic rocks which compote 
the Lammermuir hills, and the ar- 
rangement of the primary and fecond- 
ary ftrata ; the upper part of the rock 
isfchijeus, and the lower is compofed 
of ftrata of fandftone, coal, &c. The 
meeting of thefe is diftindtly feen at 
Slckar Point, a promontory waihed by 
the fea ; here the horizontal ftrata of 
fandftone lie upon the broken and 
rugged edges of the febifrus, whofe 
beds are nearly in a vertical pofition. 
Several thick beds of gravel lie upon 
the fandftone, compofed of rounded 
pieces oifchijlus, whin and muirftone, 
porphyry, granite, and fmall nodules 
of limeftone. The greateft advantage 
lias attended the ufe of the fea ware 
or weed as a manure ; it is found to 
make the harveft earlier, and the barley 
raifed by that manure brings at leaft 
is. per boil more than the current 
price. The beds of coal, which were 
formerly wrought, feem to be com- 
pletely exhauftcd. Population in 179. ), 


COCKPEN ; a parifh in the county 
of Edinburgh, about 2 miles long, and 
1 \ broad. The foik is a ftrong clay, 
which in very fertile, and in general 
well cultivated. There is no particular 
manufacture carried on, if we except 
a fmall manufactory of gun-powder 
(the only one in Scotland), which 


was erected fome years ago. Coal fa 
to be found in every part, and has been- 
wrought to great advantage. The 
Southefk divides the parifh ; at its 
fouthern extremity its banks are bold, 
and covered with natural wood ; and 
over it is thrown an elegant bridge. 
Dalhouiie-caftle, the feat of the noble 
family of Ramfay, is a building of 
great antiquity, pleafantly fituated 
on the banks of the river ; it was 
fomewhat modernized by the late 
Earl, and has loft much of its vene- 
rable appearance. The grounds are 
well laid out, and ornamented. The 
manfion of Cockpen, lately purchaild 
by the Earl of Dalhoufie, is admired 
for its delightful fituation, and the 
romantic beauty of the furrounding 
fcenery. Population in 1790, 1123. 

COLDINGHAM ; a town and pa- 
rifh in the county of Berwick. The 
town ftands in a retired dry valley, 
having a fmall rivulet of excellent 
water running upon each fide of it, 
and is about a mile diftant from the 
fea. It appears to have been of con- 
fiderable antiquity, for its menaftery 
was one of the moft ancient and 
flouriihing on the eaft of Scotland; 
and, prior to the confecraf on of the 
famous St. Cuthbert, which was per- 
formed in the cathedral of York, a- 
bout the year 685, the firft monaftery 
was burnt, but was rebuilt (as Lord 
Hailes ftates in his Annals of Scotland) 
by king Edgar in 1098, who, in per- 
fon, affifted at its confecration to the 
Virgin Mary. The town appears long 
ago to have been much larger than at 
prefent ; but, of late, it has affumed a 
more lively and cheerful appearance ; 
and the wealth and population are 
vifibly increafing. It contains about 
720 inhabitants. The parifh is of an 
irregular fquare figure, of 7 or 8 miles. 
The general appearance is flat, but 
there is a confiderable portion of rifmg 
grounds, of eafy afcent and, gentle de- 
clivity, which are, with a few excep- 
tions, acceffible to. the plough, and 
are of a rich fertile foil, except about 
600 acres of muir, of which the foil 
is altogether barren and unfit for cul- 
ture. There are feveral peat mofies, 
but the peats want that folidity which 
renders that fort of fuel fit for fires. 
St. jibtfs Head is fituated on the coaft, 
which is in general dangerous and 
rocky. There is a confiderable extent 

C O t 


c,i natural and planted wood, efpe- 
cially on the banks of the river Eye-, 
Which waters the parilh. About a 
bile W. of 5*. Abb's Head is a beau- 
tiful piece of water, called Colding- 
harfl loch, which is about a mile in 
circumference, and 'of considerable 
depth. There are, befides the town 
of Coldingham, 3 or 4 fmall villages 
in the parifh,- the inhabitants of which 
are chiefly farmers or weavers. The 
remains of a church are ftill vifible on 
the heights of St. Abb's Head, and a 
ruinous caftle, called Faji-cqftle, iur- 
rounded on all fides by the fea, which 
has been almoft impregnable before 
the invention of artillery. Population 
in 1791, 2391. 

COLDSTREAM ; a town fituated 
on the N. fide of the river Tweed, in 
the county of Berwick. It was an- 
ciently the feat of a priory or abbacy 
of the Ciftertian order, which feems 
to have given rife to the town ; it is 
pleafantly fituated in a parilh of the 
lame name, where a fmall river, the 
Led, falls into the Tweed. In the 
town the number of inhabitants is 
1162. Here General Monk fixed his : 
head-quarters, before he marched into. I 
England to reftore Charles II. and | 
here he railed that regiment, which is ! 
ftiil called the C'oldftream regiment of j 
Guards. Few towns are better fitu- 
ated than Coldftream for manufac- 
tures. The banks of the Tweed are 
rich in corn and cattle, and coals are 
cheap. The roads from Berwick to 
London, from Berwick to Kelfo, and 
from- Dunfe to England, all pais 
through the town. The excellence of 
the wool, from the neighbouring dis- 
trict, points out the woollen manufac- 
ture as being adapted to the place. 
No extenfive trade, however, is car- 
ried on. A neat bridge over the Tweed 
unites the two kingdoms at this town. 
The parilh extends along the Tweed 
7 or 8 miles, and its breadth is about 
4. The general appearance of the 
country is flat ; the eminences of the 
parilh do not deferve the name of hills. 
The foil is moftly rich and fertile ; on 
the banks of the Tweed, light ; in- 
cliningto clay, backwards. A broad flip 
of barren land, called the midr land, 
divides the parilh, running through it 
from E. to W. There are no natural 
woods, but fome thriving plantations 
have been lately laid out. Freeftene 


is abundant, and the fymptoms of coal 
are very flattering ; but few attempts 
have been made to difcover it. Shell 
and rock marl are found in many parts. 
Hirfel, the beautiful feat of the Earl 
of Home, and Kersfield, the property 
of Mr. Morifon, are great ornaments 
to the neighbourhood. Lord Home 
has erected two fine obelilks, in me- 
mory of his fon Lord Bunglafs, who 
was killed in the American war. Se- 
veral tumuli in the parilh are laid to 
contain the bones of thofe who fell in 
the border wars. Population of the 
parilh in 1793, 2193. 

COLL ; one of the weftern ifles, 
annexed in the divifion of counties to 
Argyilfhrre. It is about 13 miles in 
length, and 3 in breadth ; its furface 
is one continued rock, much diverfifi- 
ed with eminences, and covered with 
a thin firatum of earth, which in many 
places is wanting, diicovering the bare 
ftone. Such a foil is not fit for plants 
that ftrike deep roots, and perhaps no 
vegetable has ever grown on Coll to 
the height of 3 feet. The uncultivated 
parts, which may be nearly feven- 
eighths of the whole, are covered with 
heath. Coil abounds with lochs, of 
which feveral contain trouts and eels. 
Rabbits are very numerous; and hares, 
which were lately introduced, are be- 
coming fo. The caftle of Coll is a 
ftrong iquare built caftle, with turrets, 
&c. fituated on a rock ; it is ftill in 
tolerable repair. There are a great 
many black cattle fed on the iflahd, 
but fheep are not much encouraged. 
The two ends of the ifland belong to 
the Duke of Argyll, and the middle 
is the property of the Laird of Coll. 
The inhabitants employ themfelves in 
the fifhery. Population in 1793, 1041.. 

COLLAGE. This parilh lies in the 
valley of Strathmore, in the county 
of Perth, forming a fquare of nearly 
2 miles. The northern divifion is to- 
lerably uniform, and rifes gently to- 
wards the hills, having a light black 
loamy foil, intermixed with clay, and 
mofiy tracts of fmall extent; the dis- 
trict towards the S. takes in the N. 
fide of the Sidlaw hills, the fides of 
which are in fome places enclofed and 
improved, but towards the top, with 
the exception of Dunfinnan, are co- 
vered with heath. Lord Dunfinnan is 
the fole proprietor, and has a pleafan!:" 
feat, DnnJh:7ian-hoitfe y in the N. W* 


corner of the parifh, about 7 Bales 
from Perth, near the road which leads 
to Cupar-Angus. The moft noted 
piece of antiquity is the caffie of Mac- 
beth, on the top of Dunlinnan hill ; 
for an account of which, vide Dun* 
sinnan. Collace, in 1797, contained 
47,3 inhabitants. 

COLLESSIE; a parifh in the coun- 
ty* of Fife, about 8 miles in length, 
and 5 in breadth. The S. part of the 
pariih is- remarkably flat, but the N. 
is rather hilly. The arable land is 
very fertile. The river Eden bounds 
the pariih on the S. A large loch, 
which was drained fome time ago, is 
now covered with natural hay, and 
affords pafture to 120 head of cattle. 
Not far from the church are the re- 
mains of 2 caftles or fortifications ; 
feveral mounds have been lately open- 
ed, and found to contain human hones. 
Population in 1790-8, 949 ; in 5801, 

COLLINGTON ; a parifh in the 
county of Mid-Lothian, which ap- 
proaches within 2 miles of the metro- 
polis. It extends about 4 miles E. 
and W. and about 5 in a S. and N. 
direction, and takes in part of the Pent- 
land ridge, Logan-houfe hill, the high- 
eft point being in this parifh. This 
hill is found, by repeated barometri- 
cal obfervations, to be 1700 feet above 
the level of the fea at Leith. The ara- 
ble lands flope gently from the fkirts 
of the hills to the level of the river, 
and are all enclofed and highly culti- 
vated. The river of Collington, or ra- 
ther the water of Leith, abounds with 
much romantic fcenery, and in a courfe 
of 10 miles drives no fewer than 71 
mills : on the lands of Cornifton there 
are the veftiges of a very large and an- 
cient encampment ;. not far from this 
are a large cairns, and an upright ft one, 
called the kelflane, aBri tiih word, which 
imports the" ftone of tfee battle." Po- 
pulation in 1797, 1395. 

COLMONELL ; a parifh of the 
diftricT: of Carrick, in the county of 
Ayr. It is of confidcrable extent, be- 
ing about 14 miles in length, and on 
an average 6 in breadth. From the 
fea, which bounds it on the W. for 4 
miles inland, the furface is hilly ; the 
reft of the pariih, though elevated, is 
pretty level. The foil is thin and 
light:, a good deal intermixed with 
rarge ftorifesi The foil on the banks 

c 01 

of the Sthehar, and fome of its tri- 
butary ftreams, is loamy and fertile ; 
and, thi'ough their whole courfe, are 
adorned with natural wood. One of 
the bills, called Knockdolian, riling in a - 
conical lhape to a eonfiderable height, 
is a confpicuous land-mark to veflels, 
when they enter the Frith of Clyde* 
A great part of the pariih is now en- 
clofed, and agriculture is beginning to 
be attended to. There are a great 
number of ancient forts and cairns, 
concerning the erection of which tra* 
dition itfelf does not even hazard a 
coniecture. Population in 1792, noo.- 

COLONSAY; one of the Hebrides, 
belonging to Argyllihire. As it is fe- 
parated from Oranfay by a narrow 
found, which is dry at lew water, we 
may confider thefe two as the fame 
ifland. The furface is unequal, hav- 
ing a eonfiderable number of rugged 
hills covered with heath ; but none 
of the eminences deferve the name of 
mountains. It contains about 8000 
' acres, of which 3000. are arable. The 
foil is light, and along the fh ores it in- 
clines to fand, producing early and to- 
lerable crops. Of late, the fyftem of 
converting arable land into pafture has. 
prevailed, and a great part of the two 
iflands is covered with black cattle. 
The remains of feveral Romifh chapels 
are to i be fcen in Colonfay, where was' 
alfo a monaftery of Ciftertians; the re- 
mains of the abbey were taken down 
fome years ago, in erecting a farm 
houfe. The priory of the fame- mo- 
naftery was in Oranfay, the walls of 
which are ftill ftanding, and, next to 
Icolmkill, are efteemed the fineft relics 
of religious antiquities in the Hebrides.- 
There is a great quantity of fine coral 
on the banks, round thefe iflands ; and 
a eonfiderable quantity of itelp is an- 
nually made from the fea weed thrown 
upon the coaft. The Duke of Argyll 
is the principal proprietor. The num- 
ber of inhabitants amounts to nearly 

Colonsay (Little) ; a frriall 
iiland of the Hebrides, fituated be- 
twixt the ifles of Staffa and Gometra. 
It in many places exhibits fpecimens- 
of bafaltie pillars, fimilar to thofe of 
Staffa, and is inhabited by one family, 
who look after a few fheep. 

a pariih in the ftewartry of Kirkcud- 
bright, extends along the banks of the 

C O M 


■Solway Frith about 8 miles in length, 
and 4 in breadth. The furface is 
rough and irregular, much broken and 
.interrupted by rocks, large heaps of 
.ftones, and impenetrable copies of 
thorns, furze, and briars. For 2 miles 
along the coaft the country becomes 
arather more fmooth, and in many 
pi.'ces arable; but, farther up the 
country, particularly towards the N. 
E. extremity, the furface is occupied 
by the chain of the Criffel ox Cra-zufel 
mountains. From the appearance of 
the ground, it is evident that pafturage 
is move proper here than tillage. The 
fea coaft is remarkably bold and rocky, 
forming high and tremendous preci- 
pices, from the bottom of which the 
tide ebbs, leaving an extenfive fiat 
,-fand, from whence the beholder may 
view the dreadful fcenery. Amongft 
the crevices of the rocks, and gene- 
rally in the molt inaccefTible preci- 
pices, is found that marine plant_/I?w- 
fthire, to the dangerous expedients in- 
gathering which Shakefpeare alludes 
in his defcription of Dover cliff. 

" half way down 

'"Hangs one that jgathers fampfaref' 

dreadful trade." 

The fmall river of Southwick forms a 
-convenient harbour, where it falls into 
the Solway Frith. All the moffes 
contain large trunks of oak and other 
trees, from whence it is probable that 
.this tracb was formerly an extenfive 
foreft ; but, at prefent, there are Few 
trees either natural or planted. The 
•mountains are compofed entirely <of 
granite, interfperied with veins .of 
quartz, and /pars. Like the .other 
parts of the Solway Frith, the polypus 
or animal flower is found here. Many 
of the fprings in the Criffel mountains 
•contain, in folution, a quantity of cal- 
careous matter, which gives them a 
petrifying quality. Population in 

I793> 9 6 4- 

COMRIE ; a village and parifh m 
the county of Perth. The extent of 
the parifh is coniiderable, being about 
13 miles long From E. to W. and 10 
broad. It confrfts of the ftrath or flat 
ground at the head of Stratherne, and 
of 4 glens, with rivulets at the bottom, 
which pour their waters into the Erne. 
The foil, in general in the low grounds, 
:is light and gravelly ; and in ibrne parts, 
.cfpecially in the.glens, it is deeper, and 

Avampy. On the Fides of .the ftrath to 
the E. end of Locherne, and even along 
the lochitit'lf, is a continued ridge q£ 
hills, fomeof them elevated to a great 
height. Locherne is a beautiful expanfe 
of water, 8 miles in length. The banks 
are covered with natural wood of 
great extent and value. Eefides this 
Jake, there are fevcral fmaller lakes, 
which abound with Fmall trout. The 
hilly part is covered with flocks <sf 
fheep, of which there are annually 
reared about 16,000. Few diftricts 
afford more variety of wild Highland 
fcenery than Comrie. There is a good 
Hate quarry near the foreft of Glenairt- 
ney, and an excellent limeftone quar- 
ry at the W. end of Locherne, which 
has been of immen-fe Fervice in the 
improvement of the iands. The near- 
eft coal is 25 miles diftant frcrn the 
village, and peats are at beft a trouble- 
fome and expenfive fuel. There are 
the remains of 3 druidical temple?, 
and the diftincb profile of a Roman 
camp in the plain of Dalgincrofs, in 
the neighbourhood of Comrie. This 
parifh, and the .neighbouring diftricl, 
have been much alarmed for Fevera'l 
years by frequent fmart -ihocks of 
earthquakes. In all the ihockswhich 
have been felt, Comrie feems to have 
been the center towards which the 
motion feems to proceed. The village 
of Comrie ftands on the confluence of 
the Erne and Rutbi'i. It is pleafantly 
fituated, and very ihrbsing. A confi- 
derable trade is-earried on in fpinnmg 
of yarn, and diuiuaticn of vvhilky. A 
great part of it belongs to th-5 family 
of Perth. ..Near Locherne is Duneira, 
an elegant hunting^feat of the Right 
Hon. Henry Dundas. Population in 
1791, about 3000. 

Con (Loch) ; one of the chain of 
.lakes formed by the Forth in patling 
through the parifri of Aberfoyle, in 
the. county of Perth. It is about 24; 
miles in length, and peffeffes the fame 
romantic fcenery for which Loch Ca- 
therine and-Locb Ard are dntinguiihed. 

Conan, oi-.Conon ; a river in Rofs- 
fhire, which fails into the bottom of 
the Frith of Cromarty. It abounds 
with falmon ; and formerly pearls of 
great-value were found near its mouth. 

.CONTIN ; a parifh in Rofsfhire. 

The furface is very mountainous, but 

there is a good deal of good corn 

land^s in .the valleys. A gixatnurr.ber 




of the hills are covered with forefts of 
natural wood. There are many lakes 
and rivers, which abound with falrnon 
and other fifth. Many black cattle, 
horfes, and fheep, are reared on the 
hills, which alfo afford plenty of game 
to the fportfman. Shell and rock 
marl, and limefcone of good quality, 
abound. The Rafay is the principal 
river in the parifh. Population in 
1792, 2500. 

Coquet Rivkr takes its rife in the 
county of Roxburgh, fromthofe moun- 
tains which feparate England from 
Scotland, and after receiving a vaft 
number of ftreams from the fides of 
the mountains, which increafe it to a 
confiderable fize, it enters England, 
and taking an eafterly direction, falls 
into the ocean betwixt Alnwick and 
Coquet ifle. 

Correfn ; a hill in the parifh of 
Forbes, Aberdeenfhir-e, the height of 
which is nearly 2000 feet above the 
level of the lea. It contains excellent 

Corrie ; a fmall river in Dumfries- 
mire. It has its fource in a glen of 
the fame name, in the united parifhes 
of Hutton and Corrie, and after a ra- 
pid courfe of about 6 miles, falls into 
the Milk at Balftaek. 

CORSTORPHINE ; a parifh in 
the county of Mid-Lothian, not more 
than 2 or 3 miles from Edinburgh ; 
extends about 4 miles at its' greateft 
length,, and on average a\ miles in 
breadth. The furface is in general 
level, rifing to few eminences, and 
thefe inconfiderable ; over a great part 
of its extent it fpreads into a fine .h 
plain. The grounds of higheft eleva- 
tion, are thole which are called Cor- 
ftorphine hills; an appellation they 
could hardly have gained, were it not 
for their fituation, being in a manner 
infulated in themidft of rich valleys, 
where they form a diyerfity highly 
conducive to the beauty of the coun- 
try : on the S. and W. fides they rife 
from the plain, by an ealy gradual af- 
cent, to the height of 470 feet above 
the level of the lea : on the N. and E. 
they are more rocky and precipitate : 
the appearance on the S. fide is re- 
markable for its beauty ; decorated 
with the beautiful feats of Belmont 
and Eeachwood, and having the whole 
Lands cultivated and neatly enclofed, 
it forms a pleafant rural Iandfcape. 

The foil is generally a rich loam, diver- 
fified with clay and land. A great 
part of the meadow ground is eom- 
pofed of decayed vegetables. Agri- 
culture, in its different departments, 
is conducted according to the moft 
improved modes adapted in Scotland 
and the b6rdering counties of Eng- 
land ; fummer fallow, and a due rota- 
tion of green and meliorating crops 
are pbferveci, and the farmer takes ad- 
vantage of his local fituation to pror 
cure dung from Edinburgh, by which 
he is enabled to raife crops in fuccef- 
lion, which others without this advan- 
tage are unable to do. A general opi r 
nion prevails here, that lime ufed as a 
manure would be unproductive, and 
even deleterious, after ufirig the ftreet 
dung of the metropolis : this idea 
leems to be ill founded ; and, it is pro- 
bable the practice would be attended 
with the contrary effect : lime is ufed 
principallyas aftinvulant, and as means 
of accelerating the eifiolution of ve- 
getable matter, and its change into 
the principles which are the food of 
plants, which the ftreet dung affordjj 
in great abundance. Corftorphme is 
watered at .one corner by the water of 
Leith, and by a fmall rivulet called 
Gogar burn. There is but little wood 
in the whole diftrict, the ground being 
all arable, and too valuable to be laid 
out in that unprofitable manner. The 
village of Corftorphine lies low, and 
is faid to have a damp and unhealthy 
atmofphere ; but there are no eviden- 
ces of this circumftance ; epidemic dis- 
orders are not more prevalent than in 
the neighbourhood. The population 
has very much decreafed within this 
century; one caufe, of bringing people 
to the place on a tranfient vifit has 
fome years ago been removed. The 
hepatic mineral fprihg, which was ■ 
much reforted to, has fallen into total 
difrepute for a number of yearn ; 
owing, it is faid, to a drain pa fling 
near the place, by which its virtues 
have been impaired. Before that pe- 
riod, Corftorphine was the place of 
fafhionable refort from Edinburgh, 
and had its balls, and other amufe- 
naents of watering-places. Except 
fandftone, whinftone, and a fpecies of 
ftone compofed of fch'ijlus and fand- 
ftone, intei mixed with micaceous frag- 
ments, no mineral of note has been 
difcovered. Population in 1791, 1037, 

c ou 

pniteS parifhes occupy a very exten- 
five portion of the county of Angus. 
The foil is in general poor, with a wet 
and cold bottom ; a part, however, of 
the haugh ground, on the banks of the 
Elk, the only river in the diftrier, is a 
light early foil, interfptrfed with fre- 
quent patches of mofs. The parifhes 
include a great part of the Grampian 
mountains, and from this circumftance 
are calculated principally for pafture ; 
fome of the hills are of great height, 
and many places are beautifully ro- 
mantic and picturefque. In the fmall 
part of the parifhes which is capable 
of cultivation, the farmers follow a 
regular iyitem of agriculture. Marl, 
which is procured in great plenty at 
the diftance of 3 miles, is the only ma- 
nure. There are two fmall lochs in 
the difkrict, which abound with trout 
and pike. The common fuel is peat, 
turf, or heath, which are abundant in 
every part. Cortachy-caftle, belong- 
ing to Lord Airly, and Clova-houie, 
the property of the Hon. Walter Ogil- 
vie, are the only feats. Whhifcone is 
found in great quantity ; but no free- 
flone, or any valuable mineral, has 
been yet difcovered. Population 3n 
1791, 49°- 

Cory-Vreckan; a dangerous gulf 
■pr whirlpool, between the iflands 'jura 
.and Scorba, on the coaft of Argyllihire. 
It is nearly as much dreaded by the 
faiiors on thefe coafts, as the much 
famed Gulf of Charybdis was by the 
faiiors of old. 

COULL; a parifh in Aberdeenfhire, 
fituated at the head of a ftrath which 
is called Cromar. Its fhape is nearly 
triangular, thelongeft fide of which is 
about 5 miles, and the other two a- 
feout 34. Coull, and the reft of the 
ftrath of Cromar, is fiat, but much 
sheltered by high hills on each fide. 
The foil is excellent, being compofed 
of clay and fand. The pariih takes 
in a»"o part of the hills, which are 
bleak and barren, affording pafture to 
a few iheep. None of them rife to a 
great height. A confiderable bog, in 
rainy feafons, is completely converted 
into a lake, and covered with aquatic 
fowls. There is a fmall druidical edi- 
fice, on fome of the ftcnes of which 
are the appearance of hieroglyphics, 
and figures of men. It is called Tam- 
j^wyV/or hili afwor/hip. Several pieces 

c o w 

of fd ver coin, of eld Scottifh monarch s, 
have been dug up amongft the ruins 
of the cafile of Ccull. The great difi- 
advantage of this pariih is the dif- 
ta'nce from a fea port ; Aberdeen., the 
neareft, being diftant 'upward:-, of 30 
miles. Population in 1791, 465. 

Coulter (Loch); a fmall lake 
in Stirlingihire. It is about. 2 miles 
in, and pours its waters 
into Ban?iockbnm, the rivulet whofe 
banks celebrated for the decilive 
viclcry gained over the Engliih army 
by King Robert Bruce. The rivulet 
of Bannockbum falls into the Porth, at 
the N. E. boundary of the parifh of 
St. Ninians. 

COVINGTON; a parifh in the 
county of Lanark. It extends in length 
about 3 miles, and in breadth rather 
more than 2. The furface is partly 
haugh ground on the banks of the 
Clyde, and partly mountainous- Tb?- 
io, the higheft point, is elevated to the 
height of 1720 feet above the level of 
the Clyde. The hilly part of the pa- 
rifh is covered with heath, but the 
reft of the foil is fertile, and well cul- 
tivated. There is a fmall village, called 
Thankerton, beautifully fituated on the 
banks of the Clyde, over which river 
there is a bridge at this place. Within 
this fmall diftrict we meet with nu- 
merous relics of antiquity ; particu- 
larly four circular- camps, and a large 
cairn on the fummit of the hill ofTinta M 
where a fire was conftantly kept up, 
whence its name, which fignifies " the 
hill of fire" There is alfo a fine ruia 

of a fortification built by a Sir ; 

Lindfey of Covington, in the year 144c. 
Population returned to Sir John Sin- 
clair, 484. 

COWAL ; a diftrict of Argyllihire, 
is a peninfula or point of land ilretch- 
ing N. E. and S. W. between the Frith 
of Clyde and Loch Fyne. The N. E. 
part of the diftrict, which borders with 
Perthihire, prefents a rugged and bro- 
ken' furface. The mountains become 
gradually lpwer, and the furface lefs 
rugged, as you advance to the S. W.j 
and towards the extremity, compara- 
tively fpeaking, the land is low and 
level. The hills afford excellent paf- 
ture for lheep and black cattle; though 
formerly covered with heath, they are 
gradually growing green, fince the in- 
troduction of iheep. The foil has fo 
great a tendency to produce heath, 

C R A 


that land laid out in fallow will be- 
come covered with it in 6 or 7 years. 
This diftrift is interfered by 3 arms 
of the fea, Loch Ridden, Loch Streven, 
and Loch Eck, and is watered by the 
river Cur and Eachaig, which abound 
with all kinds of fifh. The coaft is 
partly flat, and partly bold and rocky, 
§j<afieffing many creeks and harbours, 
which afford Shelter to the buries em- 
ployed in the herring fifhery. Here 
are ruins of the royal catties of Dunoon 
and Carriclc General Campbell of 
Strachur, -Campbell of South-hall, and 
Lamont of Lamont, have elegant houfes 
■and extenfive eftates in this district. 

Cowie ; a fmall rivulet in the 
•county of Kincardine, which, after 
running a. courfe of 9 or 10 miles 
through the parifli of Fetteueflb, falls . 
into the ocean at a village called Cowie, ' 
a few miles from Stonehaven. 

Coyl ; a fmall rivulet in Ayrfhire, 
-which falls into the Lugar, near the 
village of Ochiltree. 

COYLTQN ; a parifli in the dif- 
vcidi of Kyle, in Ayrfhire. It extends 
about 2 miles in breadth, and 7 in 
length. The furface ; is flat, and the 
foil is a rich fertile clay, particularly 
productive on the banks of the rivers 
Ayr and Doom There are feveral 
■new plantations, which are in a thriv- 
ing ftate. There are feveral lakes in 
•the parifli, which abound with trout. 
Coal, freeftone, lime, and marl, are 
found in every part of the parifli. 
Population in 1792, 667- 

CRAIG ; a parifli Situated in the 
county of Angus, at the discharge of 
the Southeik into the ocean. It ex- 
tends along the fea coaft about 4 miles, 
prefenting a rocky craig or precipice 
to the fea ; its length is about 6, and 
■its breadth about 2 4 miles. The fur- 
face is elevated about 400 feet above 
the level of the fea, but is upon the 
whole flat. The foil is good, pro- 
ducing excellent crops. There are 2 
£fhing villages in the parifli, viz. Ufan 
and Ferryden. There was formerly 
a very productive falmon frilling on 
the Southefk, but of late it has great- 
ly fallen off. There is an ifland in the 
mouth of Southefk, called Inchbraick, 
attached to this parifli, through which 
the new road pafies from Arbroath to 
the bridge of Montrofe. From the 
example of the Meffrs. Scotts of Dun- 
ninald ^cd Ufan, and Mr. Rofs of 

Roflie, enclofures are now general. 
There were formerly feveral caflles in 
the parifli, but they are now demolifh- 
ed ; but, if there are few monuments 
of ancient grandeur, we have feveral 
beautiful modern feats. Dunninald 
and Ufan are line manfions, with or- 
namented policies ; and the elegant 
caftle of Roflie, juft completed, is a 
noble Specimen of modern architec- 
ture. Mr. Rofs has lately, at his own 
expence, built a neat church, with a 
handfome Square tower, to terminate 
the vifta from his caftle. Near Roflie 
is a mineral fpring, ftrongly impreg- 
nated with iron, of considerable fervice 
in relaxed habits. This parilh has alio 
extenfive limeftone quarries. Popula- 
tion in 17.908, 13 14. 

■CRAIGIE ; a parifli in the diftricf. 
of Kyle, in the county of Ayr. The 
furface is hilly, and from the top of 
fome of the hills the profpecl is very 
extenfive. The foil is in general light, 
and gravelly ; but in fome parts is a 
deep ftrong clay. The greateft part 
is arable, well enclofed, and very pro- 
ductive. The hills are covered with 
verdure, and afford paflure to a great 
number of cattle. The extent of the 
parifli is 7 miles by 1 \ : many parts 
of the parifli contain coal, though on- 
ly one pit is at prefent wrought : one 
feam is compofed of Cannel coai. 
There are alfo 2 or 3 great limeworks, 
from which 60,000 bolls of lime may 
be annuallyraifed. Population in 1792, 

Craig-Lockhart ; a hill about z 
miles S. W. of Edinburgh ; it is beau- 
tifully wooded, and forms a romantic 
fituation for the country refidence of 
the Hon. Baron Gordon, the proprie- 
tor ; towards the N. W. the. rock ex- 
hibits- lofty bafaltic columns, and on 
the S. E. 'fide another fet of bafaltic 
pillars appear ftill more difthict than 
the former, but of fmaller diameter ; 
the columns are inclined towards the 
E. forming an obtufe angle; ths fum- 
mit of the hill is elevated 540 feet 
above the level of the fea. 

Craiglusu (Loch); a lake inthe 
district of Stormont, in Perthflnre, 
from which the river Lunan takes its 

CRAIGNISH; a parifli fituated on 
the weftern coaft of Argyllshire. The 
furface is low and flat ; the foil in- 
clines -to clay, and is tolerably fertile.; 


C R A 

»ut the climate, on account of the 
vicinity to the Atlantic, is fo moid 
and variable, as often to blaft the farm- 
er's hopes. Captain Campbell of Craig- 
nifh, is the only perfon in the pariih 
who has his farm enclofed, and em- 
ploys fallow and artificial grafles. A 
few herrings, and other fiih, are caught 
on the coaft. There are many fortified 
eminences in the parifn, fuppofed to 
be Danilh. In the vale, many rude 
monuments of death record in the 
moft artlefs manner the battles of 
ancient times. " There," fays Ofiian, 
." the gray ftones rear their heads in the 
heath, to mark the graves of fallen 
heroes." There are alfo the remains 
of cairns, and othe tumuli. Coal is 
much wanted in this remote part of 
the Highlands ; but, it is hoped, the 
repeal of the coal tax, and the opening 
of the Crinan canal, will remove that 
want.- Population in 1792, 770. 

Craig-Owl ; one of the Sidlaw 
bills, in the pasrifti of Tealing, in the 
county of Angus ; has been found by 
actual measurements to be elevated 
1 100 feet perpendicular above the 
level of the fea. 

Craig-Phatric ; a fteep and rug- 
ged hill in the neighbourhood of In- 
vernefs ; the elevation of the higheft 
part is 1 150 feet above -the level of the 
river Nefs, which flows at its foot ; it 
is noted for the remains of one of thofe 
fortifications, which, from the vitrified 
a;:pearanceof the ftones, and the marks 
of fufion which they exhibit, have re- 
ceived the name of vitrified forts. That 
on the fummit of Craig-Phatric is by 
far the moft complete and extenfive 
one in Britain. The top of Craig-Pba- 
tric is flat, and has been furroundec 
by a wall in the form of a parallelo- 
gram, the length of which is about 80 
yards, and the breadth 30 within the 
wall. The ftones are all firmly con- 
nected together by a kind of vitrified 
matter, refembling lava, or the/cor/^ 
or flag of an iron foundery, and the 
ftones themfelves in many places feem 
to have been foftened and vitrified. 
The greater part of the rampart is now 
covered with turf, fo that it has the 
appearance of an earthen mound ; but, 
on removing the earth, the vitrified 
matter is every wbere vifible, and 
would feem f to have been in fome 
places of great height. On the out- 
ride there is the appearance of a fecond 

rampart, but not fo regular as tire nVir f 
confiderablc mafles of vitrified matte? 
are alfo found in this fecond ftructure. 
under which is the natural rock, chief- 
ly a fine granite, with fome breccia or 
pud ding J} one here and there, compofed 
of red granite, pebbles, quartoze, no- 
dules, &c. in a cement of argillaceous 
and quartoze matter. Within the area 
is a hollow, with a fmall fpring of wa- 
ter. The ruins of fimilar vitrified fortr* 
are to be feen on the iummits of other 
hills in the Highlands. On Knock- 
farril and Caftle-Finlay, in Rofsfhire \ 
on Dun-evan, in Nairnfhire ; and an- 
other, near the S. W. extremity of the 
ifland of Bute. The opinions con- 
cerning thefe ruins are very different; 
fome maintain that the vitrification is 
the effect of a volcano ; others, the 
work of art ; but Mr. Frazer Tytlei, 
in the fecond volume of the Tranfac- 
tions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh-, 
endeavours to eftahlifti, that the vitri- 
fication is the refult of accident, the 
ruins of ancient forts deftroyed by fire. 
For a more particular account of this 
remarkable appearance, we refer the 
reader to a work by Mr. Williams^ 
entitled, " An account of fome re- 
markable ancient ruins, lately difco- 
vered in the Highlands of Scotland.;" 
to, the Philofophical Transitions of 
London for the year 1777.; and to Mr. 
Tytler's treatife in the Philofophical 
Tranfactions of Edinburgh, vol. a. 

CRAIL ; a royal borough of great 
antiquity, in the county of Fife. It 
was anciently called Caryle and Cair- 
raille, and is mentioned by old hifto- 
rians as a town of confiderable note, 
as early as the middle of the 9th cen- 
tury. It received its royal charter 
from Robert the Bruce, which was fuc- 
cefiively confirmed, with feveral new 
grants, by Robert II. Mary, James Vi- 
and Charles I. It is fituated on the 
coaft of the Frith of Forth, near Fife- 
nefs, and 'pofiefies a fmall harbour-, 
which, however, is neither commodi- 
ous nor fafe. A creek, a little to the 
weftward of the town, could, at a 
fmall expence, be converted into an 
excellent harbour. It confifts of two 
parallel ftre'ets, extending along the 
lh ore, which is here fteep and high. 
The houfes are fallen into decay, and 
the whole town bears evident marks 
of having feen better days. Crail uied 
to be the great rendezvous for the 


herring fifnery ; but the fifhery, from 
various caufes, has been declining for 
this fame time, and Crail has declined 
alio. The parifh occupies the whole 
of the eaft nook of Fife, extending- in 
length about 6 miles, and of very irre- 
gular breadth. The general appear- 
ance is flat and naked ; the expofure 
to the fea winds being very unfavour- 
able to the growth of trees. From the 
fhore, the ground rifes abruptly to the 
height of 60 or 80 feet above the level 
of the lea. The foil is very various, 
being found of all kinds, from the 
richeft black loam to the pcoreft thin 
Tret clay. From the attention paid to 
hufbandry, they have generally plen- 
tiful crops. In former times, coal 
ufed to be wrought in mo ft parts of 
the parifh. Limeftone is alfo found 
in a few quarries. There is- plenty of 
fireeftone, but the quality is not good. 
Balcomie-bcufe, a feat of the late Ge- 
neral Scott, is well known as a fea- 
mark by failors navigating thefe feas. 
Airdrie and Wormifton are two fine 
modern houfes. The remains of a 
priory, and the ruins of an old caftle, 
where David I. refided, are the only 
remains of antiquity. Sibbald fays, 
that David I. died here. Population 
in 1798, 1624. 

CR AILING ; a parifh in the dif- 
tridt of Teviotdale, county of Rox- 
burgh ; its form is nearly circular, 
having a diameter of nearly 4 miles ; 
its furface reprefents a valley, with 
the river Teviot running in the centei\ 
The foil, though various, is excellent, 
and very fertile. Towards the S. there 
are considerable plantations of wood. 
Befides the Teviot, the fexall river 
Oxnam waters the parifh, and falls in- 
to the Teviot at this place. Agricul- 
ture i-s more attended to here than 
perhaps in any part in Scotland. Marl, 
lime, txvA' gypjimi, are ufed for ma- 
nure. The turnpike from Hawick to 
Kelfopafles throughthe parifh. Mount 
Teviot Lodge, a fiat of the Marquis 
of Lothian, is finely iituatcd on the 
borders of a romantic glen, the fides 
of which are covered with natural 
wood. At the foot of the glen is 
Crailing-houfe, the feat of Mr. Hunter. 
A Roman road or caufeway runs 
through the parifh ; near which are 
feve'ral fortification?:, which are alio 
faid to be Roman. Population in 
1790-8, 675!. 


CRAMOND ; a parifh fituated on 
the S. fide of the Frith of Forth, part- 
ly in the county of Linlithgow, and 
partly in Mid-Lothian; it is watered 
by the fmall river of Amon, which is 
the boundary of the fnires. The fides 
of this river are beautifully ornament- 
ed, from about Craighie-hall to where 
it falls into the Forth ; at this place- 
is the village of Nether Cramond. The 
whole extent of the parifh is from 6 
to 7 miles in length, while the breadth 
varies from 1 to 2. Towr.rds the N. 
and E. the furface is flat, interfperfed 
with gentle eminences. • This part is 
fei'tile, and the cultivation is well at- 
tended to. The neighbourhood of 
Edinburgh, from which it is diftant 
only about 3 miles, affords a ready 
market for the produce,' and furniihes 
plenty of excellent manure for the 
farms. The fouthern and weftern part 
of the parifh is more hilly and broken ; 
Corftorphine hill, riling to the height, 
of 470 feet above the level of the fea, 
is partly in this parifh. To this alfo 
i6 annexed the 2 fmall iflands of Cra- 
mond and Inehmickery. The road 
from Edinburgh to Queensferry paffes 
through the parifh, croffing the A- 
mond and Cramond bridge. The 
fifheries on tne Forth are* much lefs 
than they have been at former times. 
The oyfter beds on the coaft, and a- 
bout the iflands of Cramond and Ineh- 
mickery, are almoft deftroyed from 
over fifhing ; and the Amon, which 
formerly abounded with falmon and 
trout, is now almoft deferted. Roy- 
fton-houfe is an elegant feat. The 
principal manufacture carried on is 
the forging of iron, and working of 
fteel. It is faid the company employs a 
capital of upwards of 30,0001. Spades, 
bolts for fhips, rods, bars, hoops, Sec. 
are manufactured at this work. Free-- 
ftone abounds in many places ; as alfo 
whinftone, and granite. Ironftone is 
found along the coafc, and there are 
many large feams of coal ; but, though 
pits have been frequently funk, they 
have fhortly been given up, on ac- 
count of the badnefs of the coal. In 
Corftorphine hill there is a fpecies of 
ftone, feemingly compofed of fchiftus 
and quartz? which is fo hard, that when' 
beated and pulverized, has been found 
to anfwer moft of the purpofes of 
emery* There is another kind of 
mixed ftone, which has the appearance- 


of coarfe whinftone, but has evidently 
a confiderable quantity of calcareous 
matter in its competition. When ta- 
ken from the quarry, it is hard enough 
to ftrike fire with fteel, but by expo- 
fure to the weather, it foon crumbles 
down to an earth, in the fragments of 
which very fine fpecimens of cryftalliz- 
ed zeolite is found. There is a mineral 
fpring on the lands of Marchfidd, 
called the <u>e/I of Spa<iv, containing 
fufficient quantity of fulphate of mag- 
nefia, to render it highly purgative. 
John Strachan, Efq. of Craigcrool; , in 
this pariih, about the year 1720, mor- 
tified his eftate, of above 3ool./«- an- 
num, to certain managers, to be ap- 
plied by them in relieving the neceffi- 
ties of " poor old men, women, and 
orphans." The pariih of Cramond 
has given birth to feveral men, who 
have become eminent by their talents, 
or their virtues. Of thefe may be 
mentioned, ift, John, fecond Lord 
Balmerinoch, noted for his fpirited 
oppefition to Charles I. and for being 
the beft friend of the Covenanters, 
having fpent the greateft part of his 
fortune in fupport of that caufe ; ad, 
Sir Thomas Hope of Grantown, a ce- 
lebrated lawyer at the Scottifh bar ; 
3d, Sir George M'Kenzie, ill Earl of 
Cromarty, well known for his volumi- 
nous productions ; and, 4th, Doctor 
Cleghorn, profeilbr of anatomy in the 
univerfity of Dublin, who may be 
confidered as the founder of the fchool 
of medicine in that univerfity. To 
thefe we may add John Law of Lau- 
rifton, one of the molt remarkable 
characters this or any other country 
has ever produced. He was born at 
Laurifton about the year 1670; and 
ihortly after, difgufted with fome ne- 
glect which he received at court, went 
over to France, where he nearly com- 
pleted the ruin of that monarchy by 
his financial speculations. After being 
raifed to the high rank of comptroller- 
general of the finances of France, he 
obtained liberty to erecl: a national 
bank, which was attended with the 
moft beneficial effect. Afterwards, 
he began gradually to develope the 
fcheme, which he had long before di- 
gested, called the Mijifflppifyjlem. This 
was the eitabliihment of an American 
of weftern trading company, the ob- 
ject of which was the planting and 
cultivation of the French colonies of 


North America. The plan was inv- 
mediately adopted, and the abundance 
of fallacious wealth which poured 
into the kingdom, promifed to have 
exalted that nation to the higheft 
pitch of profperity. The event is well 
known ; that fcheme proved to France 
(what the South Sea Company after- 
wards was to Britain) only a bubble* 
threatening to involve the whole na- 
tion in the fame general ruin. Law 
ended his chequefed life, about the 
year 1729, fomewhere in Italy, in a 
ftate of almoft extreme indigence, af- 
ter having aftoniihed all Europe with 
his abilities, his projects, his fuccefs* 
and his ruin. Population of Cramond 
pariih, including the village of Nether 
Cramond, as returned to Sir John 
Sinclair, 1112. 

Cramond (Nether); a village 
in the pariih of the fame name. It is 
fituated on the river Amond, where it 
difcharges itfelf into theFrith of Forth; 
it contains upwards of 340 inhabitants* 
who are moirly employed in the iron 
works carried on in the neighbour- 
hood. The Amond is navigable for 
fmall veffels nearly a quarter of a mile 
from the Forth, forming a fafe and 
commodious harbour; (fpecified in 
the records of the Exchequer as a 
creek belonging to the port of Leith.) 
To this harbour belong 8 or 10 floops, 
employed by the Cramond Iron-work 
Company. Cramond lies about 3 miles 
N. W. of Edinburgh. 

CRANSHAWS; a fmall parifli 
fituated in the midft of the Lammer- 
muir hills, in the county of Berwick. 
The furface confifts moftly of high 
hills covered with heath and bent, 
and therefore better adapted for pas- 
ture than for tillage. Every farm, how- 
ever, poiTeffes a considerable portion 
of arable land, which is generally cul- 
tivated and fown with turnip, for 
the fupport of the fheep during the 
feverity of winter. Lime has been of 
the greateft fervice in meliorating the 
foil. The rivers Whittadd'er and Dye 
water this parifh, and abound with 
trout. The general appearance is 
naked and bleak, having few trees of* 
any kind to fhelter the foil from the 
ftorms, to which, from its elevated fi- 
liation, it is much expofed. Cran- 
fhaws-caftle, the property of Charles 
Watfon, Efq. of Saughton, is a ftrong 
ancient building, of ftnall extent, but- 

C R A 


ftill very entire. That edifice; the 
ruins of many others of the fame na- 
ture in the neighbourhood, and the 
remains of feveral encampments, fhew 
this country to have been the fcene of 
much bJoodfhed during the border 
wars. Population in 1 79 1, i 64. 

CRANSTON; a parifli in. the 
county of Edinburgh, extending about 
5 miles in length, and 3 in breadth. 
The furface is unequal, but the gentle 
dwellings of the hills, adorned with 
fine feats and extenfive plantations, are 
extremely beautiful. The foil is excel- 
lent, and the whole parifli is arable. 
The ftaple commodity is corn, of 
which a confiderable quantity is ex- 
ported. Freeftone, limeftone, and pit- 
coal abound, in the parifli ; and the 
abundance of the laft article induced 
the proprietors to ereit works, on the 
ingenious plan of the Earl of Dun- 
donald, for the extraction of pitch, 
tar, naphtha, and volatile fait, from 
pit-coal. There are 3 neat villages in 
the parifli, viz. Cranfton, Coulland, 
and Prefton. Near Coufland are fome 
ruins, faid to be of a nunnery. The 
river Tyne, as yet a livulet, runs 
through the parifli. The elegant ft ruc- 
tures of Oxenford-caftlc and Prefton- 
hall, the piclurefque banks of the ri- 
vulet, and the luxuriant crops which 
adorn the fields, prefent to the eye, 
perhaps as rich a landfeape as the 
molt fertile ipot of England could 
produce. Population in 179,-5, 839-. 

extenfive united parilhes are fituated 
in that diftrict of Aberdeenfhire call- 
ed Man; in the very middle of the 
Grampian mountains ;, they are fup- 
pofed to be more elevated above the 
level of the fea, and farther removed 
in every direction from, the coaft, than 
any other parochial diftrict in Scot- 
land. The length of the inhabitated 
part is about 30 miles, and the breadth 
varies from 6 to 10; but, taking in the 
mountains and wane diftrict, the whole 
will cover an extent of 40 miles in 
length, and 20 in breadth. They are 
diftant upwards of 50 miles from the 
county town. In the low grounds (the 
foil is various, but when* properly cul- 
tivated, and in a favourable feafon, it 
produces good crops. By far the greater 
part is covered with mountains, fome 
of which are the higheft in Scotland, 
with the exception of Bemvis and 

Cairngorm. The higheft in this parifb 
are called Loch-na-garaidh, Binn-na- 
balrd, and Binn-na-muick-duidh. Near- 
ly the whole of Crathy and Braemarr 
has been originally covered with wood, 
which belonged to- the king, and was 
called the foreft of Marr. This fo- 
reft, with thofe of the Duke of Athol, 
and Mr. Farquharfon ofTnvercauld,, 
in Perthfhire, and the Duke of Gordou 
in B-adenoch and Glenaven, confti- 
tuted the principal part of the great' 
Caledonian foreft. In the deepeft 
moffes, within, this immenfe range of 
extenfive forefts, there are found large- 
logs and roots of trees, which afford, 
incontrovertible proof that they have 
formerly been overrun with timber. Ira 
Braemarr, a great part of the wood ftill 
remains, on the eftates of the Earl of 
Fife and Mr. Farquharfon of Inver- 
cauld, which are well ftocked with 
deer. Befides the natural wood, there 
are extenfive plantations of fir and la- 
rix, of t^ie former of which Mr. Far- 
quharfon alone has planted upwards- 
of 14 millions of trees. The Dee river 
takes its rife in the foreft of Braemarr,. 
and running through the whole ex- 
tent of the diftrict, is augmented with 
feveral tributary ftreams ; in particu- 
lar, the Gealluidb, Luidh, Coich, and 
Cluanaidh. The principal lakes are 
Loch Callader and Loch Brotachan, 
which contain trout, a few falmon,. 
and fome eel. The great military 
road from Blairgowrie to Fort-George 
pafies through the whole extent; the 
village of Caftletown of Braemarr is 
fituated on that line of road. Near 
this village are the ruins of an old 
caftle, faid to have been a hunting- 
feat of King Malcom Canmore. It is 
fituated on a high bank, on the E. fide 
of the water of Cluanaidh. At a fhort 
diftance is the caftle of Braemarr, a feat 
of a branch of the Farquharfons of 
Invercauld ; it was once occupied as 
a garrifon by King William, and was 
burnt in the conteft which took place 
between the royal forces and the Earl 
of Marr. Near the line of the military 
road is a large cairn, called cairn-na* 
cuimhne, or cairn of remembrance ; a 
name ftill ufed as a watchword in the 
country. The mountains above men- 
tioned abound with emeralds, topazes, 
and amethyfts, fimilar to the precious, 
ftones of the Cairngorm : granite of & 
fine polifli alfo abounds, and there are 

C R A 

Snexhauftible quarriesof limeftone, and 
•of fine ilate. The united parilhes of 
Crathy and Braemarr contained in 
179.? about 1024 inhabitants. 

CRAWFORD; a village and parifh 
•in the county of Lanark; The village 
is of considerable antiquity, confiding 
of freedoms granted to the fetters by 
the neighbouring proprietors. Each' 
freedom conhfts of 6 acres of >croft 
•land, and the privilege of feeding a 
•certain number of horfes, .cows, or 
fheep, on the hill or common. It is 
governed by a birlty court, in which 
each freeman has a liberty to vote. 
There is a great want of induftry in 
the village, and agriculture is little 
■attended to through the parifh. The 
extent of the pariih is in length about 
18, and in breadth about 15 miles ; it 
is bounded en the 3. bj that ridge of 
•hills which divides it from Tweeds- 
muir, and from which the Tweed, the 
•Clyde, and the Annan, the 3 principal 
.rivers in the fouth of Scotland, take 
their rife. The hill of Lauders is 
chiefly in this parifh, of which the 
elevation, above the level of the fea, is 
,3 150 feet. The greafceft part of the 
pariih confifts of hiils and muirs; fome 
are fit for pallure, but many are bleak, 
and fcarcely exhibit marks of vegeta- 
tion. In the valleys the foil is general- 
ly light and fpongy, but in fome 
places there is .clay ; the iituation 
and climate, however, even of the 
■belt grounds is adverfe to agriculture. 
Mineralogifts would find great 'field 
for refearch in the grounds. Lead- 
hills aie in this pariih, the moft exten- 
iive mints in the kingdom; (vide 
Leadhills.) During the minority of 
James VI. a German was fent by 
Queen Elifabeth to examine the lands 
of the rivers Elvan and Glengonar, 
and, it is faid, that he gathered acon- 
■fiderable quantity of gold duft. The 
Earl of Hopetoun has in his poffefiioK 
a mafs of lead ore weighing 5 tons, 
and a piece of native gold found here 
of 2 ounces. The Daire, the Clyde, 
the Elvan, and Glengonar, are the ri- 
vers of the pariih. Population in 
5792 (including Leadhills), 149.3. 

CRAWFORD-JOHN, a parifh in 
Lanarkfhire, is of an oblong figure, 
extending 15 miles in length, the 
greateft breadth being about 6. The 
general appearance is hilly, adapted 
ipr iheep pafture, with a few patches 

of arable land in the valleys between 
the hills. Round Gilkerfcleugh and 
Glefpine, two gentlemens feats, arc 
fome thriving plantations ; and feveral 
improvements are .carrying on which 
do great credit to the proprietors. On 
Glendorch eftat e, the property of the 
Earl of Hopetoun, there is a valuable 
lead mine. This mineral has alfo been 
found on the Gilkerfcleugh eftate, on 
which property there are alfo an ex- 
cellent limeftone quarry, abundance of 
white freeftone and coal ; on other- 
parts of the pariih are the marks of 
former mines, which report fays were 
wrought in fearch of gold, and that a 
conliderable quantity of that precious 
metal was found here. There are the 
veftiges of an .extenfive encampment, 
and the ruins .of two ancient caftles. 
Afmallriver, named De?neatoncivater f 
takes its rife at the head of the parifh, 
and runs through the whole extent. 
Population in 1791, 590. 

CRAY ; a pariih fituated partly in 
the county of Nairn, and partly in 
that of Invernefs ; the extreme length 
is about 16 miles, but it is fo interfect- 
ed with other parifhes, that its extent 
in breadth cannot be exactly afcertain- 
ed. The river Nairn runs through 
the parifh for 8 -miles, on which is a 
tolerably productive falmon fifhing. 
The banks of the river are well culti- 
vated, and, .where they do not admit 
of cultivation, covered with wood, 
natural or planted, which, with the 
feats of Kilravock, Holme, and Can- 
tray, forms a feene of true rural ame- 
nity and beauty ; the remainder is in- 
differently cultivated, and has a bleak 
and naked appearance. The proprie- 
tors of the parifh, and Mr. Davidfon 
of Caniray in particular, have done 
much towards improving their lands, 
and introducing a regular fyftem of 
agriculture. Population in 1793, 15 52. ; a river which takes its rife 
in the northern parts of the county of 
Wigton, and the ftewartry of Kirk- 
cudbright. It is for feveral miles very 
fmall, and runs through a bleak and 
dreary .country, but is foon confider- 
ably increafed by tributary ftreams; 
it now changes its appearance, and 
inftead of rocks and muirs, it holds 
its courfe nearly S. through a beautiful 
valley, till it empties itfelf into Wigton 
bay ; it forms the boundary betwixt 
the counties of Wigton and Kirkcud-r 
M x 



bright ; it abounds with fahnon, and 
is navigable to large veflels for feveral 

of CREE ; a village in the pariih of 
Kirkcudbright; is beautifully fituated 
near the mouth of the i-iver Cree, 
where it falls into Wigton bay. The 
ground is not level and equal, but un- 
even ; and the houfes are fet down 
without plan, and without arrange- 
ment, juft as the feuer was inclined. 
It is fupported by a good coafting 
trade, and a few veffels belong to the 
place ; it has good anchorage a fmall 
diftahce from the town, where veflels 
of 500 tons are faid to lie in.fafety ; 
it was lately erected into a burgh of 
barony by the intereft of the pro- 
prietor and fuperior, John M'Culloch, 
Efq. of Earholm, whofe elegant feat 
is in the neighbourhood ; it contains 
upwards of 400 inhabitants. 

CRICHTON ;' a village and parifh 
in the county of Edinburgh. The 
village is fituated 14 miles S. of the 
metropolis, on the middle road to 
London by Cornhill ; it is a thriving 
place, and contains, with the adjoin- 
ing village of Pathhead, 450 inha- 
bitants. The parifh contains about 
3900 acres ? of which two-thirds are 
well adapted for tillage, and have a 
rich deep foil, capable of producing 
heavy crops ; the remainder is little 
capable of improvement, it is over- 
grown with mofs, on a wet foft fand, 
or clay bottom : the pafture is fcanty 
and bad, and furnifhes little fhelter 
for fheep : the proprietors have lately 
begun planting, and the trees feem to 
thrive well on this heretofore barren 
fpot. There is 3 limeftone quarry 
wrought to a confiderable extent, 
nearly 4000 bolls being annually fold. 
Coal has been difcovered, but hither- 
to no pits have been opened. At Long- 
faugh is a circular camp or intrench- 
ment, the <vallum of which is very dif- 
tinct. The caftle of Crichton is a very 
ancient and magnificent building. Pen- 
nant fays, " it was once the habitation 
of Chancellor Crichton, joint guardian 
with the Earl of Callander to King 
James II. a powerful and fpirited 
itatefman in that turbulent age, and 
the advifer of the bold, but bloody 
deeds, againft the too potent Douglas. 
"During the life of Crichton, this caftle 
?,vas belieged, taken, and levelled to 

the ground, by William Earl of Doug- 
las; it was afterwards rebuilt, and 
part of this new work is uncommonly 
elegant." Population in 17 91, including 
the village, about 910. 

Crichup; a fmall rivulet in the 
parifh of Clofeburn, in Dumfriesfnire, 
remarkable for its particular courfe. 
It takes its rife from a mofs, near the 
N. E. extremity of the parifh, and, 
not far from its fource, forms a beau- 
tiful cafcade, by falling over a preci- 
pice nearly 90 feet in height. Half a 
mile below this, the water has, in the, 
courfe of ages, hollowed out for itfelf 
a ftrait paffage through a hill of red 
freeftone, forming a very romantic linn. 
This linn, from top to bottom, is a- 
bout no feet, and, though 20 feet 
deep, is fo clofe at top, that one might 
eafily leap acrofs it, if his imagination 
could be abftracted from the tre- 
mendous abyfs below, and the noife 
of the falling water, increafed by the 
echoes from the furrounding rocks. 
Six miles below, the Crichup joins its 
waters to the Nith. 

CRIECH ; a parifh of the county 
of Fife, in length extending about 3, 
and in breadth about 2. miles. The 
furfacc is nearly level, and the foil 
fandy and thin ; but agriculture is 
making rapid ftrides to improvement* 
Eimeftone is plenty, at the diftance of 
10 miles. On a little eminence, near 
the church, are the veftiges of a Nor- 
man camp, with two lines of circum- 
vallation : there is another of the fame 
kind on a higher hill, W, of the former; 
both are about a mile diftant from the 
Tay. Not far from the church is a 
caftle, which belonged to Cardinal 
Beaton, where, it is faid, his eminence 
kept a country feraglio ! It has been 
ftrongly fortified, but no infeription 
remains to enable us to afcertain the. 
date of its erection. Number of in- 
habitants in 1793, 306. 

CRIECH ; an extenfive parifh in the 
county of Sutherland; it extends from, 
Dornoch on the E. coaft to Affint on 
the W. coaft, at leaft 40 meafured 
miles; the length of the inhabited part 
of the diftrict is reckoned about 24 
miles; the breadth is unequal, varying 
from 2 to 10 miles. It lies on the N. 
of the Frith or Kyle of Tain, and the 
river Ockel. About one-thirtieth part 
of the diftricT is cultivated, the reft 
being hilly, and covered with muiry 



ground ; the arable foil is light and 
thin, except at the E. end, where there 
is a deep loam. There are fome mea- 
dows on the banks of the Frith, and 
the rivulets which run into it. The 
feafons are generally early, and the 
crops heavy. The two rivers Shin and 
Cajsly run through the parifh, which 
is alio watered on the S. by the Ockel. 
There are alfo feveral lakes abounding 
with trout, of which the largeft are 
called Loch Migdol, and Loch Elft. 
A ridge of hills runs parallel to the 
Frith, the higheft of which, in the 
weftern extremity, is called Bein-morc 
AJJint. There is a great deal of na- 
tural wood, principally of oak and 
birch ; there are alio feveral thriving 
plantations of fir. The great quantity 
of mofs with which this diftrict a- 
bounds, furnifh plenty of fuel ; many 
large fir trees are dug up in cutting 
the peats. A vaft number of fheep 
and black cattle are reared on the 
wafte lands. Near the church is an 
obelifk 8 feet long, and 4 broad, 
faid to have been erected in memory 
of a Danifh chief, who was interred 
here. On the top of the Dun of Criech 
is a fortification, which is faid to have 
been erected about the beginning of 
the 12th century by an anceftor of 
the Earl of Rofs. Exteniive machinery 
for fpinning cotton was about 20 years 
ago eftablifhed by a company, at the 
head of which was George Dempfter, 
Efq. of Dunnichen. That patriotic 
gentleman having purchafed a large 
eftate, Skibo, in this parifh, and having 
the management of another eftate, 
Pulrojfie, acquired by his brother Cap- 
tain Dempfter, laboured with the moft 
indefatigable exertions towards the 
improvement of the country, and the 
benefit of the inhabitants. An at- 
tempt to defcribe the plan, and enu- 
merate the means he adopted in car- 
rying this plan into execution, would 
far extend our limits ; fufficeitto fay, 
that by his exertions a company for 
fpinning cotton was eftablifhed in that 
remote country, and his benevolent 
intentions have been attended with 
the greateft fuccefs. Subjoined to the 
Statiftical Account of Criech., Mr. 
Dempfter has communicated his ideas 
on the fubject of Highland improve- 
ments, and the means which were a- 
dopted on his eftate in the parifh of 
Criech. Population in 1791, 1730. 

CRIEFF ; a fmall town and parifli, 
about 18 miles W. of Perth, in the 
fame county. The town is built on 
a rifing ground near the foot of the 
Grampians ; it has a fine fouthern ex- 
pofure, and a delightful profpect of 
hills, woods, valleys, and rivers, to the 
W. Crieff is nearly the fecond town 
in Perthfhire, and is much reforted to 
in the fummer months for its healthy 
lituation. It has a tolbooth, with a 
decent fpire, containing the % town 
clock, and a good bell ; it has alfo a 
large andelegantaffembly-room, which 
is fometimes honoured with the pre- 
fence of the nobility and gentry of 
Perthfhire. Although it has no regu- 
lar government, the different trades 
have erected themfelves into corpora- 
tions, for the fupport of decayed mem- 
bers and widows. The chief manu- 
facture carried on is making that kind 
of thin linen caWz&ftlefias ; and 2 pa- 
per mills have been lately erected. As 
Crieff is on the line of the great mili- 
tary road, it is much frequented by 
travellers and drovers. The parifh is 
naturally divided into Highland and 
Lowland, of which the latter divilion 
is completely furrounded by rivers. 
The Pow, the Maderty, the Torot, 
and Earn, all abound with trout and 
falmon. The Highland divilion a- 
bounds with all forts of game, and the 
river Almond which runs through it, 
contains trout. The foil is moitly light 
and gravelly ; in the vicinity to the 
town it is loam. The parilh is well 
cultivated, and the gieateft part en- 
clofed. There is a good bridge over 
the Earn at the town ; at the other end 
of which a thriving village, Bridgend, 
has been lately built. There are no 
feats or antiquities cleferving notice. 
Population of the town in 1793, 2071 ; 
in the whole parifh, 2640. 

Criffel, or Crawfel; a ridge 
of mountains in the county of Dum- 
fries, the higheft of which, Douglas 
Cairn, is elevated 1900 feet above the 
level of the fea. The foil on its fides 
affords rich pafture for the numerous 
flocks of iheep which are fed upon it. 

CRIMOND ; a parifh in the diftrict 
of Buchan, in Aberdeenfhire. It lies 
upon the coaft, nearly at an equal dif- 
tance from the towns of Frazerburgh 
and Peterhead. The figure is trian- 
gular, the bafe being nearly 3 miles, 
and the height of the triangle about 


5-*- ; it contains 4600 acres, of which 
,5.000 are arable ; the remainder is oc- 
cupied by mollis, links, and the lake 
of Stratbbrg. About a quarter of a 
znile from high water mark, there is a 
fteep hill along the more, almoft per- 
pendicular, and nearly 200 feet in 
freight. From the fummit of this ridge 
the ground gradually defcends into a 
low flat valley, at the bottom of which 
is the lake of Strathhcg. The land 
next the ihore has a light fandy foil ; 
towards the N. W. corner it is a light 
loam ; but by far the greater part is a 
cold damp molly foil, on a clay bot- 
tom r green crops and fallow are fel- 
dom pi actifed, and the fields are often 
completely ruined by over-cropping. 
Here we may alfo itate the fliortnefs 
of the leafes as the chief bar to im- 
provement.. Rattray-bead, onthiscoaft, 
Is a promontory very dangerous to vef- 
Jfels. Near the E. end of the lake of 
Strathbeg is a fmall hill, called the 
ilqftle hill, where Cumine Earl of Bu- 
chan had a cattle. About a quarter 
«f a mile S- of this hillock, formerly 
flood the burgh of Rattray, faid to 
have had all the privileges of a royal 
Borough, except fending members to 
parliament. Population in 1792, 917. 
CROMAR ; a divifion of the dif- 
fe-icl of Marr, in Aberdeenihire. Vide 

This fmall comity is a fort of penin- 
sula, walhed on three fides by the 
Friths of Cromarty and Moray, and 
bounded on the S. W. and -S. by the 
county of Rofs. Its extreme extent 
In length is about 16 miles, and on an 
average about 6| or 7 in breadth. It 
was erected into a diftincl county a- 
bout the end of the 17th century, at 
the requeft of Sir James M'Kenzie, 
Earl of Cromarty, to whom it almoft 
entirely belonged. A great part of it 
now belongs to the Anderfons of 
Udal, and the family of Rofs of Cro- 
marty. The face of the country is 
pleafant ; a long ridge of hills ex- 
tending the whole length in the mid- 
dle of the county, having a fine decli- 
vity on either fide towards the fiiores 
of the Friths. The higher grounds 
are moftly covered with heath, but 
towards the fhores the foils are light 
and early. A great many plantations 
have been lately made out, which will 
ihortly be a geat ornament and fhel- 


ter to the country. Cromarty has 
much to gain in agricultural improve- 
ments. On the eftate of Mr.* Rofs, 
indeed, many enclofures have been 
made, but thefe are fcarcely to be feen 
in other parts of the diftrict. The 
farmers object to the expence of lime 
as a manure, and are unwilling to al- 
low their lands to lie fallow above one 
year. Were the new fyftem of huf- 
bandry adopted in this quarter, there 
is every reafon to expect great returns 
to the farmer. Cromarty contains 
only one town, from which the county 
takes its name, which was formerly 
a royal borough, and 5 pariihes. The 
language is generally Gaelic, but many 
fpeak that broad Scotch, which is com- 
monly called theBuchan or Aberdeen- 
fhire dialect. The farmers are induftri- 
ons in their profefiion, but uninform- 
ed in matters of fcience, exceedingly 
tenacious of their old prejudices in 
agriculture, and averfe to adopt new 
practices. Freeftone, granite, and red- 
difh-coloured porphyry, are almoft 
the only minerals, if we except topazes, 
fimilar to thole of Cairngorm, found 
in the pariih of Kincardine. Fifheries 
are very fucceisfully carried on, and 
pearls of considerable value are fome - 
times found in the Frith of Cromarty, 
where the river Coiial falls into that 
bay. The valued rent of Cromarty is 
12897I. -Scots, and the real land rent 
may be eftimated at 700I. fterling. Po- 
pulation in 1791, 5284. 

CROMARTY ; a town and parifh 
in the county of the fame name. The 
town is fmall, and fituated upon a 
rock or point of the land, which over- 
hangs the fea in a romantic manner, 
and much expofed to the E. wind ; it 
was formerly a royal borough, but 
was disfranchifed by an act of the 
privy council of Scotland, in confe- 
quence of a petition for that purpofe 
prefented by Sir John Urquhart, pro- 
prietor of the eftate of Cromarty ; it 
is now under the baronial jurifdiction 
of the Earl of Cromarty. The parifli 
extends about 7 miles in length, and 
from 1 to 4 in breadth, bounded by 
the Frith of Cromarty on the N. On 
the banks of the Frith the furface is 
level, and covered with verdure. A 
bank about two miles from the coaft, 
extends the whole length of the pariih, 
above which the ground is covered 
with heath and mofs. The foil is 



every where wet and muirifh, which 
makes the feafons late, and the crop 
uncertain. The coaft towards the E. 
is bold and rocky, fome of the cliffs 
being nearly 250 feet perpendicular 
to the fea ; the reft is flat and fandy. 
After every ftorm a great quantity of 
fea weed is thrown afhore, which is 
partly ufed as a manure, and partly 
burnt into kelp, of which there is an- 
nually made about 10 or 12 tons. 
The harbour of Cromarty, inferior, 
perhaps, to none in Britain for fafety, 
and a. commodious quay, was lately 
built at the joint expence of govern- 
ment and the proprietor of the eftate 
of Cromarty, where veflels of 350 or 
400 tons may lie in perfect fecurity; 
(vide Cromarty Frith). A conh- 
derable trade in the hempen or fack- 
cloth line has been long eftablifhed in 
Cromarty and the neighbourhood. A 
large rocky cavern, called M'Farquhar's 
bed, and a cave, which contains a pe- 
trifying well, called the Dripping well, 
are great natural curiofities; and the 
hill of Cromarty is vihted by travel- 
lers of the firft rank and tafte, who 
never fail to ipeak of its beauties with 
admiration, as exceeding any thing 
they had ever feen for the grandeur 
and extent of profpect. Population in 
1791, in the town, 1457 ; in the 
country, 727 ; total, 2184. 

Cromarty Frith, called by Bu- 
channan the Portia Salutis ; is one 
of the fineft bays in Great Britain. 
It is divided from the Moray Frith 
by the county of Cromarty, and wafhes 
the fouthern more of the county of 
Rofs. It is about 16 miles in length, 
and fometimes 3 in breadth. The 
entrance is between a promontories or 
headlands, called the Sutors of Cro- 
marty, which are about a mile and a 
half diftant : there is the fmeft anchor- 
age ground after paffing the Sutors, 
for feveral miles up the bay, with 
deep water on both fides, almoft cloie 
to the Ihore, where in moil places the 
coaft is fo fmooth, that fuppofing a 
veffel to part her cables ( a thing fcarce- 
ly probable)-, fhe might run aground 
without iuftaining much damage. Such 
is the extent of fea room in the bay, 
and fuch is the capacity, that almoft 
the whole Britiih navy might lie here 
in fafety. A ferry boat is eftablifhed 
acrofs the bay from the Rofs to the 
Cromarty fide. 

CROMDALE ; a parifh which is 
nearly equally fituated in the counties 
of Invernefs and Moray, its extent i* 
considerable, being rally 20 miles in 
length, and in fome places the breadth 
is no lefs than n or 12 miles. The 
foil is in general dry and thin, with 
the exception of the flat grounds or 
haughs clofe by the river Spey, which, 
in point of fertility, are equal to any 
in the neighbourhood. An hundredth 
part of the lands of Cromdale is not 
arable, or even green, fo as to render 
it good pafturage for black cattle or 
horfes; the hills and level grounds are 
covered with black heath, which, 
though formerly thought barren and 
unproductive, are now rendered one 
of the greateft fources of national 
wealth, by the flocks of fheep which 
every where are fpread over the coun- 
try. The plantations of fir, which 
are numerous and thriving, will foorn 
be a great ihelter and ornament to the 
country. Sir James Grant of Grant 
is fole proprietor of the parifh ; and 
Cajtle-Grant, the feat of his family, is 
within its bounds. Here is alio fituated 
Granto-zun, a village eiedted about 30 
years ago, under the influence of the 
Grant family, containing nearly 400 
inhabitants. * There is a fortali.v a! 
Lochindorb, where a thick wall of 
mafon-work, 20 feet high, furrounds 
an acre of land within the loch, with 
ftrong watch-towers at every corner ; 
the entrance is by a magnificent gate 
of hewn freeftone ; and the founda- 
tions of houfes are to be diftinotly 
traced within the walls. The low 
grounds on the banks of the Spey 
have been rendered famous by a long 
{the Haughs of Cromdale) compofedii! 
confequence of a battle fought there 
in the year 1690, betwixt the adherents 
of King William under the command 
of Colonel Livingftone, and the fup- 
porters of the houfe of Stuart com- 
manded by Lord Vifcount Dundee, 
in which the latter were completely 
defeated. The number of inhabitants 
may be ftated at about 3000. 

CROSS ; a parifh in the ifhmd of 
Sanday, county of Orkney. Vide 

two fmall villages in the county of 
Fife, fituated oa the great turnpike 
road which runs E. and W. througii 
the town of Duafenidk^ 


CROSSMICHAEL ; a pariih in the 
ftewartry of Kirdcudbright. It is of 
a rectangular form, extending in length 
about 5, and in breadth about 4 miles. 
It is bounded on the E. by the river 
Urr, and on the W. by the river Dee. 
.From thefe rivers the ground rifes into 
a ridge which is beautifully diverfified 
with gentle eminences, entirely arable. 
Towards the northern border there is 
a fmall part covered with heath. The 
foil is various, as loam, clay, till, fand, 
and alongthe rivers exteniive meadows 
or holms. There are z lakes in the pa- 
riih, abounding with excellent pike 
and perch. The Urr has a fmall har- 
bour,, which admits vefiels of fmall 
burden. By a canal lately cut from 
Carlinwark loch, which joins the Dee 
at this pariih, marl is furnifhed at a 
cheap rate to the farmers in this diftricl:. 
The fh allows at the mouth of the 
Dee prevent veffels coming fo far up, 
but a fmall expence might render it 
navigable for near 15 miles. There 
are two ferries over the rivers in this 
pariih, and the great military road 
to Port Patrick paffes through it. 
Like the reft of Galloway, confiderable 
attention is paid to the rearing of 
cattle. There are feveral Pictifh monu- 
ments of antiquity, and the remains of 
ancient fortifications. Population in 
1792, 772. 

a lofty mountain, lituated at the head 
of Loch Aixie, in Argyllshire. The 
perpendicular height, as meafured by 
Colonel Watfon, is 3390 feet above 
the level of the fea, and the circum- 
ference at the bafe exceeds 20 miles. 
It is very fteep towards the N. E. and 
Hopes gently down on the S^tnrt-rifes 
with an abrupt afcent near the furn- 
mit, which is divided into two points, 
each refembling a fugar loaf. It was 
the north point which was meafured 
by Col. Watfon, the fouthern one be- 
ing 30 feet lower. The fides of the 
mountain are covered with natural 
woods of birch, alder, oak, and fir, 
which abound with roes and red deer. 
On the fummitof this mountain is the 
fatal fpring, from which, according to 
a tradition of the country, attributed 
to Offian, iffued Loch Awe, the beau- 
tiful expanfe of water below; (vide 
Dr. Smith's tranflation of " Bera" of 
Ofiian.) Cruachan is the weather 
gage of the people within view of its 


lofty furnmit; before a ftorm " the 
fpirit of the mountain ihrieks," and 
its head and fides are enveloped with 
clouds. It is moftly compofed of red- 
dim porphyry, but near the bottom 
is found argillaceous J'chijlus, inter-, 
fected with veins of quartz and lapis 
ollaris. The porphyry feems to con- 
fift of a kind of trapp of a dirty red 
colour, with flefh-coloured cryftals of 
feldt-fpar, fome cryftals of b\, 
and a very few of greeniih-coloured 
mica. On the top of the mountain the 
fea-pink grows luxuriantly, and fea 
fliells have been found on the very 

Cruach Lussa, or Cruach Lu- 
SACH, " the mountain of plants ;" a 
mountain in the diftricl: of Knapdale, 
in Argyllfhire. The height has never 
been exactly meafured, but it is thought 
to exceed 3000 feet above the level of 
the fea. 

CRUDEN ; a parifli fituated in 
that diftricl: of Aberdeenfhire, called 
Buchan. It is a regular compact field, 
extending about 8 or 9 miles along the 
Britilh ocean towards the S. and about 
7 or 8 miles inland towards the W. 
The foil is various; a large portion of 
it is a deep rich clay, the reft is light 
and gravelly ; but, except the moffes, 
and a few banks, all of it could eafily 
be made arable. An immenfe quantity 
of peat mofs extends along the N. 
boundary. There are 4 fifhing villages 
in the parifh, at one of which, Ward, 
it is very probable a tolerable harbour 
might be made out. Hufbandry is 
only in its infancy, and few farms in 
the parifli are in good order. Thread 
manufactories are carried on to a great 
extent. Slams-cajlle, the feat of the 
Earl of Errol, is in this pariih. The 
Bullers of Buchan, and other ftupen- 
dous rocks and precipices, are much 
admired for the awful grandeur they 
exhibit. Dunbuy, a fmall infulated 
rock near the Bullers, is frequented by 
innumerable fea-fowls. There are alfo 
feveral very extenfive caves in the 
neighbourhood. About a mile W. of 
the church are the remains of a druid- 
ical temple. In this pariih was fought, 
in the beginning of the nth century, 
the famous battle between Malcolm 
II. and Canute, fon of Sueno, after- 
wards king of England, Denmark, and 
part of Sweden. In this engagement 
the Danes were totally defeated, and 


the field received the name it now 
bears, from cruor Danorum, the blood 
of the Danes. Population 1111792,2028. 
CULLEN; a royal borough in the 
county of Banff, ft was formerly a 
ConftabularjTj of which the Earl of 
Findlater was hereditary conftable, 
and at that time was known by the 
name of Inyerculan, from its iituation 
at the mouth of the burn of Culan or 
Cullen, which at the N. end of the 
town falls into the fea. The Earl of 
Findlater is hereditary $r,efes or pro- 
ved, and the government of the town 
is veiled under him in 3 bailies, a trea- 
furer, dean of guild, and 13 counfel- 
lors : with a fmall exception, Lord 
Findlater is proprietor of the whole 
town. Thehoufesare in general mean 
and ill built, and theftreets have an irre- 
gular and dirty appearance. Notwith- 
standing its Situation on the fea coaft, 
no yeffels carr-rvienture to take in or 
deliver a cargo for want of a harbour, 
which a few hundred pounds would 
■erect, and render tolerablyfecure. The 
want of water is alfo a great difadvan- 
tage to the place, there being only one 
good fpring in the whole pariih. There 
is a considerable manufacture of linen 
and o.amajk, eftabliihed about 50 years 
ago by the exertions of the Earl of 

1 indlater. There are two hilling vil- 
lages in the neighbourhood, viz. Cul- 
len and Poriknockies, which employ 
about 14 or 15 boats. By thefe the 
town and country around are amply 
fupplied with rifh ; and, befides what 
is fold daily, the fifhers cure and dry 
a confiderable quantity of cod, fkate, 
ling, and haddocks, which they carry 
in open boats to Montrofe, Arbroath, 
Dundee, and Leith. The parifh of 
Cullen extends about 4 miles in length 
from the fea, fouthward, and 3 miles 
in breadth. The fields in general have 
a gentle flope towards the N. and E, 
only one eminence, the Bin-bill 'of Cul- 
len, deferving the name of mountain. 
The foil is generally of a rich deep 
loam, but fome fields are of a Strong 
clay, and near the fhore fand, mix- 
ed with gravel. The farms are in ge- 
neral fmall, cnclofed, and well culti- 
vated. The Bin-hill lies about a mile 
S. W. of the town of Cullen ; about 

2 miles from the fea, from the level of 
which it is elevated to the height of 
1050 feet ; it was lately planted to 
the very fummit with trees of various 


kinds. QuUen-houfe, the chief refuiencf 
of the Earl of Findlater and Seafieldj 
is founded on a rock, about 50 feet 
perpendicular above the burn of Cul- 
len, over which there is an excellent 
Stone bridge of one arch, 84 feet wide, 
and 64 feet high, making an eafy com- 
munication with the parks and woods, 
where the ground admits of endlefs 
beauty and variety. The Iituation of 
the houfe is romantically pleafant, 
having a beautiful profpect towards 
the S. and a fine view of the Moray 
Frith to the N. Cullen is furrcunded 
with moll extenfive plantations, laid 
out about 25 years ago by Lord Find- 
later ; there being no fewer than 8coo 
Scots acres of wafte ground now co- 
vered with trees, the number cf which, 
if we allow 4000 plants, the ufual pro- 
portion to a Scots acre, will amount 
to no fewer than 3a, 000,000 of trees. 
Near the town of Cullen is the found- 
ation of an ancient caftle, on a fmall 
eminence, called the Caflle-hiU, over- 
hanging the lea ; and the ruins of a 
houfe are ftill Shewn, where, it is faid, 
Elifabeth, Queen of King Robert Bruce 
died. Population in 1791, 1718. 

Culloden; a muir fituated a- 
bout 3 miles E. of Inverness, memo- 
rable for the total defeat of the rebel 
army on the 16th April, 1746, by the 
King's troops under the Duke of Cum- 
berland, which put an end to the 
attempts of the Stewart family to re- 
gain the Britifh throne. Strangers 
often vifit this field, though there is 
little to be feen on it, except the 
graves of thofe who fell in the action, 
which are difcerned by the green fur- 
face, while the reft of the muir is co- 
vered with heath. The country people 
often find bullets and pieces of ar- 
mour, which are anxioufly fought 
after by the •viriuofi. as curiofities, 
and preierved as relics. 

CULROSS ; a royal borough in the 
county of Perth, fituated on the N. 
fhore of the Frith of Forth. Its char- 
ter was received from James VI. in the 
year 1588, and it ftill retains all its 
privileges ; it formerly carried on a 
very confiderable trade in fait and 
coal, but this has decayed of late ; it 
enjoys the advantage of a very fafe 
harbour, but, on account of fome 
funk rocks at the entrance, it does 
not admit fliips of burden : fpring 
tides rife to the height of 15 or 16 


feet. The town is built on the abrupt 
afcent from the water, one ftreet run- 
ning direct N. while the other interfecl 
it at right angles. This fituation gives 
it, efnecially on the approach from 
the harbour., a very picturefque and 
grand appearance. There is no ma- 
nufacture of any note at prefent carried 
on, but there was formerly a fpecies 
of manufacture peculiar to the place ; 
this was the making of girdles, a 
kitchen utenfil well known in Scotland 
for baking unleavened bread. . By 
two royal grants from James IV. and 
Charles II. the inhabitants of Culrofs 
poffeffed the exclufive privilege of 
this manufacture, which is now fup- 
planted by the caft iron girdles made 
at Carron ; and to this circumftance 
we may in a great meafure attribute 
the decline of the place. About 15 
years ago, Lord Dundonald erected 
very extenfive works for the extraction 
of tar, naphtha, and volatile fait, from 
pit-coal, but at a very confiderable 
expence to his Lordmip : it was found 
to be an unproductive concern, and 
given up. Above the town ftands the 
abbey of Culrofs, a princely edifice, 
belonging to the Earl of Dundonald ; 
it was built about the year 1590, by 
Edward Lord Kinlofs : adjacent to 
it^is the old church, which ferved as 
chapel to the monafrery. Valleyfield, 
a feat of Sir Charles Preiton, is an ele- 
gant building. The parifh forms near- 
ly a fquare pf 4 miles : the furface is 
level, if we except the abrupt afcent 
from the more. The northern part 
of the parifh is occupied by an exten- 
five muir or marfh, incapable of any 
other improvement than planting ; 
but towards the S. the fork-is. good, 
and a regular fyftem of agriculture is 
practifed. About 4 miles above Cul- 
rofs, at Kincardine, large quantities of 
fifh are taken by a contrivance called 
cruives, cf which there are about 180 ; 
and the value of fifh caught often a- 
mounts to ioool. per annum. Coal, 
freeftone of excellent quality, iron- 
ftone, and other ores of iron, abound 
in the parifh. Under the head of anti- 
quities, we may mention, that the mo- 
naftery which gives name to the leat of 
the Earl of Dundonald, was built by 
Malcolm Thane of Fife, in the year 
1217, and dedicated to the Virgin 
Mary, and St. Serf or Servanus. It 
was occupied by the abbot, and 9 


monks of the Ciltertian order. There 
are alio the veftiges of two Daniih 
camps. Culrofs is diftarit about 23 
miles N. W. of Edinburgh. Popula- 
tion in 1792, 1442. 

CULSALMOND ; a parifh of the 
county of Aberdeen, the extent of 
which is about 3'! miles in length, and. 
3 in breadth. The furface is level,, 
with the exception of 2 fmall hills, a- 
bout the middle of the pariib. The 
foil is deep and fertile, ■efpecially on 
the banks of the Urie, the only river 
in the parifh. Several very thriving 
plantations have been lately made out 
by the different proprietors, and a ge- 
neral inclination for improvement in 
agriculture begins to ihew itfelf. The 
only fuel is peat and turf, of which 
there is great abundance. The 2 emi- 
nences mentioned above are covered 
with heath, and abound with a very 
fine blue flate, which is much ufed in 
this and the neighbouring parifh es. 
Newton-hcufe, the feat of Col. M'ln- 
tofh, is the only edifice of note in the 
pariib. Population in 1792, 618. 

CULTER ; a parifh in the county 
cf Lanark, is about 8 miles in length, 
and on an average 4 in breadth. On the 
banks of the Clyde, a fine fertile plain 
extends for 2 miles to the foot of the 
hills, which occupy the fouthern part 
of the parifh, having a rich loamy foil, 
well enclofed and cultivated. From 
this plain towards the S. the ground 
rifes into high mountains, the loftieft 
of which, Culterfell, is elevated 1700 
feet above the level of the fea : this 
hilly diftrict is partly covered with a 
rich verdure, well adapted for fheep 
pafture, and partly occupied by a fo- 
reft of natural wood. The whole ap- 
pearance of the parifh is beautiful, 
being covered with thriving planta- 
tions and ornamented farms. Culter 
water, a fmall clear rivulet, falls into 
the Clyde after paffing through it. 
There are the remains of feveral cir- 
cular encampments, and an artificial 
mound of earth on the banks of the ' 
Clyde. Ironftone of excellent quality 
abounds, and moft of the fprings are 
impregnated with that mineral. Po- 
pulation in 1791, 326. 

Culter; a rivulet in Aberdeen- 
fhire, which takes its rife from a lake 
in the parifh of Skene, and after re- 
ceiving feveral fmaller burns, falls into 
the Dee near the church of Peterculter, 

€ UM 

CULTS ; a parifh in the center of 
the county of Fife, extending in length 
about z\, and in breadth i T miles. 
Its general furface is flat, declining 
frorfl the S. where there are a few 
hills. The foil is light, and in fome 
places (particularly the banks of the 
Eden) gravelly, but towards the S. 
it is a ftrong day. The river Eden 
paffes through the parifh. There are 
numerousfiveftone and hmert one quar- 
ries, of excellent quality ; there is alfo 
plenty of coal. There are feveral re- 
mains of Roman encampments ; and 
many urns have been dug up, contain- 
ing human bones. Population in 
1790-8, 5:34; in 1802, 699. 

CUMBERNAULD ; a village and 
parifh in the county, of Dumbarton. 
The parifh extends about 7 miles in 
length, and 4 in breadth. The fur- 
face has a romantic appearance, being 
beautifully diveriified with fmall hills 
and fertile dales. The higher! part is 
called Fannyfide muir, producing no- 
thing but heath and furze. On the S. 
fide are two lochs, about a mile long, 
and one fourth of a mile broad ; the 
remainder is moftly arable, with a deep 
clay foil, tolerably fertile. There is 
abundance of coal, though none is 
Avrought at prcfent. Lime and free- 
ftone alfo abound. Confiderable re- 
mains of Antoninus' wall are to be 
difcovered, nearly in the courfe of 
which runs the great canal which con- 
nects the Clyde and Forth. The vil- 
lage of Cumbernauld is pleafantly fitu- 
ated in a valley, almoft furr bunded with 
the policies and pleafui'e grounds of 
Cumbernauld-houfe, the feat of Loi'd 
Elphinftone. The new road from Glaf- 
gow to Edinburgh paries through the 
village ; near which is built a large and 
commodious inn. Population of the 
parifh in 1791, about 1600. 

CUMMERTREES ; a parifh in the 
county of Dumfries, extending about 
4 miles in length, and 3 in breadth. 
The furface is level, and the foil in ge- 
neral good ; in the center of the pa- 
rifli it is excellent, and remarkably 
fertile ; it lies on the banks of the 
Annan, which river bounds it on the 
E. There are feveral extenfive flow 
mojfcs in the pariih, utterly incapable 
of improvement ; thefe furnilh excel- 
lent peat, which is the only fuel. A- 
griculture is rapidly advancing in im- 
provement, and enclofures are becom- 


ing general. Freeftone is abundant, 
and limeftone of excellent quality is 
found in an inexhauftible quarry near 
the center of the parifh : the great 
drawback is the want of coal for burn- 
ing it, peat notanfweringthepurpofe. 
The military road through Dumfries- 
fhire interfects the parifh. The caftle 
of Hoddam is an ancient caftle, ftill 
in good repair: near it, on a high 
ground, is a fquare tower, 25 feet high, 
which is fuppofed to have been a 
watch tower in the border wa r s. De- 
rides the minerals mentioned above, 
in a limeftone quarry at /i'ilhead fe- 
veral veins of a beautiful dark colour- 
ed marble have appeared, which ad- 
mits of a fine poliih. Shells, entrocbi, 
petrified vegetables of a whitifh colour, 
appear to great advantage on the dark 
ground. Population in 1792, 1050. 

The parifn of Old Cumnock, from 
which New Cumnock was disjoined 
about the beginning of the prefent 
century, is fituated in the county of 
Ayr ; it is of an oblong figure, about 
10 miles in length, and 2 in breadth ; 
its furface is partly fiat, and partly 
hilly ; the foil in general is a deep clay, 
but the low grounds are intermixed 
with fand and gravel. There are fe- 
veral rivulets, all of which fall into the 
Lugar, a ftream which empties itfelf 
into the river of Ayr, near Barfkim- 
ming. The hills exhibit frequent 
marks of volcanic fire, many of them 
being compofed of bafaltic columns, 
of irregular cryftallization- Several 
fpeciraens of calcareous petrifactions 
of filh and moffes are found in the 
bed of the Lugar ; and in a limeftone 
quarry, belonging to the Earl of Dum» 
fries, is found a fbecies of red corai. 
The limeftone of this quarry receives 
a good polifh, and maker, a very pret- 
ty bluilh marble. A vein of lead ore 
alfo runs through it, which was found 
by a late trial to yield 65 lb. of lead 
per cnvt. of ore. Freeftone abounds, 
and a great part of the parifh lies up- 
on excellent coal. The village of 
Cumnock is fituated on the banks of 
the Lugar, and is well adapted for 
manufactures, from the vicinity of coal 
and water ; it contains nearly 800 in- 
habitants, and j::ves title of Baron to 
the family of Dumfries. Near the 
village are the remains, of a moat or 
court-field, where anciently the ba.- 


ronial courts were held ; it is nearly 
fiirrourided by the Lugar, and noted 
for its romantic and p;e"turefque fcene- 
ry. In this parifh alio flood the caf- 
tle of Terraf'zeau.j the manfion of the 
barony of that name, from which the 
Countefs of Loudon takes the title of 
Baronefs Terranzean. The popula- 
tion of the pariSh of Old Cumnock, 
as returned to Sir J. Sinclair in 179a, 
was 1 63 %. 

CUMNOCK (NEW) ; a parifli in 
the county of Ayr. Its form is fome- 
what of an oblong Square, 12 miles 
long, and 8 broad. The general ap- 
pearance is hilly, affording excellent 
pasture for fheep ; but there are many 
fpots of arable land, with an excellent 
clay foil. The river Nith takes its 
rife in the S. W. end, and runs through 
the middle of the parifli. Be fides the 
Nith, there are feveral lakes, which 
are the fourcesof the rivers Lugar and 
Afcon. There are various mines of 
coal and lime? which well Supply the 
neighbourhood. A lead mine was 
lately opened on the barony of Afton, 
which employs from 20 to 30 miners. 
Near the church flood an old caftle, 
now nearly demolifhed, which for ma- 
ny centuries was the refidence of the 
Dunbars of Mochrum. Population 
in 1791, 1200. 

a confiderable town and parifli in the 
valley of Strathmore, and though de- 
signated in Angus, by far the greater 
part is fituated in the county of Perth. 
The tcwn is fituated on the Ifia, and 
is divided by a rivulet into two parts ; 
that part which lies S. of this rivulet 
being all that belongs to the county 
of Angus. The Streets are well paved 
and lighted, and the town has much 
improved of late years ; there is a 
town-houfe and fteeple on the fpot 
where the prifon of the court of re- j 
gality flood. The linen manufacture | 
is carried on to a considerable extent, I 
nearly 2-00,000 yards of different kinds i 
of cloth being annually ftamped here. I 
There is alfq a confiderable tannery, j 
and in the immediate neighbourhood j 
,1 large bleachfield has been laid out. ; 
The number of inhabitants in 1793,' 
amounted to 1604. Cupar is distant 
about 12 miles from Perth, and nearly ; 
C ime diftance from Dundee. The 
:'■ of '•- upar extends about 5 miles 
gth from S. W. to N. E. and is j 


from 1 to a miles in breadth ; it is 
divided lengthways by an elevated 
ridge : a confiderable extent of haugh 
ground lies on the banks of the Ifia, 
which is frequently Swelled by the 
rains, and lays nearly 600 acres under 
water. The foil in general is a clayey 
loam, but wherever the ground rifes 
into eminences, a gravelly foil makes 
its appearance ; the lands are moftly 
enclofcd with thorn hedges, and agri- 
culture is well attended to. Befides 
the town of Cupar, there are feveral 
villages, of which the largeft contains 
about 100 inhabitants. There are ftill 
visible at Cupar, the vefliges of a Ro- 
man camp, laid to have been formed 
by the army of Agritqla in his 7th ex- 
pedition. On the center of this camp, 
Malcolm IV. in 1104, founded and 
richly endowed an abbey for Ciflertian 
monks ; from what remains, it muft 
have been a houfe of confiderable 
magnitude. Population in 1793, in- 
cluding the town of Cupar, 2081. 

royal burgh, and county town of Fife- 
Shire; is beautifully Situated on the N. 
bank of the Eden, nearly in the center 
of the county ; it boafts of great anti- 
quity ; the Thanes of Fife, from the 
earlieft times of which any account 
has been tranfmitted to us, held here 
their courts of juftice ; and in the 
rolls of parliament, aflembled in the 
beginning of the reign of King David 
II. may be Seen the names of commis- 
sioners from the royal borough of Cu- 
par. It is governed by a provoft, 3 
bailies, a dean of guild, and 21 coun- 
fellers. The revenue of the town a- 
mounts to 430I. Sterling per annum. 
Cupar has the appearance of a neat, 
clean, well built, thriving town. The 
Streets are well paved, and upwards 
of one third of the town is newly built. 
The church is a neat new building, 
and the Spire is much admired for its 
light and elegant appearance. Adjoin- 
ing to the town-houfe, the gentlemen 
of the county lately built a room for 
county meetings, and other apart- 
ments. The prifons are on the oppo- 
site fide of the to\yn-houfe, and per- 
haps yield to none in Scotland in point 
of the meannefs, the filth, and the 
wretchednefs of their accommoda- 
tions. " How would the feelings of the 
benevolent How art have been Shock- 
ed, if, in his companionate tours, he. 



nad turned afide into the peninfula of 
Fife, and vifited the cells, or rather 
loathfome dungeons of Cupar !" Yet 
into theie cells, where there is " no 
light, but rather darknefs vifible," is 
the fitfpeSed criminal thrown to lan- 
guish, often during the fevereft winter 
months. In Cupar, and the neighbour- 
ing country, a coniiderable quantity 
of coarfe linens are manufactured ; a- 
bout 500,000 yards are annually (lamp- 
ed, the agregate value of which will 
be nearly 30,000b fterling. There is al- 
fo a coniiderable tanwork. Population 
of the town is about 3140. The parifh 
of Cupar is an irregular fquare of 5 
miles, divided into 2 parts by the river 
Eden, the banks of which are covered 
with numerous farm houfes, and or- 
namented with elegant and ftately vil- 
las. Carjlogis, the feat of Colonel Cle- 
phane, is an ancient manfion. Garlie 
Bank, the property of James Wemyfs, 
Efq. of Winthank, is celebrated for 
the treaty concluded en the 13th of 
June 1559, between the Duke de Chat- 
telherault, on the part of the Queen 
regent, and the Earl of Argyll com- 
manding the forces of the Congrega- 
tion. The population of the parifh 
(including the town of Cupar) in 
1793, amounted to 3702; in 1801, 
there were 4463 inhabitants in the 
fame diftricl. 

one of the Orkney iflands, about a 
mile long, and half a mile broad. It 
contains 2 or 3 families, making about 
15 inhabitants. Adjoining to it lies 
the Kirkholm of Copinfliay, feparated 
by a reef, dry at low water, on which 
are the ruins of an ancient chapel, 
»and other religious houfes. 

Cur, or Chur; a river in the dif- 
tridt of Cowal in Argyllshire. It takes 
its rife in the mountains which border 
on Loch Goilhead ; its courfe for 2 
miles is rough and rapid, forming, as 
it defcends from the mountains, feve- 
ral fine cafcades : when it comes into 
the plains of Strachur, it runs fmooth- 
ly, making a number of beautiful turns. 
The banks are in general of an excel- 
lent deep foil, partly of loam and clay, 
but the crops are frequently much 
damaged by the fudden riling of its 
waters ; after a courfe of about 9 or 
10 miles, it falls into Loch Eck, a lake 
which communicates with the Frith of 
Clyde by the river Eachaig. 

CURRIE ; a parifh of Mid-Lothian, 
about 6 miles W. of Edinburgh. Its 
extent is about 5 or 6 miles in every 
direction ; but from E. to W. it ad- 
vances to 9 miles in length. The fitu- 
ationis very elevated; Ravelrig, about 
the middle of the parifh, is 800 feet a- 
bove the level of the fea. This height, 
and the vicinity to the Pentland hills, 
renders it cold and damp. The foil is 
a tough clay, which requires much cul- 
tivation : about one third of the whole 
is hill and mofs : the manure employed 
is often brought from Edinburgh, but 
lime is more generally ufed. The ri- 
ver Leith takes its rife in the weftem 
extremity of the parifh. Limeftone is 
abundant, but is not wrought, as there 
is no coal at a nearer diftance than 8 or 
9 miles ; however, there is every rea- 
fon to fuppofe, that while all the 
neighbouring parifhes abound with it, 
this alfo contains the feme mineral, 
if proper trials were made. Freeftonc 
abounds in the parifh, a quarry of 
which has been wrought for building- 
many houfes in the new town of Edin- 
burgh. There is plenty of ironftone, 
and a rich vein of copper. About a 
mile from Currie village, is the ro- 
mantic glen where Ramfay has laid 
the fcene of the Gentle Shepherd; 
(vide Glencross.) There is an old 
cattle, called Lennox tower, faid to 
have belonged to the family of Lennox, 
and to have been occalionally the re- 
lidence of Mary. 

" When love was young, and Darnley 
was kind. " 

It has a fubterraneous pafTage to the 
river, and has been a place of consider- 
able ftrength ; the circumference of 
the rampart is 912 feet. In 1793, 
Currie contained 1300 inhabitants. 

CUSHNIE ; a fmall parifh in Aber- 
deenfhire, the form of which is fo ir- 
regular, that no certain idea can be 
given of its extent. Its furface is 
mountainous and rocky, and from 
being fituated at the head of a large 
open glen, it is much expofed to fe^ 
vere winter ftorms. The foil is very 
indifferent, in molt places inclining 
to clay ; the hills are covered with 
heath, and abound with game. There 
are two fmall burns in the parifh, which 
are well ftored with trout. The wo^ 
men, as in moft places of Aberdeen- 
fhire, are employed in knitting ftock* 



irigs for the Aberdeen market ; befides | value has been difcovered in the di- 
which, there is no other manufacture, ftridl. Population in 1792, 4^,0. 
The rocks are rnoftly freeftone, of a I CYRUS (St.) ; a pariih inKincar- 
good quality ; but no other mineral of | dinelhire. Vide Ecclescraig. 




DABAY ; a fmall iiland of the He- 
brides, annexed to the county of 
Invernefs. It is about one mile long, 
and half a mile broad ; fertile in corn 
and grafs, but liable to be blafted by 
the S. W. winds ; it is one of thofe 
which are termed the Bifhop's ifies. 

DAILLY ; a parifh in Ayrfhire. It 
is fituated in the center of Carrick, 
along the banks of the river Girvan ; 
It confifts of a vale, ftretching in the 
direction of the river about 6 miles 
in length, bounded on both fides by 
hills of moderate height, the breadth 
varying from 4 to 6 miles. The lower 
part of the valley is beautifully diver- 
fihed with fertile meadows, and na- 
tural woods and plantations ; the fides 
of the hills, and the tract of country 
beyond, efpecially towards the S. are 
bleak, heathy, and uncultivated muirs. 
The foil of the arable ground is in ge- 
neral light and dry, but many fpots 
have a mofly foil, on a deep clay bot- 
tom. Numerous ftreams pour from 
the hills through deep and woody 
glens, to join the Girvan ; thefe glens 
are much admired for picturefque and 
romantic beauty, and in them many 
gentlemen have fixed their refidences. 
Sir Adam Fergufon of Kilkerran, Sir 
Andrew Cathcart of Carleton, Mr. 
Hamilton of Bargeny, Mr. Kennedy 
of Dunure, and Captain Kennedy of 
Drummelland, poffefs elegant feats in 
this parifh. So early as the 16th cen- 
tury, the river of Girvan was noted 
for the feats on its banks : Buchannan 
fays of it, " tnultis amcenis -villis cingi- 
tur;" admirably defcriptive of its pre- 
fent appearance. The parifh abounds 
with coal and limeftone. Population 
in 1792, 1607. 

Daire; a river which rifes in the 
S. border of the parifh of Crawford, 
in Lanarkfhire, and forms the prin- 
cipal branch of the river Clyde. 

DAIRSIE ; a parifh in the county 

of Fife. It is of an irregular figure, 
extending nearly 3 miles in every di- 
rection. The center of the pariih is 
elevated into two hills, arable to the 
top, the (loping fides of which confti- 
tute the pariih. The foil is rich and 
fertile. There are feveral good whin- 
ftone quarries ; and freeftone of ex- 
cellent quality is to be had at a ihort 
diftance. Over the Eden, which forms 
the boundary on the S. and E. is a 
neat bridge of 3 arches, built by Arch- 
bilhop Spotifwood, who was proprie- 
tor of the eftate of Dairfie. Popula- 
tion in 1791, 540 ; in 1801, 550. 

D ALGETY ; a parifh in the weft- 
ern diftrict of the county of Fife. The 
figure is irregularly triangular, each 
fide extending about 4 miles in length. 
It is bounded on the S. by the Frith 
of Forth, from which the ground rifes 
confiderably ; but the furface in gene- 
ral is level, in many places covered 
with furze and fwamps. The foil is 
various ; in fome parts confining of a 
light dry loam ; but the greater part 
is a deep ftrong loam, mixed with clay, 
naturally wet and ftiff, but in general 
productive of heavy crops. There are 
feveral extenfive pits of excellent coal, 
of which a great quantity is annually 
exported from the port of St. David's, 
in this parifh. Dunibrijlle, the feat of 
the Earl of Moray ; Fardel, the feat 
of Sir John Henderfon ; and Gockairny, 
the feat of the reprefentative of the 
ancient Mowbray family, are of great 
ornament to the furrounding country. 
Near the church of Dalgety, which is 
an ancient building, are the ruins of a 
feat of the Earl of Dunfermline. In 
1792, the population of the parifh was 

DALKEITH ; a confiderable vil- 
lage and parifh in the county of Mid- 
Lothian. The pariih is of fmall ex- 
tent, being only about 1 miles fquare, 
lying on the banks of N. and S. Elk 



fiver's. There are no mountains nor 
hills ; indeed, the whole might be 
corfidered as a plain, did not the 
ftecp banks of the rivers give it an 
uneven and broken appearance : the 
foil is various, being light and fandy 
on the lower grounds, and in the 
higher a pretty deep day ; it is well 
adapted for railing either fruit or fo- 
reft trees, which arrive here at great 
perfection. The village of Dalkeith 
is Angularly beautiful ; it ftands on a 
narrow ftrip of land between the two 
Elks, the banks of which are beauti- 
fully wooded, and embellished with 
feats of families of the firft diitinction. 
One of the greateft markets in Scot- 
land for grain is held here every Thurs- 
day ; a very great quantity of oats, 
in particular, is brought from all the 
neighbourhood, and efpecially from 
Berwickfhire. All the corn trade 
done here is for ready money, a cir- 
curnftance of great importance to the 
farmer, A few manufactures have 
been introduced ; but thefe have not 
been carried to great extent. The 
grammar fchool of Dalkeith has been 
long in high repute, and at one period 
was efteemed the beft feminary in 
Scotland ; feveral of the brighten: or- 
naments of literature here received 
the rudiments of their education. Dur- 
ing the fum.mer feafon Dalkeith is 
much reforted to by parties of pleafure 
from Edinburgh, which is diftant a- 
bout 12 miles, to enjoy the beauties 
of the furrounding fcenery. Adjoin- 
ing to the town is Dalkcithrboufe, the 
principal feat of the Duke of Buc- 
cleugh. This elegant and extenfive 
building was erected about the begin- 
ning of the laft century, on the fite of 
the old caftle of Dalkeith ; the beauty 
of the fituation, which is defervedly 
admired, is greatly heightened by the 
Terpentine windings of the two rivers, 
which unite about half a mile below 
Dalkeith-houfe, and the abundance of 
the thriving plantations with which it 
is furrounded. There is a beautiful 
bridge of white ftone over the North 
Efk, within fight of the houfe, and the 
banks of both rivers are cut into ex- 
tenfive walks with great tafte. The 
park contains a number of venerable 
oaks, and is well ftocked w r ith deer. 
The population in 1793 was 4366, a- 
bout 3000 of which relide in the vil- 

DALLAS ; a parifh in the county 
of Elgin, is about 12 miles in length* 
and 9 in breadth. Its form is fom'e- 
what oval, being furrounded with 
hills, fo as to form a valley or ftrath T 
in the middle of which runs the fmall 
river Lojfie. The foil on the banks 
of the river is light and fandy, fubjefi: 
to frequent inundations; the reft: of the 
foil is black and moffy, and the fur- 
rounding hills are covered with fhort 
heath. The harvefts are late, and the 
crops are feldom fufrkient for the 
confumpt of the diflrict. The pariih, 
poffeffes inexhauitible quarries- of ac 
light gray Sate, and fome good, free- 
ftone. Population in 1791, 888'. 

DALMALLY; a fmall village in 
Argyllfhire, fituated at the head of 
Loch Awe, about 6 miles from Crua- 
chan mountain. 

DALMENY; a parifh in the 
county of Linlithgow, on the S. coaft 
of the Frith of Forth. It is nearly 4. 
miles long, and from 2 to 3 in breadth. 
The furface is beautifully diversified 
with hill and dale, and, from the emi- 
nences, the profpectis remarkably ex- 
tenfive and beautiful. Numerous tra- 
vellers have remarked, that the fcenery 
comprifed in the extent of the prolpec't 
from Mons-hill (one of the higheft 
eminences ) is among the fineft in 
Europe. The foil is in general a poor 
clay, bordering on till ; but there are 
fome fpots of fandy ground. The 
crops are on that account rather late, 
but they are fometimes very abundant. 
Like the greater part of the Lothians, 
much attention is paid toregalar farm- 
ing, and rotation of crops. Ironftor.e 
is found on the fhcre, and the parifh 
p'offeffes excellent quarries of free and 
limeitone. Grindftones are'made here 
of the freeftone, and the fine carving 
in front of Duff-hcufe, at Banff, the 
feat of the Earl of Fife, were executed 
at the quarry, and fent in cafes by fea. 
At Diindas hill, is a fine fpecimen of 
irregular bafaltic columns. There are 
feveral marl. pits in the pariih, and coal 
has been recently raifed on the eftate 
of Lord Hopetoun. There are a few 
antiquities, of which the church may 
be confidered as the chief; it is a fmall 
elegant fabric, of Saxon architecture., 
apparently 800 years old : there is a 
large cairn, and the remains of a iro- 
naftery. Barnbougle-caftle is a very an- 
cient edifice, but ftill inhabited; and is 



only remarkable for the curious fitua- 1 
tion ; it is within flood mark, having I 
off the fea. There are feveral very an- 
cient families, who have poffefftd ef- 
tates in uninterrupted heriditary pof- 
feffion for 700 years. Dr. Wilkie, au- 
thor of the Epigoniad, was born in this 
parifh. He cultivated a fmall farm, and 
struggled long and hard with penury in 
his youth : he afterward became mini- 
fter of Ratho, and at laft profeffor of 
natural philofophy in the uniyerfity of 
St. Andrews, where he died in 1773. 
Though the other parts of the Epigo- 
niad were buried in oblivion, the epi- 
lbde of Hercules in that poem, is fuf- 
ficient to entitle the author to perpe- 
tual fame. Craigie-hall, the feat of 
the Hon. Mr. Hope ; Dundas-caftle, 
and Duddingfione, the refidence of 
Dundas of Dundas, are the chief feats 
in the parifh. Population in 1 791-8, 

DALRY ; a parifh and village in the 
county of Ayr. The parifh extends in 
an irregular figure nearly 9 miles from 
S. to N. and about the fame diftance 
from E. to W. The furface rifes 
gradually from the banks of the rivers 
Caaf, Rye, and Garnock, which water 
the parifh. The fiat grounds on the 
banks of thefe rivers is a deep loam, 
apparently compofed of flime and fand, 
depofited from the overflowing of the 
waters ; the greater part of the foil is 
clay, of different colours, upon a cold 
till bottom ; both thefe foils are inter- 
mixed with patches of moffy ground, 
which have of late been much im- 
proved by the ufe of lime as a manure. 
The village of Dairy is much admired 
by ftrangers for its fituation ; it ftands 
on a rifing ground, almoft furrounded 
by waters, and thefe run in their dif- 
ferent directions lb near the village, 
that when the ftreams are fwollen after 
heavy rain, it has the appearance of an 
ifland. Some years ago, a great deal 
was done in the filk manufacture, but 
that branch has yielded to the cotton, 
which is now generally earned on. 
It contains about 820 inhabitants, and 
gives title of Baron to the eldeft fon of 
the Earl of Glafgow. Limeftone and 
ironftone abound, and there are three 
valuable coal pits within a mile of the 
village ; lately in boring for coal, a 
very ftrong fulphureous fpring was 
railed, which has been mucli ufed in 

fcrophulous and fcorbutic cafes. In a 
limeftone crag, there is a remarkable 
cave fcooped by the hand of nature ; 
it is about 183 feet in length, and the 
breadth and height varies from 5 to 1 a 
feet ; the roof affords many fine fpeci- 
mens of ftalaffical petrifactions. Po- 
pulation of the country part of the pa- 
rifh in 1793, 1186. 

DALRY ; a parifh in the ftewartry 
of Kirkcudbright. Its greateft length 
from N. to S. is about 15, and its 
greateft breadth about 10 miles. To- 
wards the S. the foil is arable, and ca- 
pable of cultivation ; but by far the 
greater part is hilly, and only fit for 
pafture ; along the river Ken, which 
is the boundary on the W. for up- 
wards of 6 miles, there are fome na- 
tural woods of confiderable extent. 
There are feveral fmall lakes ; and, 
befides the Ken, the parifh is watered 
by the rivulets Garpoul, Black<uiater, 
Earljion, and Stonriggan. In Loch- 
invar are the remains of an ancient 
fortified caftle, with a draw-bridge, 
faid to have belonged to the Gordons, 
anciently Knights of Lochinvar, and 
lately Vifcounts of Kenmurc. There 
are alfo feveral moats and ruinous 
places of defence. Mr. Alexander of 
Mackilfton, and Mr. Hunter of Loch- 
invar, poffefs elegant feats. A village 
called St. John's Clauchan, the pro- 
perty of the Earl of Galloway, is fine- 
ly fituated on the banks of the Ken. 
Population in 1791, about 1200. 

D ALRYMPLE; a parifh in the 
county of Ayr. It extends along the 
banks of the river Doon from 6 to 7 
miles in length, and about 2 in breadth. 
The lower grounds are delightfully fi- 
tuated, furrounded on all fides with 
little green hills. Near the Doon, the 
ground is remarkably beautiful, and 
diverfified. The foil is partly clay, and 
partly fand ; the ftate of agriculture is 
much improved of late years, and en- 
clofures are becoming general. The 
Doon contains falmon and trout ; a 
falmon fifhing on this river lets at a- 
bout 15I. There is plenty of limeftone, 
marl, and fome freeftone. Here, it is 
faid, was an engagement, in which 
Coilus, King of the Britons, was Main. 
Population in 1791, 380. 

DALSERF ; a parifh in the county 
of Lanark. It is fituated on the S. 
bank of the river Clyde, extending in 
length about 5 miles, and on an aver- 



jtge 3 In breadth. The holms on the 
banks of the Clyde, which are of ir- 
regular breadth, are very fertile, but 
liable to be overflowed by the river. 
From thefe plains the ground rifes by 
a bold and precipitous ridge to -a con- 
fiderable height: here the foil becomes 
clay, or rather argillaceous loam, with 
a till bottom : the lower grounds are 
well cultivated, but the reft of the 
parifh being more fteril, is but Sightly 
improved. There are feveral extenlive 
plantations in the parifh, and on the 
Clyde fome large orchards: except the 
ground occupied by thefe, the whole 
parifh is arable. The rivers Avon and 
Calnar run through it. There are 3 
neat villages, viz. Dalferf, Millheugh, 
and Larkhall ; the laft of which is now 
very considerable, and is daily increas- 
ing. There are 4 pits of excellent coal ; 
and lime has been found in fmall quan- 
tity : there is great plenty of freeftone, 
and ironftone is alfo abundant. There 
are feveral mineral fprings, the water 
of which contains iron in foliation. Dal- 
ierf-houfe and Broomhill, the property 
of Captain James Hamilton of Broom- 
hill, are both finely fituated, com- 
manding a charming profpecl of the 
Clyde and Avon, with their pleafant 
banks. There are the remains of two 
fmall chapels, one of which is dedi- 
cated to St. Patrick. Population in 
2790, 1100. 

DALTON ; a parifh in the diftricT: 
■of Annandale, in Dumfriesfhire ; the 
greateft extent is about 4 miles in 
length from N. to E. •and 3 miles in 
breadth. The banks of the Annan, 
which bound the parifh on the E. 
have a light loamy foil, very capable 
of improvement : in the places farther 
from the river, the foil is clay, on a 
cold till bottom, which, by retaining 
the moifture, renders it unfavourable 
for vegetation : of late, feveral com- 
mons and muirs have been brought 
into culture, and the appearance of 
the country in general is much un- 
proved. Population in 1794, 615. 

DALZIEL; a parifh in the county 
of Lanark ; the extent in length is a- 
bout 4 miles, and in breadth about a. 
The land is low, and the furface even 
and regular, riling gradually from the 
rivers Clyde and Calder, by which it 
is bounded, to a ridge, with a decli- 
vity juft fufficient to carry off the fu- 
j>erfiuous water. The banks of the 

Clyde are low, except at one place 
where there is a bold rocky bank for 
300 yards ; on the top of which, the 
late Mr. Hamilton of Wifliaw built a 
fummer-houfe, commanding a fine 
profpect of Hamilton and the fur- 
rounding country. The banks of the 
Calder are beautifully diverfified with 
coppices and romantic rocks. There 
are feveral plantations of thriving trees, 
which tend to heighten the beauty of 
the fcenery. The foil is a rich loam, 
and ftrong marly clay, capable of a 
high ftate of cultivation. There is a 
falmon fifhing on the Clyde, belong- 
ing to the family of Wifliaw. Coal 
abounds in the parifh, but no pits are 
wrought at prefent ; there are alfo 
freeftone quarries of excellent quality. 
Upon a moft picturefque fpot ftands 
the maniion-houfe of Dalziel, attached 
to the old tower or chateau of the 
manor, which is kept in repair folely 
on account of its antiquity ; it is a 
large Gothic building, with battle- 
ments and loop-holes on the top, and 
otherwife fortified very ftrongly, in 
the moft ancient manner. A Roman 
way paffed through this parifh, fome 
veftiges of which ftiil remain. Popu- 
lation in 17 91, 478- 

DAMELINGTON ; a village and 
parifh in the county of Ayr. The 
parifh extends about 8 miles in length, 
and from 2 to 3 in breadth. The fur- 
face rifes gradually from the river 
Doon, and the foil varies from a ftrong 
rich deep clay to a dry gravel ; and 
towards the hilly parts it becomes 
barren and rocky. There is a large 
morals near the village, which has 
lately been drained. Part of Loch 
Doon, from which iffues the river of 
that name, is in this parifh. There 
is great abundance of excellent coal, 
freeftone, and ironftone : fome veins 
of lead ore have been difcovered in 
the hills, but they have never been 
wrought to any extent. There is a 
beautiful moat above the village, with 
a deep dry f offe. Several cairns of 
ftones are to be feen in different parts 
of the parifh.. There are the remains 
of 3 ancient caftles, one of which 
ftands on a fmall iflandin Loch Doon. 
The village of Damelington has in- 
creafed much of late; its number of 
inhabitants is about 500 ; its vicinity 
to coal, freeftone, and excellent water, 
has induced feveral companies to e- 


E E 

rect machinery for the cotton and 
woollen manufactures. To the village 
belong two extenfive commons, each 
of which may feed from 25 to 50 cows. 

Daven (Loch) ; a fmall lake, a- 
about 3 miles in circumference, in the 
•parifh of Logie Coldftone, in Aber- 
deenfhire; it abounds with pike, fome 
of which are of a large frze. 

DAVID'S (St.) ; a village in the 
parifh of Dalgety, on the N. coaft of 
the Frith of Forth. It carries on a 
confiderable manufacture of fait, and 
exports annually an immenfe quantity 
of coal. The harbour of St. David's 
is fpacious, fituated in Inverkeithing 
bay, where veflels of any burden, not 
exceeding 500 jor 600 tons, can load 
in fafety. The diftance from the pits 
to the more is nearly 4 miles, and 
waggons of 48 cwt. convey the coal 
?long the waggon ways to the very 
harbour. It is well afcertained -that 
the coal here has been wrought for 
upwards of 250 years, and a great ex- 
tent of it ftill remains. 

DAVIOT ; a parifh in Aberdeen- 
fhire,extendingnearly5 miles in length, 
and 4 in breadth. The furface is level, 
having an expofure to the S. and S. E. 
The foil is partly a rich fertile loam, 
and partly a ftrong clay, producing 
tolerable crops. Very little of the 
parifh is enclofed, and a great draw- 
back to improvement is the- diftance 
from lime, the neareft place where it 
can be got being nearly 20 miles dif- 
tant. There are 2 druidical temples, 
one of which forms part of the church- 
yard. Population in 1791, about 900. 

DAVIOT ; a parifh in the county 
of lrivernefs. It is united to Bunlichty , 
forming a parochial d'iftrict of great 
extent, being about 23 miles in length 
on both fides of the river Nairaj and its 
breadth varies from 2 to 4 miles. The 
appearance is wild and romantic in the 
higheft degree, the hills being either 
bare rocks, or very fparingly covered 
with coarfe gra'lV; and in the low 
grounds there are many large tracts of 
neat mofs, incapable of cultivation, 
but which feem in general well calcu- 
lated for the growth of foreft trees, arid 
many acres have lately been laid out in 
that way. Amongft the mountains are 
feveral lakes, of which Loch 'Ruthiien 
and Loch Dimdelchack are the chief, 
abounding with trout of a delicious 
J^fte and flavour. The ftate of agri- , 

culture is very indifferent; for, al- 
though the foil in fome places yields 
tolerable crops, yet the great number- 
of fmall holdings, fhortleafes, fervices 
to the landlord, and a predilection 
among the people for ancient modes 
of farming, however awkward and 
unproductive, concur in preventing 
improvements. Limeftone has been 
lately found on the banks of the Nairn ; 
the vein contains numerous cubical 
cryjlaRizqtiohs, which, when analyzed, 
have been found to contain, lead. At 
the Mains of Dainot, a feat of the an- 
ceftors of the prefent Laird of Mackin- 
tofh, there were, till lately, the ruins of 
a fort or cattle, built by the Barl of 
Craufurd, in the beginning of the 15th 
century ; it was of great extent, and 
the ftones were lately taken away to 
build a modern houfe near its fite. Po- 
pulation in 1793, 1697. 

Dean ; a deep running river in the 
county of Angus. It takes its rife 
from the loch of Forfar, and receiving 
the water of Gairie near Glammis- 
caftle, falls into the Ifla in its courfe 
through the valley of Strathmore. 

Dee ; a river of great note in A- 
berdeenfhire. It has its fource in a 
hill called Gaibh-chor-Dhe, in Lord 
Fife's foreft, in the parifh of Crathy ; 
and running with aftoniihing rapidity 
through the whole breadth of the 
county, empties itfelf into the German 
ocean at New Aberdeen, at the dif- 
tance of 90 miles, in a direct line from 
its fource. In its colirfe it receives 
many fmall rivers, and forms feveral 
waterfalls, which are noted for their 
ftriking magnificence. Its banks are 
frequently bold and rocky, but in o- 
ther places the fudden riiings to which 
it is liable often lays many acres of its 
banks under water ; thefe are finely 
fkirted with natural forefts and ex- 
tenfive plantations ; and, at proper 
feafons, large rafts of trees are con- 
ftructed, and floated to the fea. It 
abounds with falmon ; and perhaps the 
moft valuable falmon fifhings in Scot- 
land (the Tay fcarcely excepted) are 
on this river, the produce of the Dee 
alone being eftimated at nearly 8000I. 
fterling per annum. In making a com- 
parifon of the foil on the banks of the 
Dee and Don, the 2 principal rivers 
in Aberdeen (hire, the latter has mani? 
feftly the advantage. Hence the cld_ 
rhvme : 


DEER ; a parifh and village in the 
county of Aberdeen. The parifh i3 
lituated almoft in the -center of the 
di thrift of Buchan, extending in length 
10 miles from N. to S: and its mean 
breadth may be eftimated at j-f miles. 
The high road from Aberdeen to Fra- 
zerburgh cuts it longitudinally, and it 
is interfefted by the roads from Banff 
and Old Meldrum to Peterhead ; it is 
watered by two rivulets, Deer and 
Srrichen, which afterwards form the 
Ugie. The furface confifts of irre- 
gular ridges of rifing ground, running 
in every direction, forming a number 
of valleys of irregular extent; the tops 
of fome of the ridges are covered with 
heath, or a poor kind of grafs ; fome 
are covered with plantations, and 
many of them cultivated ; the lower 
parts are more fufceptible of culti- 
vation, and adapted either for corn or 
pafture : round the village is a plain 
of confiderable extent, ornamented 
with the woods and pleafure grounds 
of Pitfour, the feat of James Fergufon, 
Efq. M. P. A confiderable quantity 
of homegrown flax, fpun into fine 
yarn, is annually exported, and a large 
bleachSeld with extenfive machinery 
was lately eftablifhed in the neighbour- 
hood of the village of Stewartfieldo 
The village of Deer is built upon the 
eftate of Mr. Ruffel of Moncoffer, and 
is a very ancient town, containing 
nearly 900 inhabitants; it is about 
io-| miles diftant from Peterhead, the 
neareft fea port. Not far from the 
village ftand the remains of the abbey 
of Deer, built in the beginning of the 
13th century by William Cumming 
Earl of Buchan, for fome monks of 
the Ciftertian order ; it has been an 
Montgomery, wi.u iivcu 111 , uus ucigii- extenfive huMiu ^ but is now ver> , 
, has ^given a defenpaon of | much ^ ruins> § eJ £ gg ^ vilkge Q > f 

Deer, there are alfo other 2 populous 
villages, Stewuartfkld and Fetterangus ; 
the former the property of Mr. Burnet 


'* A foot of Don's worth two of Dee, 
Jjxcept it be for fiih and tree." 

Its asftuary forms the harboilr of A- 
berdeen ; for a description of which, 
vide that article. For about 20 or 
3"o mile.;, it forms the boundary be- 
tween the counties of Aberdeen and 

Dee is alfo a river in the ftewartry 
of Kirkcudbright. It Was anciently 
named Deva by the Romans; when 
in pofleflioh of Galloway ; it takes 
its rife from Loch Dee, a Mall lake 
which is lituated at the bottom of 
thole hills which feparate Carrick 
from Galloway : after running many 
miles in a ferpentine courfe, and re- 
ceiving the "waters of the great river 
Ken, it flows a confiderable way, till 
it reaches the parifrj of Kit kcudbright ; 
it then runs alongft the W. fide from 
N. E. to S. W. and empties itfelf into 
the Solway Frith, about 6 miles below 
the town of Kirkcudbright ; it is a 
large and rapid river ; for a great part 
of its courfe its bottom is rocky, and 
its banks fteep and rugged, adorned 
with natural wood of various kinds : 
in its courfe it receives, befides the 
Ken-, the rivers Tarff and. Tqvyneholm, 
and the Grange-burn; it abounds with 
falmon, and is navigable for fmall vef- 
fels fornearly 6 miles. Oppofite the 
church of Tongland, the bottom of 
the river is very rough, which in large 
floods forms it into beautiful cafcades 
of broken water. A little below this 
is a high bridge of 2 arches, from 
whence the falls are feen to the great- 
eft perfection : after the cafcade, the 
• water falls into a deep linn, with a 
great and inceffant noife. Captain 
Montgomery, who lived in this neigh- 

it, in his ancient poem of " the Cherry 
and the Slae," which is perfectly juft, 
andagreeabletoits natural appearance. 

" But, as I lukit myne alane, 
I faw a river rin, 
Out oure a fteepy rock of fiane^ 

Syne lichtit in a linn, 
Wi' tumbling and rumbling, 
Amang the rocks around,- 
Devalling and falling 

Into a pit profound," &c. 

Stanza 6. 

The whole length of the courfe of the 
Dee is about 40 miles, following the 

ferpentine turns which it makes. 

of Denns, and the latter lately erefted 
on the eftate of Mr. Fergufon of Pit- 
four. There are feveral inexhauftible 
quarries of' excellent limeftone, of 
which nearly 20,000 bolls are annually 
fold. On the S. W. of the parifh is 
great abundance of rombic quartz, or 
feldt-fpar, and pieces of the pureft 
rock cryftals are met with occalion- 
aily, in the form of regular hexagonal 
prifms, pointed at the ends. A fine 
dark blue, and a very white panite, 


D E S 

are ufed for building. There are Se- 
veral druidical circles, and the ruins 
of a fmall irregular village, fuppofed 
to have been inhabited by the druids. 
Population in 1792, 3267. 

DEER ( NEW ) ; an extenfive parifh 
In Aberdeenfhire. It is of an oblong 
form, extending from N. to S. 14 miles, 
and 7 at a medium from E. to W. It 
is diftant about 30 miles from Aber- 
deen. The furface is Mat, there being 
fcarcely a hill, or even a place that 
deferves to be called an eminence ; 
towards the N. E. and S. E. the ap- 
pearance for 7 or 8 miles is almoft 
one continued corn field, interfperfed 
\vith pieces of fown grafs and turnip, 
and terminated by gentle riling ground 
in the form of an amphitheatre ; to- 
wards the W. the foil is fhallow, and 
the furface covered with heath. The 
public road from Aberdeen by Udny 
and Tarves divides- the parifh from 
N. to S. Limeftone abounds on every 
farm, and it is burnt in confiderable 
quantities with mofs ; but the practice 
of liming lands in this diftricT: has been 
carried to fo great an extent, that the 
land has been reduced to a fort of 
caput mortuum, producing nothing but 
thirties and noxious weeds. About % 
miles from the church Hands an old 
caftle called Fedderatt, which appears 
to have been a place of confiderable 
ftrength ; it is furrounded partly by a 
morafs, and partly by a fofie, and has 
been acceffible only by a draw-bridge, 
part of which Mill remains. Water 
has been conveyed to it by means of 
pipes, pieces of which have at differ- 
ent times been torn up by the plough. 
There are feveral remain3 of druidical 
temples ; and feveral tumuli have been 
opened and found to contain urns en- 
elofed in ftone coffins. On a field 
called Aiky or Oaky Brae, Edward 
Bruce, brother of King Robert Bruce, 
is faid to have defeated the Cum- 
mines, Earls of Badenoch, in the year 
1308; (vide Forduni Scoticbronicon, fol. 
83. lib. 5.) Population in 1792, 2800. 

Deer; a fmall riveF in Aberdeen- 
fhire, which takes its rife in the W. 
border of the diftricT: of Buehan, and 
after a courfe of about 1 6 miles, unites 
with the water of Strichen, acquires 
the name of the Ugie, and falls into 
the ocean at Peterhead. 

ICIi; one of the Hebrides, near to 

the ifland of Barry, from which it fs 
leparated only by a narrow found. 

DELTING ; a parifh in Shetland. 
Vide Mainland. 

DENINO ; a fmall parifh in the 
eaftern diftricT: of the county of Fife, 
on the road from St. Andrews to An- 
ftruther. Its figure is nearly a paral- 
lelogram, the length ' being about 3 
miles, and the breadth about a mile 
and an half. It is beautifully inter- 
fered by a variety of fmall rivers, a- 
bounding with excellent trout. The 
foil is in general wet and fpungy, molt 
of the farms being broken with iwamps- 
and fens, and is principally fitted for 
pafturage. Coal ufed to be wrought, 
but no pits are opened at prefent ; 
freeftone abounds, particularly of ex- 
cellent quality, on the eftate of Sir 
William Erfkine. There are alfo fe- 
veral mineral fprings containing iron. 
Kingstnuir, an extenfive tracT of wild 
uncultivated ground, is attached to the 
parifh of Denino ; it belongs to Mr* 
Hanno, who has a coal work, upon it. 
Population in 1793, 383. 

DENNY ; a parifh in Stirlingfhire s 
about 4 miles in length, and %\ m 
breadth. The furface is agreeably di- 
verfified, having a foil partly clay, and 
partly fand ; it is tolerably fertile and 
well cultiyated. The village of Denny 
is pleafantly fituated on the banks of 
the Carron, which feparates this parifh 
from that of Dunipace. The great 
canal from Forth to Clyde paffes 
through it, and is of great benefit to 
the country. Freeftone is plenty, and 
coals are got in fufficient quantity to 
fupply the inhabitants. Population in 
1791, 1400. 

DERVILLE, or DERVAL; a thriv- 
ing manufacturing village in the parifh' 
of Loudon, county of Ayr. Near this 
village are the remains of a Danifh 
fort. The lands of Derville in old 
times belonged to the knights temp- 
lars, and it is remarkable that thefe 
lands hold of no fuperior, not even of 
the crown. The village contains a- 
bout 400 inhabitants. 

DESKFORD ; a parifh in the coun- 
ty of Banff. Its length from N. to S. 
is about 5 miles, and its extreme 
breadth about 3 ; it confifts of a ftrath 
or valley, between a range of hills open 
towards the N. and S. ; in the middle 
runs a fmall river, the banks of which 
are covered with a variety of natural 


wood ; the parifh is alfo interfered 
in feveral places by rivulets riling 
from fprings in the fides of the hills, 
defccnding with frequent waterfalls 
to the burn in the middle of the val- 
ley. The foil along the lower parts 
of the ftrath is generally a rich loam, 
with a ftrong clay bottom, producing 
in warm feafons heavy crops of wheat 
and other grain ; towards the hills 
the foil is a light black mould, on a 
cold tilly bottom. There is a conli- 
derable extent of muirifh or wade 
ground, very capable of improvement. 
The lower grounds feem peculiarly 
adapted for the growth of planting ; 
there is an afli tree, which mealures 
in girth 24 feet 6 inches. The ruins 
of the tower of De/kjord, and of the 
caftle of Scuth, with the furrounding 
woods, form the moft ftriking and pic- 
turefque fcenery. There is a fmall 
bleachfield at the N. end of the pa- 
rifh. There are feveral quarries of 
limeftone, and 2 hills which afford a- 
bundance of peat and turf for fueL 
Population in 1791, 752. 

Deveron, or Doveron ; a river 
which has its fource in the parilh of 
Cabrach, in Aberdeenfhire, and, after 
a courfe of about 50 miles, through 
fertile and highly cultivated plains, 
falls into the ocean at the royal burgh 
of Banff. It forms the boundary be- 
twixt Aberdeenihire and Banff for 
many miles, and in its courfe receives 
many rivulets, particularly the Bogie, 
which falls into it at the town of 
Huntly. Upon its banks are found 
frequent fpecimens of plumbago, and 
many fymptoms of lead ore are ob- 

Devon ; a river in the counties of 
Perth and Clackmannan. VideDovAN. 

Devon (Black) ; a fmail river in 
Clackmannanfhire, which takes its 
rife in the Salvie, and falls into the 
Forth at Clackmannan pow. 

Dichmount, or Dickmount, is 
alfo the name of a hill in the parifh 
of St. Vigeans, in the county of Angus; 
it is about 670 feet above the level of 
the fea, from which it is 3 milesdiftant: 
on the top is a large cairn, now co- 
vered with grafs, hollowed in the mid- 
dle, where it is faid the barons an- 
ciently held their courts ; from which 
eircumftance it probably derived the 
name of the Law, or Dickmount 


Dichty; a rivulet in the county 
of Angus. It takes its rife from amongft 
the Sidlaw hills, from the loch of 
Lundie, in the parifh of Lundie, and 
after a courfe of about 17 or 13 miles, 
during which it drives many mills, 
falls into the Frith of Tay near- the vil- 
lage of Monifieth ; it contains trout, 
and a few falmon. 

Dickmount-hill, in the parifh of 
CambuOang, in the county of Lanark, 
is elevated only about 700 feet above 
the level of the fea, yet commands a 
moft extenfive and various profpedh 
It appears to have been anciently a 
place of ftrength or defence : there 
are the appearances of an earthen 
rampart, which encompaiTed it a little 
below the iummit, and on the top are 
ftill plain veftiges of buildings* 

DINGWALL ; a royal borough in 
the county of Rofs. It is pleafantly 
fituated on a fertile plain at the W. 
end of the Frith of Cromarty, which 
is navigable to fmall veffels as far up as 
the town ; it was erecled into a royal 
borough by Alexander II. in the year 
1226, which privileges were further 
confirmed by a charter granted in the 
reign of James IV. It was entitled by 
thefe charters ".to all the privileges, 
liberties, and immunities pojfejfed by the 
burgh of Lzverne/s." From many cir- 
cumftances, it would appear, that the 
ancient fize of the borough was much 
greater than at prefent ; caufeways 
and foundations of houies have been 
found fome hundered yards from where 
the town now ftands ; it is, however, 
much improved of late years, and the 
ftreets, which are well paved, may be 
called neat, and even elegant; it is well 
fituated for trade, but as yet no parti- 
cular branch of manufacture has been 
introduced. Dingwall contains nearly 
800 inhabitants. Near the town is the 
ruins of the ancient refidence of the 
Earls of Rofs ; it was built clofe to 
the fhore, and nearly furrounded by 
a fmall rivulet, into which the tide 
flowed at high water ; it feems to 
have been a regular fortification, hav- 
ing a ftrong caftle at the W. end : 
what is not furrounded by the fea has 
a deep ditch, and a regular glacis. 
The Earls of Rofs were the moft 
powerful of the northern barons, and 
many of the ancient families in Rcfs- 
fhire hold their eftates by charters from 
him, dated atv.d cajlrum nojlrum de 

D I R 

Dingwall. Near the church is an obe- 
3'rik, riling in a pyramidal form to the 
height of 57 feet, though only 6 feet 
fquare at the bafe ; it is intended to 
dlitinguifh the burying place of the 
family of Cromarty. The parifh of 
Dingwall forms nearly a fquare of % 
miles ; it occupies a fine vailey, with 
part of Hoping iides of the hills which 
form the valley, a great proportion of 
which is in a high ftate of cultivation. 
There is little wafte land, and the 
whole forms a beautiful diversified 
fcene of hill and valley, wood and 
"water, corn fields and meadows. The 
foil is a rich loam, which in dry fea- 
fons affords luxuriant crops : but, 
from the fatnefs of the ground, and 
the fteepnefs of the hills, wet feafons 
frequently balk the expectations of 
the farmer. The river Conan runs 
by the parifh, in which a few trouts 
are occafionally caught ; on it alfo is a 
very productive falmon fifhing. There 
are a few plantations, which are in a 
thriving ftate. The only ftones fit for 
building are a fpecies of whinftone or 
fcurdy, and a fine freeftone, contain- 
ing a quantity of oxyde of iron. Po- 
pulation of the parifh of Dingwall in 

*79 J > *379- 

DIIILETON ; a village and parifh 
in the county of Haddington. It is 
Situated where the Frith of Forth 
opens into the German Ocean ; its 
extent is nearly 6 miles fquare. The 
weftern part of the parifh, along the 
Frith, is fandy and barren for nearly 
3 miles ; towards the E. the foil be- 
comes better, being a fine level plain. 
The village is nearly in the center of 
the parifh, built upon a rocky ground, 
riling as it recedes from the lea. There 
are 2 fmall iflets on the coaft, on one 
of which called Fidrie, is the ruin of 
fome edifice, probably a lazaret or 
hofpital for the reception of lick. A 
confiderable quantity of fea weed is 
thrown afhore after a ftorm, part of 
which is ufed as a manure, and burnt 
into kelp, of which there is made on 
an average about 14 tons per annum. 
Enclofures are becoming general, and 
there is of late years a great improve- 
ment in the mode of farming. William 
Nifbet, Efq. of Dirleton, the chief he- 
ritor, has lately made out extenfive 
plantations. Gulan-nefs, the point of 
land which determines the mouth of 
the Frith, and from which paffage- 


boats failed for Fife, is in this parifh*' 
Population in 1791, 120c. 

Eh vie ; a fmall river in the county 
of Moray. Its principal branch rifes~ 
in the borders of Strathfpey, and after 
a moft rapid courfe, it falls into the 
Findhorn river. 

Dochart ; a lake and river in 
Perthshire. The lake lies in the pa- 
rifh of Killin; extends E. and W. 
forming the boundary between Strath- 
fillan and Glendochart ; it is about 3 
miles in length, and contains a floating 
iflet, a curiofity which is always re- 
commended to the notice of ftrangers. 
This iflet is 5 1 feet long, and 29 broad ; 
it appears to have been gradually 
formed by the natural intertexture of 
the roots and ftems of fome water 
plants; it moves before the wind, and 
may be pufhed about with poles ; 
cattle going unfufpectingly to feed 
upon it, are liable to be earned a 
voyage round the lake. On another, 
but Stationary illand, ftand the ruins 
of a caftle, the ancient reiidence of 
the Knights of Lochow ; it is em- 
bowered with wood, and has a very ro- 
mantic appearance. The river Fillan 
runs into the W. end of the lake, and 
the river Dochart ifiiies out of it, 
and runs about 8 miles through Glen- 
dochart ; then it joins the Lochay, 
and pours its waters into Loch Tay. 

DOLLAR ; a parifh in the county 
of Clackmannan. It confifts chiefly of 
an extenfive and gently Hoping plain, 
beautifully interfperfed with fmall 
villages, farm houies, and enclofures ; 
and taking in a fmall part of the pa- 
rifhes of Tillycoultry and Muckart, 
forms a kind of amphitheatre, about 
3 miles long, and \\ in breadth ; 
bounded on the N. by the Ochil hills, 
and by a rifing ground on the S. Be- 
fides the plain, it takes in a part of 
the Ochils, which are in general co- 
vered with a beautiful green, affording 
excellent paSture for iheep. At the 
foot of the hills, and the greater part 
of the plain, the foil is light and gra- 
velly, caufing a quick vegetation ; on 
the banks of Dovan or Devon, which 
nearly divides the parifh into 2 equal 
parts, the ground is chiefly haugh, 
with an intermixture of clay. The 
village of Dollar is very fmall and 
mean, but being fituated on the road 
from Stirling to Kinrofs, from which 
it is equidiflant about 12 miles,, is a 



■proper ftage for travellers. There is 
a fine bleachfieid on the banks of the 
Dovan, belonging to Mr. William 
Haigj who was amongft the firft in 
Scotland to introduce the practice of 
bleaching with muriatic acid. In the 
neighbourhood of the town of Dollar 
is the venerable ruin of Cajlle-Campbell, 
anciently the occafional reiidence of 
•the noble family of Argyll. It is fitu- 
ated on the top of a round mound, on 
each fide of which is a deep glen or 
ravine, down which run ftreams that 
unite immediately below the caftle. 
A ditch divided the caftle from the 
furrounding mountains, which ren- 
dered it inacceffible, but by a draw- 
bridge. It is not known when or by 
whom this venerable pile was erected ; 
it was formerly called the cajlle of 
Gloom, a name expreffive of its fitua- 
tion ; and is furrounded by the glens 
of Care, and the burns of Sorrow, and 
looks down upon the town of Darknefs, 
for fo the Gaelic names of the fur- 
rounding places are faid to fignify. 
Upon the whole, the fcenery around 
this ancient feat of Campbell, coniift- 
ing of rocks and woods, and glens and 
mountains, contains a pleaiing mix- 
ture of the beautiful, the picfurefque, 
and the awfully romantic. In the 
parifh of Dollar there are feveral ex- 
tenfive coal works, the property of 
the Duke of Argyll, and of Lord Al- 
va ; ironflone likewife abounds, faid 
to be of an excellent quality; the hills 
are chiefly compofed of whinftone, 
but there are feveral valuable freeftone 
quarries ; a vein of lead was lately 
difcovered near the town of Dollar, 
which it is thought will turn to good 
account ; filver has been found in the 
glen of Care near Caftle-Campbell, and 
on the top of a hill called the White 
Wifp, beautiful agates are often found. 
In 1792, the pariih contained 410 in- 

Dollar-burn Hill, in the parifh 
of Manor, county of Peebles, is ele- 
vated 2840 feet above the level of the 

DOLPHINGTON ; a parifh in the 
, county of Peebles, extending about 3 
miles from E. to W. and 2^ from N. 
to S. The great road from Edinburgh 
to Leadhillsby Biggar, pafiing through 
it. The foil is for the molt part a light 
black mould, on a red qlay bottom, in- 
clining to till, which makes it general- 

ly wet, and the harveft late. On the 
top of one of the hills are the remains 
of an encampment or fortification, en- 
cloling about 4 acres of ground ; and 
on another hill called the Kip, is a 
cairn, on the top of which fires ufed 
to be kindled to warn the country of 
invafion, or predatory incurfion. Po- 
pulation in 1792, 200. 

Don ; a rivulet in Aberdeenfhire. 
It takes its rife in the mountains of 
Curgarff, at the head of the parifh of 
Strathdon, and takes a courfe nearly 
due E. At Inverurie it receives the 
waters of the river Ury, and paffing 
by Kintore, falls into the German 
ocean on the N. fide of the old town 
of Aberdeen, about 2 miles from the 
mouth of the river Dee ; it abounds 
with falmon ; the fifhing of a fmaii 
fpace of its banks, not more than 300 
or 400 yards in length, has been known 
to rent at nearly 2000L ; it is navi- 
gable to fmall vefTels up to the bridge, 
which was thrown over it by Bifhop 
Cheyne in 1323, on the high road, 
from Aberdeen to the North. 

Doon ; a lake and river of Ayrfliire. 
The lake is fituated chiefly in the pa- 
rifh of Straiton, and is about 7 miles 
in length. On an ifland are the re- 
mains of an old caftle. The river if- 
fues from the N. W. end of the lake, 
and after a circuitous courfe of up- 
wards of 18 miles, falls into the At- 
lantic, about 2 miles S. of Ayr. The 
banks are very beautiful, and have 
been rendered famous by a fong of 
the Ayrfliire bard: " Ye banks and 
braes of bonny Doon," <Scc. Both lake 
and river abound with trout and fal- 
mon. The river forms the N. E. 
boundary of the diftrict of Carrick. 

DORES, extending 20 miles in 
length, and 3 in breadth, is, a pariih 
in Invernefsfhire, fituated on the banks 
of Loch Nefs. The furface is moun- 
tainous, having a narrow valley run- 
ning nearly the whole extent of the 
pariih. The foil is light, but not 
much cultivated. The proportion of 
arable land is very fmall, by far the 
greater part being fit only for fheep 
pafture.' At Gortuly, the property 
of James Frazer, Efq. much has been 
done in the way of improvement. 
Eefides Loch Nefs, which, with its en- 
virons, furnifhes a beautiful landfcape, 
there are 2 or 3 fmailer lakes, which 
abound with trout. There are feve- 


ttH veftiges of antiquity in the parifh, 
which are pointed out by tradition as 
the fcenes of many Fingalian exploits. 
Population in 1791, 1365. 

DORNOCH; a royal borough in 
the county of Sutherland, fituated on 
the N. coaft of the Frith of Dornoch, 
nearly oppofite to the burgh of Tain, 
which lies on the S. fide of the Frith. 
The town is fma-51, and going faft to 
decay, although it is the county town, 
and the rendence of the fheriff-fubfti- 
tute ; it was erected a royal borough 
by a charter from King Charles I. dated 
162&; and its government is vefted 
in a provoft, 4 bailies, and 10 coun- 
fellors, 4 of which are annually chang- 
ed ; it is one of the northern diftrict 
of boroughs which unite in fending a 
member to parliament ; it contains a- 
bout 500 inhabitants. The parifh of 
Dornoch extends 9 miles from E. to 
W. along the coaft of the Frith of 
Dornoch ; and from N. W. to S. a- 
bout 15 meafured miles. The fhores 
are flat and fandy, and the lands con- 
tiguous in general level ; but are gra- 
dually elevated as they approach the 
hilly d.iftricts towards the N. ; the foil 
is fandy, approaching to loam, as we 
recede from the coaft. The river Eve- 
licks, which falls into the Frith at the 
Meikle-ferry, affords a few falmon and 
trout. In the hilly diftrict there are 3 
or 4 fmall lakes, the largeft of which 
may be about a mile in length. Fal- 
lowing of land is unknown in this dif- 
trict, and the ufe of lime as a manure 
is newly introduced. A great quantity 
of mofs fir has been dug up : many 
logs have been found fit for building, 
and it has been obferved that this fort 
of wood is exceeding durable. There 
are feveral quarries of whinftone, and 
one of excellent fandftone near the 
town. At Evelicks, fome very flatter- 
ing appearances of coal have been 
■obferved ; and about a mile N. W. of 
Dornoch is a very rich clay. Dornoch 
was formerly the feat of the Bifhop of 
Caithnefs, and a part of the cathedral 
is ftill kept in repair as the parifh 
church ; it is uncertain when the fee 
of Caithnefs was eftablifhed, but it 
muft have exifted before the year 1150, 
as we find Andrew Bifhop of Caith- 
nefs a witnefs to a donation by David 
I. to the abbey of Dunfermline in that 

Dornoch Frith, fometimes called 


the Frith of Tain, is that arm of the 
lea which divides the fouthern parts 
of Sutherland from the county of 
Rofs. The entrance of this Frith is 
nearly 15 miles wide, and gradually 
becomes narrower, till about 3 miles 
W. of the town of Dornoch, its 
breadth is not above 2 meafured miles, 
where there is a ferry-boat, called the 
Meikle-ferry, After this it becomes 
much wider, forming an inner har- 
bour or bay, where another ferry is 
eftablifhed, called the Little-ferry. At 
this ferry is an. excellent roadftead, 
where veffels of considerable burden 
can lie at anchor ; but a bar runs a- 
crofs the entrance, which is of great 
detriment ; however, veffels of 500 
tons are laid to have water on this bar 
at fpring tides. On the Sutherland 
coaft, too, in calm weather, veffels of 
fmall burden may lie in fafety ; but a 
formidable bar extends from this coaft 
almoft to the S. fide of the Frith, 
called {from the inceffant noife) the 
Gizzing briggs : the banks, however, 
forming this bar, are not fo clofely 
connected but that veffels may enter 
with fafety, under the direction of a 
pilot. The fhores produce fliell fifh, 
and the banks abound with cod and 
haddocks ; but no vigorous exertion 
has been made to render the fifheries 
an object of importance. The fea 
weed on the coaft is of little value. 

DORNOCK ; a parifh in the county 
of Dumfries. It is nearly a fquare of 
i\ miles, extending along the banks 
of the Solway Frith. The furface is 
remarkably flat, and the foil loamy, 
upon a ftrong clay bottom : this is 
apt to make the ground rather wet, 
but by drains it is rendered very fer- 
tile and productive. There is a fmall 
river, Kirtle, which runs through a 
part of the parifh. The fifhings in 
the Solway Frith employ a great num- 
ber of the inhabitants. There is a 
large peat mofs, which furnifhes plenty 
of fuel. There are the remains of a 
Roman military road through the pa- 
rifh. There are alfo a druidical temple, 
an intrenchment, and a ftrong fquare 
tower, on the eftate of the Marquis of 
Annandale. Population in 1791, 738. 

DOUGLAS ; a parifh and village 
in the county of Lanark ; its extent of 
the parifh is confiderable, being about 
12 miles long, and from 4 to 7 broad. 
Along the banks of the river Douglas 



the foil is good ; farther up it becohics 
1'pouty and wet, and the back grounds 
are chiefly a cold till. On the holms 
of the river are a few farms ; but the 
lands occupied in this manner bear a 
fmall proportion to what is laid out 
for fheep pafture. The high fituation 
of the parifh being nearly equidiftant 
from both feas, renders it liable to 
much rain, and cold feafons. There 
is very little natural wood ; but Lord 
Douglas has planted upwards of iaoo 
acres with a variety of trees, which in 
a few years will have much effect to 
fhelter and beautify this part of the 
country. The parifh abounds with 
coal, lime, and freeftone; many of the 
feams of coal are 7 feet in thicknefs, 
and will be inexhauftible for many 

fifts of 3 ftreets uniting, in the center" 
of which is lately erected a neat mar- 
ket crofs. The ground is excellent for 
building, having a hard ehannelly foun-* 
dation, covered with a coat of rich 
earth, and this continues a confider- 
able way N. and a mile and an half W< 
forming a fine level fpot, whereon ftand 
the 2 great cattle markets of Kilma- 
dock, held annually, at Michaelmas 
and Martinmas. The town is plenti- 
fully fupplied with fprings of excellent 
foft water, that are never dry. What 
has chiefly contributed to the increafe 
and improvement of Doune, is the in- 
troduction of the cotton manufacture. 
An extenfive work, called the Adelphi 
cotton mill, was erected a few years 
ago by fofne public fpirited and en- 

centuries. The dip of the ftrata is in terprifing brothers, the Buchannans 

many places very great, and the coal 
is interfered with numerous dykes, 
which difplace the feam of coal often 
50 or 60 feet perpendicular. Thefe 
dykes are called troubles by the work- 
men, and are the caufe of much labour 
and expence. The village of Douglas 
is fituated nearly in the middle of the 
parifh, and is the center of the great 
roads from Glafgow to England, and 
from Edinburgh to Ayr. It has a fmall 

of Carfton, on the S. bank of the 
Teath. This extenfive work employs 
about 700 perfons, for whofe accom- 
modation all the ruinous houfes of 
the town have been repaired or re- 
built. Mr. Murdoch of Gortincaber 
has likewife built a ftreet of houfes 
adjoining the cotton mill, chiefly in- 
habited by the people employed at 
that work. For fome time paft Doune 
has been noted for excellent flaters, 

manufacture of cotton ; and another 1 who have acquired fuperior reputa- 
cotton work has been lately erected I tion in that branch over all the neigh- 
in its vicinity. It contains about 700 j bouring country ; and in Glafgow, 
inhabitants. The old caftle of Douglas | Stirling, and other places, are often 

was burnt down about 50 years ago 
and one wing has been rebuilt in the 
moft elegant ftyle. The pariih con- 
tains 1 715 inhabitants. 

DOUGLASDALE, the name of the 
middle ward of Lanarkfhire ; formerly 
it was almoft entirely the property 
of the Dukes of Douglas ; and Lord 
Douglas, the reprefentative of that 
ancient family, is fiill the principal 

Douglas River takes its rife at 
the foot of Cairn-table hill, 9 miles a- 
bove the town of Douglas, and receiv- 
ing the waters of 3 fmall rivulets in its 
courfe, falls into the Clyde about 7 
miles below the fame town. 

DOUNE ; a fmall town in the pa- 
rifh of Kilmadock, inPerthfhire ; which 
pariih is fometimes denominated the 
parifh of Doune. The town is fmall, 
but in a very improving ftate, and 
pleafantly fituated on the banks of the 
Teath, near the confluence of the fmall 
rivulet Ardoch with that river. It con- 

invited to contract for modern build- 
ings, in preference to others. This 
town has alfo been long celebrated for 
the manufacture of Highland piftols : 
this art was introduced here in 1646, 
by Thomas Cadell, who carried it to 
fuch great perfection, that no piftols 
made in Britain excelled or even equal- 
led thofe of his making for furenefs, 
ftrength, and beauty of workmanfhip. 
The old and new town of Doune, con- 
tain (including the labourers at the A- 
delphi cotton works) upwards of 1630 
inhabitants. Towards the S. E. of 
the town, on a peninfula formed at 
the junctionof the Teath and Ardoch, 
ftands the ruin of the caftle of Doune. 
Nature has pointed out this fpot as a 
place of ftrength, at leaft well fuited 
to the art of war in ancient times. 
The caftle is a huge fquare building, 
the walls of which are 40 feet high, 
and about 10 feet thick: what remains 
of the tower is at leaft 80 feet in 
height. It is quite uncertain when 


£> O V 

the caftle was built, but as the ftruc- 
ture appears to be very ancient, and 
as it was the family feat of the Earls 
. of JVlonteith, it is conjectured, with 
great probability, that it was erected 
by one of that family, about the nth 
century, pi'evious to the reign of Ro- 
bert II. King of Scotland. It is now 
the property of the family of Stewart, 
giving the fecond title of Baron Doune 
to the Earls of Moray, 

Dovan, or Devon RrvER, takes 
its rife in the parifli of Alva, at the 
foot of the Ochil hills, and after a cir- 
cuitous route of about 40 miles, in- 
cluding its windings, falls into the ri- 
ver Forth at Clackmannan, nearly op- 
pofite to its fource, and only 6 miles 
diftant from it in a direct line. In" 
its courfe it forms fome ftriking and 
romantic waterfalls and cafcades, 
known by the names of the Devil's 
mill, the Rumbling bridge, and the 
Caldron linn. Dr. Garnett, who vi- 
fited tshefe falls in 1798, thus defcribes 
them .' " At the diftance of about 6 
miles from Kinrofs, we left the road, 
in order to fee fome waterfalls on the 
river Dovan. The fiift we vifited was 
what is not improperly called the 
Cahircn linn, about 8 miles from Kin- 
rofs. Here, the Dovan, which we faw 
murmuring along its pebbly bed, fud- 
denly enters a deep linn or guily, and 
there finding itfelf confined by its 
continual effort againft the fides, has 
worked out a cavity refemblmg a large 
Caldron, in which the water has fo 
much the appearance of boiling, that 
it is difficult to diveft one's felt of the 
idea that it is really in a ftate of violent 
ebullition. From the caldron, through 
a hole below the furface, the water 
flowly finds its way under the rock 
into a circular cavity, in which it is 
carried round and round, though with 
much lefs violent agitation : this fe- 
cond caldron is always covered with 
a foam or froth. From this boiler the 
water runs in the fame manner by an 
opening in the rock below its furface 
into another, which is larger than 
either of them, the diameter of it being 
22 feet. The water in this cavity is 
not agitated like the others, but calm 
and placid. From this cavern the 
water rufhes perpendicularly over a 
rock into a deep and romantic glen, 
forming a fine cafcade, particularly 
when viewed from the bottom of the 

glen, to which there is accefs by a zig-- 
zag path. This cafcade is 44. feet in? 
height, and the rocks which compofe 
the linn are about twice as high ; fo 
that it appears as if the water had 
worn its way from the top to its pre- 
fent fituation, which moft probably 
has been the cafe. It falls in one un- 
broken fheet, without touching the 
rock, and the whitenefs of the dafhing 
water is finely oppofed to the aim oil 
black colour of the rocks^ which are 
formed of coarfe grained bafaltes.- 
Whils we were contemplating this 
beautiful feene, the fun happened to- 
mine upon it, and the fpray which, 
arifes from it to aconfiderableheigiu, 
by refracting the rays of light, exhi- 
bited the appearance of a luminous, 
vapour, in which the different prifm- 
atic colours were eafily difcernible. — 
Leaving the Caldron linn, we walked 
about a mile, or rather more, up the 
banks of the Dovan, and came to an- 
other linn or ravine, over which an- 
arch is thrown. The rocks on each 
fide approach fo near, that an arch of 
22 feet fpan, is fufficient to form a 
communication between the different 
banks of the river ; but the depth from 
the bridge to the water is no lefs than 
86 feet, and the want of a parapet 
prevents even the fteadieft head from 
looking down this frightful chafm, 
without a degree of terror. The water, 
both above and below the bridge, 
rufhing from rock to rock, and form- 
ing a number of little falls, produces 
a conftant rumbling kind of noife,- 
which is much increafed when the 
water is fwollen by rains : on this ac- 
count the common people call it the 
Rumbling bridge. When this bridge 
is viewed from the river below, it is 
a very fublime object. The fides of 
the chafm are formed by bold irre- 
gular rocks, confiding of a kind of 
puddingftone, which are in many places 
finely covered with brufhwood : above 
the bridge, the water is feen running 
along, in fome places concealed from 
the eye by the jutting rocks and fo- 
liage, and in others appearing again. 
In fhort, the whole form.s a very ro- 
mantic fcene. About 200 yards above 
the Rumbling bridge, we came to an- 
other fall, though but a fmall one, 
with a kind of caldron, in which the . 
water has the appearance of boiling. 
In this cavity the water is continually 


aoffed about with great violence, con- 
stantly d&fhing againit the tides of the 
.rock: this produces a noife fomewhat 
finiikr to that made by a mill, and on 
this account it is called by the com- 
mon people the Devil's mill, becaufe 
it pays no regard to Sunday, but 
works every day alike." Garnet t' 's 
Tour, vol. ii. p. 14a. The Dovaa iron- 
works are lituated en the banks of the 
river, about 4 miles before it falls into 
the Forth. 

Doveran., or Deveron ; a river 
in BanrHhire. Vide Deveron. . 

Dowalton (Loch), in the coun- 
ty of Wigton, is about 2 miles long, 
and i\ broad. It contains a frnail 
Ifiand of about 30 acres ; and a fmall 
river iffues from it, through a rich 
valley, and falls into Garlieftpwn bay. 

Downe-hill, in the pariih ofEdeu- 
•keillie in Morayihire, appears to have 
•been a fortrefs of great antiquity, and 
sufed as fuch long before the period of 
authentic hiftory ; it is of a conical 
inane, round a confiderable part of 
which runs the rapid river of Divie, 
in a deep rocky channel; and, where 
■not defended by the river, it is en- 
■circled by a deep ditch or foffe, with 
a ftrong rampart, the ftones of which 
■bear marks of fuficn. 

DRAINY ; a pai-ifh in the county 
of Moray, is a peninfula formed by 
the Moray Frith, and the- loch of 
.Spynie. It extends in length about 
4 miles, and from 3 to 3 in breadth. 
The general appearance of the coun- 
try is low and fiat'; fcarcely one half 
of the furface is arable, the greater!: 
part being barren muir ground, co- 
vered with fhort heath, and a coarfe 
benty grafs. The land undes culti- 
vation is fertile, the foil varyirg from 
a rich clay loam to a lighz black 
mould. It is watered by tie river 
LoJJie, at the mouth of which a fmail 
.Silling village is built, called from its 
-fituation Lome-mouth. There are 7. 
-fmall eminences, which are quarried 
for the excellent freeftone <£ which 
they are compofed. Near Canfea, a 
.fmall fifning village in the p:rifh, the 
ihore is bold, having an uninterrupted 
mats of. freeftone, which is p great re- 
.queft fcfr building all over tie country. 
There are fomeappearance£u>f leadcre ; 
but, after : ' arch, ne vein could 

be difcovered wjwth the expence of 
. working. Population 1^1793, 104c. 


DREGIIORN; a pariih in Ayr- 
ffiire. It extends nearly 9 miles in 
length, and varies from 1 to 3 in 
breadth ; the furface is level, having 
a gentle declivity from the eaftern li- 
mits to the fea ; the upper and middle 
parts of the parifh have a deep clayey 
lbil> which towards the fea becomes 
intermixed with fand and gravel ; the 
holms on the banks of the rivers An- 
nock and Irvine are a fine deep loam* 
The whole of the parifli is arable, 
with the exception of a few acres of 
marfliy ground ; it is moftly encioferL 
and many fields are -flickered by ftripes 
of planting. Byall the late leafes on 
the Earl of Eglinton's eftate in this 
pariih, the tenants are allowed only 
to plough the fourth of their farms 
every 5 years; confiderable advantages 
are found to attend this plan ; it lef- 
fens the number of horfes on the farm, 
while the fourth part, from its long 
reft, yields when ploughed nearly a 
double crop. The pafture grounds 
are alfo improved, and the tenant 
is prevented from impoverifhing the 
land, even fuppofmg he intended to 
do fo. Lord Egiinton has lately plant- 
ed a number of fmall thriving planta- 
tions, which are a great ornament to 
the country. A confiderable •quantity 
of fine cheefes are made here. There 
is a colliery in the W. end of the pa- 
rifli, yielding annually 11,000 tons of 
coals. The village of Dreghorn is 
beautifully fituated on the fide of the 
Annock, is well adapted for manu- 
factures, though none are at prefent 
carried on. Population of the parifli, 
as returned to Sir John Sinclair, 838. 

DRON ; a parifli in Perthfliire. It 
extends in length between 3 and 4 
miles, and in breadth about 3, ftretch- 
ing in a Hoping direction at the foot 
of the Ochil hills, which form the S. 
boundary of the rich and beautiful 
vale of Stratherne, and prefenting to 
the eye of the traveller, on the great 
road from the'Queensferry to Perth, 
an agreeable profpect of well cultivat- 
ed fields. In many places the face of 
the hills exhibit a broken and irregu- 
lar furface, roughened by projecting 
rockj ; and overgrown with whins; but 
in cMier places there are confidera- 
ble patches of corn land on the very 
tops of craggy precipices ; and many 
parts of the hills are adorned with 
ftripes and clumps of planting. There 


DPv Y 

are no rivers, but feveral fmall ftreams 
pour down the fides of the hills to 
fall into Erne, which runs in the 
middle of the Strath. Several fprings 
contain metallic fubftances in fojution, 
indicating the exiftence of metals in 
the neighbouring mountains. There 
are fome veins of limeftone, but the 
quality is far from good ; freeftone a- 
bounds, and the appearances of coal 
are fo flattering, that many attempts 
have been made to difcover it, but 
hitherto without fu'ccefs. Population 
in 1792, 450. 

DRUMBLADE ; a parifh in Aber- 
deenfhire. Its extent is from j to 6 
miles in length, and from 4 to 5 in 
breadth. The furface is compofed of 
fmall hills and valleys; fome of the 
former are covered with firs, but by 
far the greater part of the parifh is 
arable; the foil in the valleys is a 
deep clay loam, fertile, and in general 
well cultivated ; that of the higher 
grounds is thin and gravelly, but is 
alfo tolerably fertile. There are a few 
enclofures in the parifh, but the great- 
eft part is uninclofed, as the farmers, 
though very fenfible of the advantages 
of that plan, cannot afford to lay out 
the money for that purpofe. There 
has lately been difcovered a fine fpe- 
cies of clay marl, which promifes to 
be of confiderable fervice in improving 
the land. There is plenty of coarfe 
limeftone, free and whinftones, and 
fome flate. There are three tumuli, 
near one of which are the remains of 
an encampment of King Robert Bruce, 
after he h?d defeated Ciimmine Earl 
of Eadenoch, near the borough of In- 
verurie. Population in 1790, 886. 

DRUMLANRIG ; a village in Dura- 
friesfhire, in the diftrict of Nithfdale, 
remarkable for a wood of oak 6 miles 
in length. Here is a noble feat of the 
Duke of Queenfberry, furrounded by 
wooded hills, and adorned by beauti- 
ful gardens. In one of the parks, 
Mr. Gilpin faw a few of the wild cat- 
tle, which anciently inhabited the 
woods of Scotland. " Thefe animals," 
fays he, " are milk-white, except their 
nofes, ears, and orbits of their eyes, 
which are of a dark brown, approach- 1 
ing to black. They are defcribed by j 
old writers as having manes; but theft 
have none. They refemble the cow 
jn many refpects ; but their form is 
rnore elegant, with a fpirited wildnefs 

in their looks ; and, when they run, 
inftead of the clumfy cow gallop, they 
bound like deer." Drumlanrig is fi- 
tuated upon the river Nith, about 13 
miles from the town of Dumfries. 

DRUMMELZIER; a parifh in the 
pounty of Peebles. It is about 3 miles 
in breadth, and extends 12 miles in 
length, chiefly on the banks of the 
Tweed. The furface is beautifully 
varied with hills, rivulets, and fertile 
plains ; and the foil is of a fertile 
fandy loam. At Polmond is a fmall 
wood of natural trees ; and feveral 
plantations were laid out fome years 
ago by the late Sir James Nafmyth, 
In the church-yard is pointed out the 
burial place of the celebrated Merlin. 
The parifh of Drummelzier is thinly 
inhabitated, containing only about 
270 inhabitants. 

DRUMOAK; a parifh in Aber- 
deenfhire, in extent about 4 miles 
long, and 2 broad. The furface is 
hilly, a great part being only fit for 
iheep pafture. The arable foil is fhal- 
low, and produces only fpare crops of 
barley and oats. There are very few 
enclofures, and agriculture is in much 
the fame ftate as it was 60 years ago. 
The tower of Drum, near the refi- 
dence of Mr. Irvine of Drum, is a very 
ancient edifice. Population in 1791, 

village in the parifh of Monifieth, in 
the county of Angus. It lies on the 
old road from Dundee to Arbroath, 
and contains about 140 inhabitants. 
In the immediate vicinity is the hill 
of Laws, on which are the remains of 
a fortification, the ftones of which 
bear marks of vitrification or fufion. 

Drvmuachder; a high hill in 
Perthfhire, which lies about 2 or 3 
miles t\ T . from the caftle of Blair of 

Dryie; a river in Dumfriesfhire, 
which tiikes its rife in the northern 
diftricl: of the parifh of Hutton, and 
runs a f.ourfe directly S. of about 11 
miles, ehiptying itfelf into the Annan, 
about mid-way between the market 
town of .Lockerbie and the royal bo- 
rough of i.ochmaben. It is, in mode- 
rate weather, a fmall rivulet, clear and 
pure, having in its pools plenty of 
trout, and i< few falmon ; but in rainy 
weather, it comes down fwollen, and 
with great jjjipidity, driving all before 


it that is in its way ; it gives name 
to the vale through which it runs, 
Dryfefdak, contracted Dry'fdale. 

DRYMEN; a parifh in the county 
of Stirling. It is of confiderable ex- 
tent, but the outlines are exceedingly 
irregular. The utmoft length of the 
inhabited part is about 15 miles ; but 
the muirs extend much farther; the 
greateft breadth is about 9 miles. In 
ibme places the country is rugged and 
mountainous; in others, flat and level ; 
but, for the rnoft part, it is an irre- 
gular flope, interfered by a number 
of fmall rapid ftreams, of which the 
Duchray, the Evrick, and the Forth, 
are the chief; for the laft is here only 
an inconfiderable rivulet. Near the 
church is the village of Drymen, which 
contains nearly 200 inhabitants, chiefly 
employed by the manufacturers of 
Glafgow. This parifh is faid to have 
been the refideuce of Napier of Mer- 
chifton, the celebrated inventor of the 
logarithms. Population in 179a, 1607. 

DRY'SDALE; a parifh in the 
center of the diftricl of Annandale, 
Dumfriesfhire. It extends about 7 
miles in length from N. to S. and 
varies in breadth from 1 to 6. The 
fouthern parts are generally flat and 
well cultivated ; and the upper or 
northern parts are hilly, and chiefly 
appropriated for fheep pafture. The 
whole parifh contains 1100 acres, of 
which about 600 are under crop. It is 
watered by the Annan, the Bryfe, the 
Milk, and the Currie ; all of which a- 
bound withtrout and falrnon ; and their 
banks afford many fine meadows and 
rich holm ground, exceedingly produc- 
tive under proper culture. There are 
3 or 4 fmall lakes ; which afford abund- 
ance of excellent marl. The populous 
town of Lockerbie, through which runs 
the line of road from London to Glaf- 
gow, is fituated en the banks of the 
Dryfe, in this parifh. From the top of 
White ivynci or White <tvoo!en hill, the 
only eminence in the parilh, is an exten- 
sive profpect of the Sohvay Frith, and 
the Englifh border. Whinftone is quar- 
ried near the town of- Lockerbie, and 
there is great abundance of lhneftone. 
There are a great number of Roman 
and Britiih encampments, andveftiges 
of many old carries and ftrone towers, 
which fhew this diftrict to have been 
the fcene of much contention and 
bloodfhed. The gre^t Roman road 


can be diftinctly traced near the town 
of Lockerbie, and on the other fide 
of the Dryfe. Population in 1793, 

Duchray; a river in Stirlingfhire; 
one of the mod corfiderable branches 
of the Forth, which it joins nearly 
oppofite to the church of Aberfoil. 

DUDDlNCSTuMi ; a parifh in 
the county of Edinburgh. It extends 
from the foot of Arthur's-Seat about 
4 miles in length, gradually increafmg 
in breadth to the eaftern extremity, 
which is nearly 2 miles broad. There 
is not a more highly cultivated fpot 
in Scotland ; for, although the foil is 
not naturally good, it is fo improved 
with the ftreet dung from the metro- 
polis (which is diftant only 2 miles) 
that the enclofures are frill efteemed 
the beft pafture in the neighbourhood. 
The village of Wefter Duddingftone, 
in which the church is fituated, ftands 
on an eminence under the S. cope of 
Arthur's-Seat, wafhed on the W. and 
S. by the lake of Duddingftone, and 
protected on the N. by the mountain ; 
the molt beautiful and piclurefque 
fcenery expands before it and on e- 
very fide ; the magnificent ' villas of 
Duddingftone, the feat of the Marquis 
of Abercorn ; of Preftonfieki, the feat 
of Sir Alexander Dick ; the rich val- 
leys, the populous villages, and the 
lake below, the bold bafaltie columns 
of Arthur's-Seat behind, and the hills 
of Pentland and Lammermuir, with 
the diftant fea bounding the profpect ; 
compofe a rich and fimfhed landscape. 
Wefter Duddingftone was formerly a 
large and populous village, but of late 
it has much decreafed, and now con- 
tains only about 200 inhabitants. 
Eafter Duddingftone is moftly occu- 
pied by coalliers, and contains about 
90 inhabitants. The other villages, 
Portobello and Brickfield, are the moft 
thriving, though of more recent date; 
they are fituated on the road from 
Edinburgh to Muffelburgh, and are 
much reforted to in the fummer fea- 
fon for the benefit of the fea-bathing. 
Salt has been long prepared in this 
parifh; and it is calculated, that from 
the 6 pans, 18,000 bufhels of fait are 
annually delivered. Coal abounds e- 
very where, and the quality is in ge- 
neral excellent, and procures a ready 
market in the metropolis. The ftrata 
of limeftone and ironftone 3 which run. 


3J« E. and S. W. through the county ! 
. of Mid-Lothian, dip into the Frith of j 
Forth, and are faid to be again recog- 
nifed on the oppofite coaft of Fife. In 
the freeftooe quarries on the coaft, 
many of the crevices are found con- 
tairiw.gpetroleum or rock pitch, and fine 
Specimens of oxj/d of manganefe ; clay 
is found near the village of Brickfield, 
of fo pure a kind, that it has been made 
into crucibles, capable of refilling a 
great degree of heat, and, from its ex- 
cellence, a manufacture of ftoneware, 
fimilar to that of StafFordihire, has been 
fet on foot. Near the limeftone itrata, 
curious and rare petrifactions of plants 
and trees, have been found j fome of 
them plainly formed of reeds and exotic 
plants, now known to be indigenous in 
the tropical regions only. Small pieces 
of chalcedony, porphyry, and agatej, are 
found on the coaft. Marl abounds in 
Duddingftoneloch, and is occasionally 
wrought. The botanift, in this diftrict, 
will find great fcope for the gratifica- 
tion of his tafte : the bafe of Arthur's- 
Seat, and Duddingftone loch, are faid 
to contain many rare and curious 
plants, which have yet eluded all re- 
fearches. In 1794, the number of in- 
habitants amounted to 910. 

BUFFTJS ; a parifh in the county 
of Moray. It extends 5 miles in length 
from E. to W. along the S. coaft of 
the Moray Frith, and is from 2 to 3 
miles ia breadth. Except a fmall 
riling ground in the middle of the 
parifh, it is a continued plain, which 
is every where arable. Along the coafl 
there is a fandy plain of half a mile in 
breadth, covered with a meagre, green, 
benty pafture : all this ground had 
formerly been a rich cultivated foil, 
but for many years has been overblown 
with fand from the weftern fhore. 
The fand has now ceafed to blow, 
and the proprietors have hopes of re- 
gaining their rich ground, by the life 
of the fpade or trench plough. The 
reft of the parifh is a fertile clay foil, 
capable of producing any fort of grain. 
Agriculture is in a very low ftate; the 
old plan of inceflant tillage, without 
reft to the ground, ftill prevails, and 
enelofures are nowhere to be feeu, 
except in the neighbourhood of gen- 
tlemens feats. But, it is no wonder 
that farming is not advanced ; the te- 
nant either has no leafe, or the leafe 

■ o Ihort to allow him to make im- 


provements. That cjrcurnftance is 
the great caufe of the unfavourable 
appearance of a country naturally 
rich. The fifhing village of Burghead 
or Broughhead, is iituated on the coafl: 
of this parifh. On the S. and W. 
boundaries there are many acres of 
thriving plantation. Along the coaft 
are freeftone quarries, and quarries 
of limeftone, a treafure in agriculture 
which is unfortunately locked up for 
want of fuel. The want of good roads 
is ieverely felt. There is an obehflc 
near the fmall village of Kaim, faid to 
have been erected om account of the 
victory gained by Malcolm II. over the 
Danifh general Camus ; and,, on the 
N. W. border of the lake of Spynie, on 
an artificialmound.are ftill Handing the 
walls of an old caftie, called Old Duf- 
fus ; it is furrounded with orchards, 
and, Handing in the midft of a charm- 
ing plain, prefents at every point of 
view a picturefque and intereiling 
landfcape. The village of DufFus is 
regularly built, having a fquare with 
a church in the center, and four ftreets 
leading from it, regularly paved, faid 
to be the workmanihip of fome of 
Cromwell's foldiers, who were fettled 
here. Population in 1794, 1500. 

DUIRNIStf ; a parifh in the ifland 
of Sky. Vide Sky. 

DULL ; an extenfive Highland pa- 
rifh in Perthfhire ; is about 30 miles 
in length, and 12 in breadth, inter- 
fected by other parifhes fo much, that 
it is impoffible to deferibe the exact 
form. It is divided into 5 diftricts, 
one of which, Appin, is an open flat 
haugh, on the banks of the Tay ; the 
reft of the parifh exhibits a mountain- 
ous appearance, interfperfed with 
tracts of arable ground. There are 
15 lakes in the parifh, all of which 
abound with trout, pike, and eel ; of 
thefe loeh Tummel is the moft eonfi- 
derable. The rivers Tay and Tum- 
mel run through the dhtrict, forming 
in their courfe feveral fine cafcades. 
Sheep-farming is chiefly attended to, 
of which there are annually reared 
upwards of 20,000. Fuel is exceed- 
ingly fearce, as the peats are bad and 
at a great diftance : there are fome ap- 
pearances of coal, but as yet none has 
been difcovered. The great military 
road from Stirling to invernefs pailes 
through the whole length of the parifh. 
Here are a great many druidical ten> 

1) UM 

D U 

ptes. and a great number of caftles or 
WatclJ towers. In the district of Ffn- 
caftle alone, are no fewer than the 
rains of ij of them. The mountains 
are moftly compofed of granite, of a 
red or brown colour. Population in 
1791, 4676. 

DUMBARTONSHIRE, or, as it anciently called, the fhire of 
Lennox, extends in length about 40 
miles, and in breadth about 23. It is 
bounded on the N. by Argyllshire ; 
on the E. by the counties of Perth 
and Stirling ; on the S. by the river 
Clyde, and part of Lanarkshire ; and 
on i he W. by an arm of the fea, called 
Loch Long. The greater part of the 
county is covered with heathy hills, 
which are now afTuming a more lux- 
uriant appearance, fince the introduc- 
tion of Sheep. Many of the mountains 
are elevated to a great height, Benlo- 
mond meafuring 3158' feet above the 
level of the fea. The ridge, of which 
Benlomond is a part, is the begin- 
ning of that exteniive ridge which 
crofles the country from this place to 
the E. coaft at Aberdeen, called the 
Grampians. The lower grounds, which 
lie on the banks of Loch Lomond, the 
river Clyde and the Leven, are not fo 
fertile as the correfponding parts of 
fome of the neighbouring counties ; 
notwithstanding which, it is agreeably 
diverfified, and well inhabited. The 
banks of the Leven, in particular, are 
covered with numerous bleachfields, 
printfields, and cotton works, giving 
employment to thoufands ; while the 
villages erected for the accommoda- 
tion of the workmen, the hamlets, 
and elegant feats, cannot fail to im- 
prefs the mind with high ideas of the 
wealth, the induflry, the public fpirit, 
and the happinefs of the inhabitants. 
Agriculture in this county has been 
rather neglected, and little attention 
has been paid to it till within thefe 
few years ; but the public fpirit has 
of late been roufed to this moSt ufe- 
ful and important occupation ; and 
the county of Dumbarton, which is 
capable of much improvement, is faft 
advancing in agricultural progrefs. 
The farmers here, indeed, pofTefs nu- 
merous advantages ; being near a fea- 
port town, where every article bears 
the higheft price, they find a ready 
market for their corn ; and the nu- 
merous inhabitants in the immediate 

neighbourhood require Supplies of d- 
ther neceSSaries from the farmer. Up- 
wards of 12,000 acres are covered 
with natural wood, and there are 
many fine lakes or lochs, of which 
Loch Lomond is the chief ; vide Lo- 
mond (Loch.) Dumbartonshire con- 
tains one royal borough, Dumbarton, 
Several thriving rnanufa&uringvillagcs, 
and is divided into 12 parishes, con- 
taining in all 18,408 inhabitants. 
There are many elegant feats, of 
which Rofedoe, the feat of Sir James 
Colquhoun, and Buchanan, the feat - . 
of the Duke of Montrofe, are the 
principal ; but Mr. Smollet of Bon- 
hiil, Lord ElphinStone at Cumber- 
nauld, and Lord Stonefield at Caitle- 
Leven, poSiefs beautiful feats. Dum- 
barton contains few-valuable minerals : 
freeStone and Slate are abundant ; and 
in Some places are found limeStone, 
ironftone, and coal : many of the 
mountains are apparently volcanic j 
in particular, the rock on which Dum- 
barton-caftle is built. The valued 
rent of Dumbarton is 33,337!. Scots, 
and the real land rent is about 34,250!* 

DUMBARTON, the county town 
of Dumbartonshire, is a royal borough, 
and one of the moSt ancient of the 
towns of Scotland. It is faid to have 
been cuce the capital of a kingdom of 
the Britons, established in the vale of 
the Clyde, and to have been one of 
the feats of Fingal, called in the poems 
of OSlian, the tower of Balclutha. 
Alcluid was indeed the name of this 
ancient capital of the Straibclydenfes r 
but whether it was Situated on the 
feat of the prefent town, or confined 
within the precincts of the caStle, can- 
not be exactly afcertained. Dumbar- 
ton is very fmall, built upon the east- 
ern bank of the Leven, which almoft 
encircles it. The greater part of the 
buildings are old, and the principal 
Street has an air of decayed grandeur. 
It was erected into a royal borough 
by Alexander II. in the year 1221, and 
declared to- be free of all impofrs and 
borough taxes ; but, notwithstanding 
this material advantage, and the ex- 
cellent harbour it pofleSTes, it is by no 
means in a flourishing State.- This 
feems principally owing to the cor- 
poration laws, which prevent Strangers 
from working at their trades, without 
paying high fees of entry. Monopolies 


of this kind are always injurious, as 
well to the corporation itfelf as to the 
place, and ought certainly to be abo- 
lifhed : indeed, there are few towns 
which have attained any coniiderable 
eminence, where trade is thus fet- 
tered. There is a confiderable glafs- 
houfe, which employsabout 15c hands ; 
and fome idea may be conceived of 
the extent of this manufacture, from 
the amount of the duties to govern- 
ment, which are on an average 3800I. 
fterling per annum. This place is 
exceedingly well adapted for manu- 
factures, both on account of its fitua- 
tion on the Clyde, and from its being 
well fupplied with fuel at a cheap 
rate. Dumbarton anciently gave title 
of Earl to a branch of the family of 
Douglas. It contains about 1900 in- 
habitants. The parifti is nearly cir- 
cular, having a diameter of about i\ 
miles : the furface is flat, and the foil 
fertile, but mallow, inclining to gravel. 
The Clyde wafhes it on the S. and 
the Leven on the W. both of which 
contain excellent trout and falrhon. 
The caftle of Dumbarton lies at a 
fmall diftance from the town, on the 
point of land formed by the junction 
of the Clyde and Leven ; it is fituated 
on the top of a rock, which prefents a 
picturefque objefi: : the rock divides 
about the middle, and forms two fum- 
mits : the fides are craggy, and the 
buildings upon it, though net of them- 
felves beautiful, have a good effect, 
and, as Mr. Gilpin obferves, " ferve 
to give it an air of confequence." 
The fortrefs is entered by a gate at 
the bottom ; and within the rampart, 
which defends the entrance, is the 
guard-houfe, and lodgings for the of- 
ficers ; from hence the afcent is by a 
long flight of ftone fteps to the part 
where the rock divides : here is a 
ftrong battery, barracks for the gar- 
rifon, and a refervoir always filled 
with water : above thefe, on the lower 
fummit, are feveral batteries, which 
command a molt extenfive range. 
According to Pennant, the Britons, in 
very early times, made this rock a 
fortrefs, it being ufual for them, after 
the departure of the Romans, to re- 
tire to the tops of craggy inaccefli- 
ble mountains, to forefts, and to rocks 
on the fides of rivers, or the fhores of 
the fea. Boethius, however, aflerts, 
that it was poflefled by the Caledoni- 


ans long before the Britons, and that 
it refilled all the efforts of Agricola to 
reduce it. The venerable Bede informs 
us, that it was the ftrongeft fortifica- 
tion in the kingdom in his time, and 
deemed almoft impregnable ; it was 
reduced by famine in the year 756, by 
Egbert King of Northumberland, and 
taken by efcalade in the year 155 1. 
The rock feems to have been ancient- 
ly a volcano : the fides are compofed 
of rude bafaltic columns, of which 
huge mafies have been broken off, 
and fallen to the bottom, by the in- 
juries of time. Many parts of the 
rock are ftrongly magnetic, . caufing 
the compafs to vary at a confiderable 
diftance : indeed, this circumftance 
was long fince noticed by Buchannan, 
(Scot. Hilt. lib. xx.lect. a 8.), butwas- 
never accurately examined, until Pro- 
feffbr Anderfon of Glafgow afcertain- 
ed the powers of ,,each part, • and 
marked the variation of the poles. 
The Scots thiftle, a rare plant, is found 
here in great abundance. As the caftle 
of Dumbarton commands the naviga- 
tion of the Clyde, and is the key of 
the weftern Highlands, the fortifica- 
tions are generally kept in repair. It 
is garrifoned by a governor, lieutenant- 
governor, a fort-major, fubaltern offi- 
cers, and a company of invalids. The 
government is faid to be worth 700I. 
per annum. 

an ancient town in the weftern. diftrict 
of the county of Perth. It was firft a 
cell of Culdees, and afterwards was 
erected into a bifhopric. The town 
is pleafantly fituated on the banks of 
the river Allan, and contains about 
1200 inhabitants. Thecathedral ftands 
on an eminence, on the eaftern bank 
of the Allan, and overlooks the town; 
it was founded by King David in 
1 142. To this fee were annexed 
confiderable revenues in Scotland, 
befides lands it poflefled in England.. 
The cathedral is unroofed, and going 
to decay ; yet is venerably grand, be- 
caufe much of its ruins ftill remain. 
The choir is kept in repair as the pa- 
rochial church ; at the W. end are 32- 
prebends ftalls, and on the N. of the 
entrance to the cathedral, the bifhop's ■ 
feat, and the dean's, both of oak, and 
handfomely carved. The length of the 
building is 216 feet, the breadth 76, 
the height of the walls 50, and of the 


tower, which is a more modern build- 
ing, 128. Dr. Robert Leighton was 
confecrated Bifhop of Dumblane in 
1662 : he bequeathed his valuable 
library for the ufe of the clergy of the 
diocefe of Dumblane, with funds for 
its Support. Since that time, it has 
received many additions, and is now 
a moil valuable collection. The parifh 
of Dumblane extends about 9 miles in 
length, and 6 in breadth. The ground 
in general has a gradual declivity 
from the Surrounding hills to the river 
Allan, which runs through the parifh, 
giving the name of Strathallan to a 
considerable tract of land along the 
river. Upwards of one half of the 
parilb is muir land, covered with heath, 
or with a Swampy bottom. The arable 
land is iituated principally on the 
banks of the Allan, and of the fmall 
rivulet Ardoch, which runs along the 
weftern border. There is a great ex- 
tent of natural wood, and feveral 
plantations of fir. Near Kippencrofs is 
a plane tree, faid to be one of thelargeft 
in Scotland; its trunk is about 72 
feet in girth. There are Several pits 
of excellent marl ; lime and Coal are 
diftant about 8 or 10 miles. The She- 
riff muir, on which was fought the fa- 
mous battle in November 17 15, be- 
tween the royal forces under the Duke 
of Argyll, and the rebel army under 
the command of the Earl of Marr, is 
dill ant a few miles from the town. 


and pleafant. The higlieft range or 
mountains borders with Lanarkfliire ; 
thele are of very great extent, forming 
a waving and irregular ridge acrols 
the country, from the one coaft to the 
other, including the mountains of Car- 
rick on the one hand, and the great 
ridge of Selkirkshire and Lammermuir 
on the other. Thefe hills (the pro- 
perty of which is divided between the 
Dukes of Buccleugh and Queenhberry, 
and Lord Douglas) afford pafture to 
innumerable flocks of flieep and black 
cattle ; many thoufands of which are 
annually exported to England. De- 
fending into the vales, the furface be- 
comes more agreeable, and the country 
is in a high ftate of cultivation ; its face 
is diverhlied with lofty Swelling knolls, 
level meadows, gentiemens feats, farm 
hOufes, cottages, open lawns, and 
wooded eminences ; the greater part 
is enclofed with ht dge-rows or (tone 
walls, and the produce in wheat, oats, 
and barley, is far more "than fufflcient 
for the confumpt of the inhabitants* 
Molt of the proprietors here have the 
wildom to deal more liberally with 
their tenants than the landlords in other 
parts of the kingdom ; they give leafess 
of aconliderable length, and arepleafed 
to fee their tenants in confortable cir- 
cumstances : fame of the proprietors, 
indeed, who are either incapable of 
discerning their true interefts, or 
through an opprefiive defire to retain 

Dumblane is a Scottish peerage, by i the peafantry, as near as poffible, in 

the flavifh, deftitute condition of the 
ancient vaffalage, refufe any. length of 
leafe,and require fuch exorbitant rents, 
that it is barely poffible the tenant can 
do juftice to the improvement of land, 
and absolutely impoffible he can be- 
come rich and independent. In this 
county, the ufe of lime as a manure 
has been of the molt material advan- 
tage, and has turned the attention of 
the farmer more to agriculture than 
to pafturage, and much of the land 
which was formerly wafte and unpro- 
fitable, has of late years affumed a ver- 
dant and fruitful appearance. In an- 
cient times, Dumfriesshire was inha- 
bited by the Sc-igova?, a tribe of the 
Cumbri, the molt ancient inhabitants 
of the middle and Southern parts of 
the iiland ; they were found by the 
Romans in this part of the country, 
when they established the province of 
Volenti®, which extended from Adrian's 

the title of Vifcount in the perfon of 
the Duke of Leeds. Population in 

I793> 2750» 


DUMFRIES-SHIRE is bounded on 
the N. by Lanarkfliire ; on the E. by 
the counties of Peebles, Selkirk, and 
Roxburgh ; on the S. by the Solway 
Frith, and the marches of England ; 
and on the W. by the ftewartry of 
Kirkcudbright, and part of the county 
of Ayr. It comprehends 3 districts or 
ftewartries, viz. Annandale, Eikdale 
or Wauchopedale, and Nithfdale ; 
through each of which runs a river, 
from whence the district derives its 
name. A great part of the county is 
mountainous, overfpread with heath, 
'and well Stocked with game of all 
kinds ; but the valleys, through which 
the ESk, the Annan, the Nith, and o- 
ther livers run, are extremely fertile 




wall between the Tyne and Solway, j 
to the wall of Antoninus between the j 
Clyde and Forth. After the Romans 
had relinquished Britain, a new king- 
dom, founded by Ida and the Angles, 
in 5 4 7 , fpread its authority from North- 
umberland and Cumberland, over the 
fouthern and weftern diftrict of Valen- 
tia. Thefe, again, were difplaced by 
the Picts about the beginning of the 
9th century, who, penetrating from 
the N. and N. E. difmembered Gallo- 
way and Dumfriesfhire from theNorth- 
umbrian monarchy, and fairly efta- 
bliihed themfelves. in thefe diftricts. 
Dumfriesfhire extends in length from 
N. W. to S. E. about 60 miles, and is 
about ,30 miles at its greateft breadth. 
It contains 4 royal boroughs, Dum- 


maben, feveral fmall towns and vil- 
lages, and is divided into 42 parochial 
diftricls, containing in all 52,329 inha- 
bitants. Dumfries contains many ele- 
gant feats, of which Drumlanrig-, the 
feat of the Duke of Queenfberry, is the 
chief: Comlongan-caftle, the feat of 
the Earl of Mansfield; Barjarg, the 
refidence of Mr. Hunter ; Amisneld, 
the feat of the Earl of Wemyfs ; are 
alfo beautiful manfions-. Few counties 
in Scotland poffefs more valuable, or 
more numerous minerals than Dum- 
friesfhire. The hills, which border 
with Clydefdale, contain valuable lead 
mines, very rich in fiber ; and many 
other parts of the county poflefs 
mines of the fame metal. Coal and 
limeftone are found in moil parifhes 
of Dumfriesfhire ; and excellent free- 
fcone is alfo abundant. In the parifhes 
of Penpont, Kirkmichael, and Canoby, 
are indications of iron ; in Langholm, 
copper is wrought ; and in Wefter- 
kirk, on the eftate of Sir James John- 
ftone, a valuable mine of antimony has 
been lately difcovered. Much of the 
limeftone receives a polifh equal to the 
fineft marble, and many of the fprings 
contain diflblved a fmall quantity of 
lime, giving them a petrifying qua- 
lity. Befides the mineral fprings of 
Moffat and Hartfell Spaw, there are a 
great many wells, which contain me- 
tallic or mineral impregnation. The 
rivers abound with trout and ialmon, 
and on the fhores of the Solway Frith, 
the polypus or animal flower is fre- 
quently found. In addition to the 
animals common to other parts of 

Scotland, we may mention that, at 
Drumlanrig, are ftill to be feen a few 
of the wild cattle which anciently in- 
habited the woods of Scotland ; (yide 
Drumlanrig.) The valued rent of 
Dumfriesfhire is 158,627k 10s. Scots, 
and the real rent may be eftimated a- 
bout 109,700k fterling. 

DUMFRIES ; a royal borough, and 
county town of the fhire of the fame 
name. It is fituated on the river Nith, 
about 9 miles above where it dif- 
charges itfelf into the Solway Frith. 
In the 12th century it was a place of 
fome confideration : a bridge was 
thrown over the Nith, fome religious 
houfes were eftablifhed, and a caftle 
was built ; and thus the fifhing of the 
river, the coneourfe of paffengers 
drawn hither by the bridge, the reli- 
gious eftablifhments, and the fecurity 
afforded by the caftle, concurred to 
draw together a community, and to 
form a city. While England and Scot- 
land were feparate kingdoms, Dum- 
fries was a place of ftrength, where 
the Scots borderers retired from the 
hoftile incurfions of the Englim. The 
noble family of Maxwell, Lords Her- 
ries and Earls of Nithfdale, were pof- 
feflbrs of the caftle, and in fome mea- 
fure lords of the town ; and when 
this family was attainted, through, 
miftaken loyalty and religion, the 
town feemed to have fuffered for a 
while by its decline. With the ad- 
vantages of fituation, which it poffefl- 
es, it could never fink into a very low 
condition ; fince the beginning of the 
laft century, it has made gradual ad- 
vances in wealth and population. The 
principal ftreet extends full three quar- 
ters of a mile, the whole length of the 
town, in a direction parallel to the 
Nith ; towards the middle of the town 
it is nearly 100 feet in width ; befides 
this, there are 8 other ftreets, with by- 
lanes, making the breadth of the town 
from a quarter to a third of a mile. 
The houfes are in general handfome, 
and have a light and airy appearance ; 
the fituation of the town, riling gra- 
dually on the E. bank of the river, is 
beautiful and advantageous. Except 
the infirmary, Dumfries can boaft of 
no remarkable or magnificent public 
buildings. In a fquare, nearly in the 
middleof the town, an handfome Doric 
column perpetuates the memory of the 
late Duke of Queenfberry, one of the 

D U M 

D U M 

greateft benefactors of the town. The 
induftry of the town is employed chief- 
ly for the accommodation of the inha- 
bitants of the town, and the circumja- 
cent country ; and pofleffes no confi- 
derable manufacture, nor extenfive 
commercial tranfactions, though almoft 
every branch of mechanical and com- 
mercial induftry is praclifed. It has % 
annual fairs, which are, perhaps, more 
refortedto than any marketsinthefouth 
of Scotland.. On the other fide of the 
Nith is a large village called Bridgend, 
which is connected to the town by a 
narrow bridge of 9 arches ; the toll 
collected at which amounts to up- 
wards of 2qo\. per annum. Dumfries 
is governed by a provoft, 3 bailies, 
and merchants and trades counfellors, 
annually elected. The affizes for the 
county of Dumfries and the ftewartry 
of Kirkcudbright are held in the town 
twice a year ; and it is the feat of the 
commiffary court, of the fherifFs court, 
Dumfries is perhaps a place of higher 
gaiety and elegance than any other 
town of its fize in Scotland. The 
proportion of the inhabitants, who 
are defcended of refpe&able families, 
and have received a liberal education, 
is greater here than any other place in 
this part of the ifland ; thefe give, in 
confequence, a more elevated and po- 
lifhed tone to the manners and gene- 
ral character of the inhabitants. The 
citizens of Dumfries are fond of po- 
lite amufements : they have a well at- 
tended theatre, and regular afiemblies. 
The amufements of the town, the ad- 
vantages which its excellent fchools 
afford for education, its convenient 
and healthy fituation, allure many of 
the inferior gentry from the neigh- 
bouring counties, to fpend in it a great 
part of the year. The Dumfries and 
Galloway hunt meet annually here, 
and roufe the town to feflivity ; and 
the Caledonian hunt fometimes hold 
their meetings in the place. King 
James VI. in one of his journeys to 
England, prefented to the trades of 
Dumfries a fmall lllver tube, like a 
piftol barrel, called the fd<ver gun, 
with his royal licenfe to ihoot for it 
every year. At that feftival they are 
muttered in bands, under the colours 
of their refpective corporations, and 
march to a convenient fpet without 
the town, to ihoot at a mark : the 

perfon who hits or fhoots- neareft it, 
returns to town decorated with the 
gun, and other injlgnia of victory, and 
the day concludes with a foeial enter- 
tainment. Dumfries gives title of Earl 
to the chief of the family of Crich- 
ton. It is iituated 75 miles S. W. of 
Edinburgh, and contain salxnit 6000 in- 
habitants. The pariih of Dumfries is 6 
miles in length, and from ?, to 3 in 
breadth, lying on the E. bank of the 
river Nith. The tract of country may 
be confidered as an extenfive vale, 
fpreading from the N. W. towards 
the Solway Frith. A ridge of low 
hills, indeed, rifes at the S. E. end of 
the town, and runs S. and E. nearly 
in the direction of the river ; thefe 
hills, and the hills which bound the 
plain, are either cultivated to the fum- 
mit, or planted with clumps of wood ; 
and the whole fcene is picturefque in 
a high degree. The foil towards the 
N. E. is a reddifh earth, on a freeftone 
bottom ; and towards the S. is in ge- 
neral a pretty .ftrong clay. Near the 
confines, on the N. E. lies Locker mofs, 
an extenfive morafs, interfered by 
Locher water ; it is a dead flat, ex- 
tending to the Solway Frith at leaft 
10 miles in length ; it appears to have 
been once an inlet from that arm of 
the fea ; for a ftratum of fea fand is 
found at a certain depth, and pieces 
of veffels and anchors have been dug 
up. The improvements in agricul- 
ture of late years have been very great, 
and feveral plantations of oak, elm, 
and other trees, have been lately made 
out ; around the town are numerous 
enclofures, furrounded with trees, 
which have a delightful effect. The 
river Nith produces faimon and other 
fifh. in great abundance ; and fifheries 
to confiderable extent are carried on, 
on the banks of the Frith. In the 
middle of Locber mofs is a ftrong cha- 
lybeate fp ring, called Crichton' s nvell ; 
and, about a mile E. of the town, is a 
craig or rock, curioufly hollowed, 
known by the name of the Maiden- 
bower Craig, faid to have been famous ' 
in the days of druidifm, and to have 
received its name from being the fcene 
of fome rites practifed as the teft of 
virginity.' The late Dr. Ebenezer Gil- 
chrift, a phyfician of the firft eminence, 
and highly diftinguiihed in literature, 
was a native of this parifh ; as were 
alio Dr. Wight, profeflbr of divinity 


in Glafgow, and Mr. Andrew Crofbie, 
advocate ; men whofe talents do ho- 
nour to their profeffion. Population 
of Dumfries parifh (including the town 
of Dumfries) in 1791, about 7000. 

DUN ; a parifh in the county of 
Angus. It is iituated on the road 
from Brechin to Montrofe, from which 
towns it is nearly equidiftant ; its ex- 
tent in length is about 4 miles each 
way. The furface .is level, and the 
foil rich and fertile. The river South- 
efk runs through the pariih, over 
which there is a handfome bridge of 
3 arches, erected in the year 1787. 
There is a good falmon fifhing upon 
the river, which contains alfo a few 
trout. Population in 1793, 500; in 
3801, 651. 

DUNBAR ; a royal borough, and 
parifh, in the county of Haddington. 
The town is centrical! y fituated be- 
tween Edinburgh and Berwick on 
Tweed, being diftant 27 miles from 
each. It ftands on a gentle eminence, 
at the bottom of the fmall bay, or 
harbour of Dunbar. The principal 
ftreet is broad and fpacious, and the 
houfes, which are moftly new, have 
an elegant appearance. It is well fup- 
plied with faft water, brought about 
2 miles by leaden pipes; it was erected 
into a royal borough by a charter from 
David II. fometime about the middle 
of the 14th century, all the privileges 
of which it ftill enjoys ; it is governed 
by a provoft, 3 bailies, a treafurer, 
and 15 counfellors ; the revenue a- 
mounts to nearly 500I. per annum ; it 
has a fuburb or village, within the 
royalty, called Belhaven, near which 
the harbour was originally built : the 
eajl pier of the prefent harbour was 
begun during the proteetorfhip of 
Cromwell, who granted 300I. towards 
defraying the expence ; it was ftill, 
however, very imperfect, and capable 
. of receiving a few fmall vefi els: though 
it has fince been much improved at 
incredible labour and expence, yet it 
is fmall and of difficult accefs ; it is 
defended by a battery of 1 2 guns, of 9, 
12, and 18 pounders. It has been 
propofed by government to improve 
the harbour ftill farther, and to make 
Dunbar the ftation of a fleet, for the 
defence of the eaftern coaft of Scot- 
land, Leith roads, however fafe, hav- 
ing this inconvenience, that with an 
pafterly wind no veffel can get out of 


the Frith ; if this fhould be accom- 
plished, Dunbarwould foon rival many 
of the greateft towns in the kingdom, 
The principal trade carried on at pre- 
fent is the exportation of corn, of 
which there is exported annually a- 
bout 10,000 quarters. There is a 
rope-work in the town, and another 
at Weft Barns, about a mile diftant, 
where about 100 tons of ropes are 
yearly manufactured : there is alio a 
large and convenient dry dock. A 
number of fifhing boats are fitted out 
from this town. The parifh of Dun- 
bar extends about 9 miles along the 
coaft, and is at a medium nearly 2 
miles in breadth. The face of the 
country is very pleafant, riling gradu- 
ally from the coaft, which is gene- 
rally low and fandy : from the back- 
grounds the profpect is extenfive and 
delightful, exhibiting a variety of ftrik- 
ing objects, North Berwick Law and 
Tantallan-caftle, the Bafs, the Ifle of 
May, the Frith of Forth, with the op- 
polite coaft of Fife, and the mountains 
of Angus. The foil is rich, and per- 
haps the moft fertile in Scotland ; it 
is partly a deep loam, partly clay, and 
partly a light mould : moft of the 
fields are enclofed with ftone dykes or 
thorn hedges. The farmers are ge- 
nerally opulent and refpectable, and 
are always ready to adopt any plan 
which tends to improvement. The 
parifh is watered by 2 fmall rivers, the 
Tyne and the Biel, which fall into the 
fea near the town. Befides the town, 
and its fuburb Belhaven, there are 4 
confiderable villages. Broxmouth, a 
feat of the Duke of Roxburgh, and 
Lochend, the feat of Sir Peter War- 
render, are in the parifh : befides, the 
Earl of Lauderdale, Mr. Hamilton of 
Bangour, Mr. Hay of Belton, and Mr. 
Anderfon of Winterfield, have beauti- 
ful and elegant feats. The venerable 
ruins of the caftle of Dunbar are juftly 
efteemed a remarkable piece of anti- 
quity ; the date of its erection is quite 
unknown; it has been extenfive, built 
upon feveral rocks, within fea mark, 
and, before the ufe of artillery, it was 
deemed impregnable ; it was always ef- 
teemed a place of great national im- 
portance, as the key of Scotland on the 
E. border ; it has often been befieged, 
and often bravely defended. Here Ed- 
ward of England took refuge after his 
total defeat at Bannockburn, and to 



this cattle Bothwell fled and left Mary, 
after the unfortunate battle of Car- 
berry till. The caftle was afterwards 
demoliihed by order of the Scottiih 
parliament. In this parifh is part of 
Down hill, famous for the encampment 
of General Leflie and the Scottiih 
army, the night before their defeat at 
the battle ofD unbar. There is plenty 
of limeftone in the parifh. On fhore 
pebbles are frequently found, and near 
the harbour is a fine fpecimen of mar- 
tial jafper, which takes a Very fine po- 
liih. Here are frequently found thofe 
beautiful fpecimens of ge'ddes orfepta- 
ria, iron ore, generally termed the 
geodes of Dunbar. Population return- 
ed to Sir John Sinclair, .-5700. 

DUNBARNY ; a parifh in the di- 
ftridt of Stratherne, Perthfhire. It ex- 
tends about 4 .miles in length, and 3 
in breadth ; it takes in the moft beau- 
tiful part of the ftrath, and is enclofed, 
as it were, on all fides, having the 
Ochils on the S. the hill of Mvrdun or 
Moncrief en the N. and is bounded on 
the W. by rifing grounds, interfered 
by the river Erne in its various wind- 
ings. The grounds are every where 
covered with plantation, belts, avenues, 
and hedge-rows ; and the great road 
to Perth running through the parifh 
by the fide of the river, with the nu- 
merous ornamented feats interfperfed, 
form a moft delightful landfcape. The 
view from the top of the hill of Mon- 
crlef h fo grand, extenfive, and various, 
that Mr. Pennant has given it the name 
of " the glory of Scotland." The foil 
varies from clay to a loam and light 
land, but is in general very fertile. 
There is a fmall village at the bridge 
of Erne, which, from its fituation, pro- 
mifes to become confiderable. Pit- 
keathly, fo famous for its mineral wa- 
ters, is in this parifh ; (vide Pit- 
keathly.) In 1792, the number of 
inhabitants was 1250. 

DUMBARTON. Vide Dumbar- 

DUNBOG ; a parifh in the county 
of Fife ; lies in a valley between 2 hills, 
having an extenfive bog or morafs, 
from which it takes its name. The 
ground is in general wet and cold, but 
the greater pai't is arable and proper 
for the culture of wheat. The extent 
of the parifh is from 3 to 3^ miles in 
length, and about 2 in breadth. Po- 
pulation in 1791, 235 ; in 1801, 232. 

DUNDEE; a royal borough in the 
county of Angus or Forfar, feated on 
the N. bank of the river Tay, about 
12 miles from its mouth, in 56 27' 23'' 
N. latitude, and 3 2' W. longitude 
from Greenwich. It is a large and 
well built town, confifting of feveral 
ftreets, diverging in every direction 
from the market-place or high-ftreet, 
which is a fpac'ious fquare 360 feet 
long by 100 feet broad. On the S. fide 
of this fquare ftands the Town-hoitfe, 
an elegant ftruclure, with a handfomc 
front, adorned with piazzas below, 
and overtopped by a neat fpire 140 
feet in height: this building, which 
was finifhed in 1734, contains the 
guild hall, the court room, town- 
clerk's office, with vaulted repofitories 
for the town records, and apartments 
for the Dundee Banking Company's 
office : the prifon occupies the upper 
ftory, and does much honour to the 
feelings of the magiftrates,underwhofe 
aufpices it was erected, the rooms 
being well aired and commodious, 
and at the fame time perfectly fecure. 
At the E. end of the fquare, the in- 
corporated trades have erected an e- 
legant Trades' hall, with a fuperb front 
of Ionic pilafters, and a neat cupola : 
the lower flat is occupied by fhops, 
and the upper flat contains rooms for 
each incorporation, and a large hall 
for general meetings, which is now 
occupied as a fubfeription coffee-room, 
on the moft liberal and extenfive plan. 
Oppofite to the Trades' hall, in the 
W. end of the fquare, a neat Epifcopal 
chapel has been lately built. At the 
S. E. corner of the fquare, about 100 
feet from the Trades' hall, ftood the 
caftle-hill, fo called from the ancient 
caftle. It was compofed entirely of a 
hard bafaltic whinftone, and has lately 
been quarried away at a great expence, 
and a fine fpacious ftreet, called Cajlle- 
Jlreet, has been opened to the harbour. 
A fmall diftance W. from the great 
fquare, is the old church, in which 
were- originally 4 places of worfhip, 
and when entire had been a very mag- 
nificent building, with a large fquare 
Gothic tower or fteeple 156 feet high, 
at the W. end of the church ; it is faid 
to have been erected by David F;arl 
of Huntingdon, in 1189, and dedicated 
to the Virgin Mary, in gratitude for 
his deliverance from fhipwreck, in 
which he had nearly perifhed withal 


Sghtof the town, oa his return from the 
third croifade. On an eminence near 
the ftreet called the Coivgat'e, the in- 
corporated trades, in conjunction with 
the kirk-feifion, have built St.Andrews 
church, with a fine fpire 1.39 feet high, 
exhibiting one of the pureft fpecimens 
of modern architecture : there is a 
neat entry to the church by a broad 
gravel walk, with graft plots and 
fiirahberies, laid out in the moft ex- 
cellent ftyle. About a mile from the 
town, on the rifing ground towards 
She hill of Dundee, is Dudhope-cojlle, 
an ancient building, lately converted 
into barracks, for the accommodation 
«f a complete regiment : the wards 
for the men occupy the old building, 
and a new and elegant building has 
fceen juft fitted up for the officers : 
there is an extenfive parade in front 
®f the officers barracks, and a large 
Meld for exercife immediately behind. 
Dundee a ^° nas a Sailors ball, which 
is often ufed for afiemblies, and a 
theatre, where a. party of the Edin- 
burgh comedians exhibit for feveral 
months during the Edinburgh vaca- 
tion. There are many friendly focie- 
Sies, for the fupport of poor members ; 
and an infirmary, has been lately built, 
for the reception of indigent fick : 
many years ago a difpenfary was efta- 
Mifhed, under the patronage of Lord 
Douglas, one of the principal bene- 
factors : this charity is now united to 
the infirmary, where the poor receive 
medicines gratuitoufiy, by prefenting 
a recipe from the attendant phyfician. 
A fpirit for literature and education 
manifefts itfelf in Dundee; for, befides 
the public grammar fchool, and the 
Englifh fchools, which are well fup- 
plied with good teachers, there is juft 
eftablifhed an academy, or rather col- 
lege, for mathematics, the French and 
Italian languages, and the polite arts, 
with proper profeffors in the different 
branches, and a large apparatus for 
natural and experimental philofophy. 
Moft of the ftreets of Dundee are neat, 
and the houfes well built, but the 
new ftreets are fpacious and elegant. 
The town is well fupplied with water, 
many families having draw-wells on 
their own property, and every ftreet 
having a public well of excellent water 
conveyed in leaden pipes. The har- 
bour is advantageoufly fituated for 
trade, admitting eafily trading vefiels 


of the greateft burden ; upwards of 
120. vefiels belong to the port, em- 
ploying nearly 1000 feamen ; of thefe 
vefiels % are employed in the Green- 
land fifhery, and 11 in the London 
trade, one of which fails every 3 or 
4 days, with good accommodation 
for paffengers ; the reft are employed 
in the Baltic and foreign trade. It is 
calculated, that there are entered at 
the cuftornhoufe of Dundee, cargoes 
annually to upwards of 80,000 tons. 
The magiftrates have been lately, and 
indeed ftill are, employed in enlarging 
and fitting up the harbour, fo as to 
render it of eafy accefs, and commo- 
dious ; it is now fo convenient, that 
travellers with their horfes can get 
over to Fife at any time of the tide, 
and a fufficient number of ferry-boats 
are always in readinefs. The Tay, 
oppofite to Dundee, is about z\ miles 
broad, and being fheltered by the 
high lands on each fide, affords a fafe 
road to veffels of any burden, where 
they may lie at anchor till the tide 
admits them into the harbour. Clofe 
by the quay, 3 large public ware- 
houfes have been built, befides nu- 
merous warehoufes belonging to in- 
dividuals. The principal and ftaple 
manufacture is linen, of various kinds : 
ofnaburghs and other coarfe linens, for 
foreign markets, are manufactured, 
fuppofed to the annual amount of 
i8o,oool. and canvas or fail-cloth, 
which has of late been the chief manu- 
facture, the demand for that article be- 
ing greatly increafed in time of war : 
befides thefe,a confiderable quantityof 
fack-cloth and cotton bagging is annu- 
ally made for exportation. Several cot- 
ton works, have been attempted, but 
have not been fuccefsful. The Dundee 
coloured threads have been long in 
high repute : indeed, it was here that 
manufacture was firft eftablifhed. A 
fugar-boufe was eftablifhed fome time 
ago, but was given up on account of 
fome difagreement among the part- 
ners ; it has been lately refumed, and 
is now earned on to good account. 
The great trade of Dundee has given 
rife to a private banking companies, 
befides a branch of the bank of Scot- 
land ; and, it is faid, that a new com- 
pany is immediately to be eftablifhed, 
on a more liberal and extenfive fcale. 
There is alfo a Dundee infurance com- 
pany againft loffes by fire, with a great 



Capital. The ancient name of Dundee 
was Aleclum or Alec, but is faid to have 
been changed at the time of the found- 
ation of St. Mary's church by the Earl 
of Huntingdon, to Dondie, a contrac- 
tion of daman Dei, expreffive of his 
gratitude for his miraculous efcape ; 
others afcribe it to Dim Tay, " the hill 
of Tay ;" but etymologies of names 
are at beft unfatisfactory, and feldom 
ufeful. Though it was only erected 
into a royal borough by King Wil- 
liam, it appears to have enjoyed many 
immunities and privileges previous to 
the reign of that prince : but, as all 
the records and evidences of its an- 
cient rights were either deftroyed, or 
carried off by Edward I. of England, 
application was made to Robert Bruce, 
after he had obtained free pofiefnon 
of his kingdom,that thefe rights fhould 
be recognifed. In confequence of this 
application, Robert appointed 2 com- 
miilioners for recognifing the rights 
of, by a charter 
dated at Aberbrothock the 2 2d day of 
June, in the 20th year of his reigo. 
The commiflioners accordingly re- 
paired to Dundee, and having exam- 
ined witneffes, found full and com- 
plete evidence, " that the burgeffes of 
Dundee enjoyed in times of former 
kings the fame privileges with thofe 
of any other molt favoured and dif- 
tinguiihed town of Scotland." On this 
recognition, King Robert granted to 
the town an infeftment and charter, 
granting " to the burgeffes, their heirs 
and fucceffors for ever, all the liberties 
and rights of which they were poffeiTed 
in the time of Lord William King of 
Scots, of bleffed memory, before the 
fame William conferred the faid bo- 
rough on his brother David." Thefe 
rights appear to have been confirmed 
and enlarged by fucceflive charters 
from many other princes, and finally 
confirmed by the Great charter from 
Charles I. the articles of which were 
ratified by parliament, on September 
14, 1641. The town is governed by 
a provoft, 4 bailies, a dean of guild, 
a treafurer, and 15 counfellors, who 
are annually felf-elected. The unap- 
propriated revenues of the town a- 
mount to 32ool. but the town council 
have under their management an an- 
nual fum not lefs than 4000I. In an- 
cient times Dundee was ftrongly for- 
tified, and fome remains of its ancient 

fortifications ftill -remain at the Cow- 
gate port. It had an old caftle, whicl? 
was demolifhed by the famous Sir 
William Wallace, who received fais 
education in the town. The caftle 
had proved very ufeful to Edward L 
when he put a garrifon into it to over- 
awe the inhabitants ; and Wallace 
getting poffeffion, ordered it to be 
deftroyed, left it fhould fall again into 
the hands of the Englifh. This treat- 
ment fo exafperated Edward, that, 
taking the town by ftorm, he Jet fire 
to it; and many of the inhabitants, 
who had taken refuge in the churches 
were burnt, along with their mofi 
valuable effects. It was again taken 
and burnt by Richard II. and agaia 
by the Englifh in the days of Edward 
VI. It fuffered greatly during the 
troubles of Charles II. and the uiurp- 
ation of Oliver Cromwell ; being fome- 
times under one matter, and forne- 
times at the mercy of another. It was- 
taken by ftorm by the Marquis of 
Montrofe ; and the. laft and molt -de- 
ftructive fiege, when it was taken by 
affault, and completely pillaged by 
General Monk. At this time, fo great 
were the riches of Dundee, that every 
private foldier in Monk's army had 
60L fterling of plunder to his fhare, 
— The parifli of Dundee is extenfive, 
being 6 miles from E. to W. along 
the banks of the Tay ; its breadth 
varies from 1 to 4. The foil is in 
general uneven, but many places are 
abundantly fertile, and the appearan'.--.; 
is beautiful, particularly the S. Hope 
towards the Tay. The law or hill 
of Dundee is fituated on the N. fide 
of the town, rifing in a conical fhape 
to the height of 525 feet above the le- 
vel of the Tay ; on its fummit are the 
diftinet veftiges of a fortification, which 
tradition afcribes to Edward I. On 
the lands of Balgay are large rocks of 
porphyry. There are feveral quarries 
of fandftone, of very hard texture, con- 
taining many quartoze nodules imbed- 
ed in it ; but the principal ftone ufed. 
in building is brought from the Kin- 
goodie quarry, in the parifh of Long- 
forgan. Along the Ihores of the Tay, 
Scots pebbles are found in great va- 
riety. Dundee has given birth to 
many great literary characters, of 
which we may mention Hector Boece 
or Boethius, firft principal of King's 
college of Aberdeen, the author of 3. 


good hiftory of Scotland, and one of 
the chief reftorers, of learning in his 
time ; Dr. Kinloch, phyfician to James 
VI. and Mr. Goldman, merchant: fome 
Latin poems by thefe two gentlemen, 
inferred in the fecond volume of the 
Poeta Scotigena:,zxe univerfally admired 
for their purity of language and ele- 
gance of compohtion. Fletcher of Sal- 
toun, DempSter of Dunnichen, the gal- 
lant Lord Vifcount Duncan, and the 
Earl of Rofslyn, (late Lord Loughbo- 
rough), natives of Dundee, are charac- 
ters which would attach celebrity to 
any place, and their names will always 
be gratefully remembered by every 
Scotfman. In 1792, the number of in- 
habitants in Dundee was estimated at 
24,000; in 1801, the number return- 
ed to government was 26,084. 

Dundelchack (Loch) ; a lake 
in the pariah of Daviot, in the county 
of Inverness ; it is about 6 miles long, 
and \\ broad, containing abundance 
of the fmeft trout. It is remarkable 
that it never freezes in winter, but 
very readily in fpring, by one night's 
froft, when the weather is calm ; it 
pours its waters by a fmall rivulet into 
the river Nairn, forming in its courfe 
feveral beautiful expanfes of water. 

DUNDONALD ; a village and pa- 
rifh in the county of Ayr. The pa- 
riih extends from the harbour of Ir- 
vine about 8 miles along the fea coaft, 
and terminates on the S. at a place 
where the Rumbling and Pow burns 
meet and diicharge themfelves into the 
fea. The Surface is various, being di- 
vided into an higher and lower district 
by the Cla<ven hills, which run through 
it directly N. and S. The higher di- 
strict, being inland, is generally of a 
fertile clay, inclining in fome places to 
loam, confuting of gentle eminences, 
and adorned with clumps and belts 
of planting ; below is a wide plain, 
extending to the coaft, fandy and un- 
cultivated ; clofe by the fhore are many 
fandy hillocks, which are covered with 
bent. The Claven hills are of various 
heights, many of them being arable, 
and all affording excellent pafture. On 
the tops are many veftiges of encamp- 
mtnts, which are named Roman ; but 
their circular figure and Structure are 
Sufficient to confute that deiignation ; 
it feems more probable that thefe 
fortifications are of Norwegian Struc- 
ture, as it is certain that nation was 


once in pofieffion of a great part of 
Ayrihire. The Troone, the weftern 
point of the parifh, might be made 
an excellent harbour ; in its natural 
Mate, it affords fafe anchorage from 
every quarter, except the N. W. 
Upon Troone Point Hands an elegant 
octagonal temple, built by the late 
Colonel Fullerton, with the infeription 
" Baccho laiitia? datori^ amicis et oiio 
facrum" The village is Situated at the 
N. W. edge of Claven hills ; it is a 
thriving place, having an extenfive cot- 
ton manufactory : near it is the ancient 
and royal cattle of Dundonald, from 
which the noble family of Cochrane 
take the title of Earl ; it was the fa- 
vourite feat of Robert II. the firft King 
of Scotland of the Stuart race : the 
walls are very thick, and the Stuart 
arms are engrofled on many parts of 
the building. Oppofite to the village 
and cattle is a beautiful bank of wood 
Surrounding thehoufe of Auchavs, the 
feat of the Countefs-dowager of Eg- 
lintoun. Coal abounds in every part 
of the parifh, of which a great quan- 
tity is ^annually exported at Irvine. 
Population in 1793, 1317. 

Dundroigh, or Druids Hill, is 
Situated in the parifh of Eddleftown, 
county of Peebles. It is elevated 2100 
feet above the level of the fea, and 
commands an extenfive profpect in 
every direction. 

Dunearn, a high hill in the neigh- 
bourhood of Burntifland,in the county 
of Fife. It is remarkable for a fmall 
lake upon its Summit, which is never 
dry : on the N. fide it is Steep, rugged, 
and frightful, from the projection of 
the Stones, and the immenfe quantity 
of rubbilh which has fallen down. 
The Stones are chiefly a coarfe grained 
bafaltes, and many of the columns are 
very regular, exhibiting pillars of 5 
and 6 fides. The great refemblance 
this hill bears to thofe in other coun- 
tries, which are known to be extinct 
volcanoes, renders it v.ery probable 
that this hill has been of the fame 
kind : the property of it belongs to 
Dr. Charles Stuart of Edinburgh. 

DUNFERMLINE ; a royal borough 
in the county of Fife, a feat of a pref- 
bytery, and one of the moft consider- 
able manufacturing towns in th$ coun- 
ty. It is Situated in the we Hem district 
of the Shire, about 3 miles N. from 
the Frith of Forth, above the level of 


which it is elevated roo feet. The 
greater part of the town is fituated on 
a hill or rifmg ground, having a pretty 
bold declivity towards the S. ; the 
ground, however, ibon flattens to the 
Nethertown, which ftands on a plain ; 
the profpedt it commands is remark- 
ably various, beautiful, and extenfive, 
having a view of 14 different counties 
at once. The ftreets-of Dunfermline 
are well built, and the fize of the town 
is rapidly increafing by the feuing of 
a great part of the eftate of Pittencrief, 
which forms a large fuburb, connected 
with the town by a bridge of nearly 
300 feet in length. The borough, it 
appears, held of the monaftery of Dun- 
fermline for nearly 2 centuries, and 
became royal by a charter from King 
James VI. dated 24th. May, 1588. In 
this charter, called a charter of con- 
firmation, the King ratifies fun dry 
charters, donations, and indentures, 
by John and Robert, abbots of Dun- 
fermline ; and particularly one of 
date, 10th October, 1395, by which 
" the abbot and convent r enounce, 
in favour of the eldermen and commu- 
nity, the whole income of the borough, 
belonging to their revenue, with the 
fmall cuftoms, profits of court, &c." 
referving, however, the " power of 
punifhment, mould any of the magi- 
ftrates be guilty of injuflice in the ex- 
ercife of their office." The govern- 
ment of the town is vefted in a pro- 
voft, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, and 22 
counfellors, annually elected. The re- 
venue of the town is confiderably 
above $oo\. per annum. It has a weekly 
market, and 8 public fairs within the 
year. The town has been long dif- 
tinguifned for the manufacture of dia- 
per or table linen ; for many years 
no other cloth has been woven to any 
confiderable extent. There are nearly 
1200 looms employed, and the value 
of goods manufactured has for fome 
time paft been from 5o, 6o,oool. 
fterling per annum. Aftonifhing im- 
provements have been made in this 
branch within thefe 50 years; and by 
the application of machinery, labour 
has been greatly abridged. In the cheft 
of the incorporation of weavers is pre- 
ferved a curious fpecimen of the weav- 
ing art ; this is a man's fliirt wrought 
in the loom upwards of a century ago, 
by a weaver of the name of Inglis, 
which is without feara, or without the 


leaft afliftance of the needle : the only 
part he could not execute was a but- 
ton for the neck. At an early period 
Dunfermline became a royal refidence ; 
Malcolm Canmore ufually refided at 
a tower or caftle, built on a penin- 
lulated hill, in a valley near the town. 
A palace was afterwards built, not 
far from the tower, in a moft romantic 
(ituation ; the S. W. wall ftill remains, 
a monument of the magnificent fabric, 
of which it is a part. The monaftery 
was one of the moft ancient in Scot- 
land, being founded by Malcolm Can- 
more, for the monks of the order of 
St. Benedict, and completed by his fort 
Alexander I. It continued to be go- 
verned by a prior, gill the reign of 
David I. who railed it to the dignity 
of an abbey, and in 11 24, translated 
thither 13 monks from Canterbury- 
The abbey was richly endowed, and 
derived its revenue from very diftant 
parts of the kingdom ; it was a mag- 
nificent and extenfive building, but 
fell an early to the plundering 
army of Edward I. about the begin- 
ning of the 14th century; all that was 
laved of that magnificent fabric was 
the church, with a few cells for the 
monks ; thefe were demolifhed at the 
reformation, and the remains of the 
abbey are now inconiiderabie. The 
pai-ifh church _and fteeple are large 
and ancient, being part of the old 
abbey, built by Malcolm Canmore. 
Here, the founder, his queen, and 
7 other Scottifh monarchs lie interred. 
In the town and adjoining fuburb of 
Pittencrief there are upwards of 5200 
inhabitants. The parifh of Dunferm- 
line is of an irregular figure, the aver- 
age length of which is about 8 miles 
from N. to S. and about 5 in breadth. 
The furface fiopes gradually to the 
fea, the foil varying from a gravel to 
a rich loam 33 we approach the coaft, 
which is partly flat, and partly high 
and rocky ; it poffeffed two excellent 
harbours, at Charleftown and Lime- 
kilns, which admit veflels from 300 to 
350 tons burden. The fmall rivulet 
Lyne paffes near the town, and there 
are feveral extenfive lochs, fome of 
which have been drained and im- 
proved : many acres of wafte land 
have been lately planted with firs and 
other kinds of wood. The parilh a- 
-bounds with valuable mines and mi- 
neral- : in manv places there are pro- 

digious rocks of white ffeeftofte, and 
whinftone is alio found for paving the 
ftreets : limeftone has been wrought 
to a great extent ; the Earl of Elgin 
poffeffing here the moft cxtenfive lime- 
w-orks in Britain : ironftone is alfo a- 
bundant, and exported in great quan- 
tities to the Carron company. The 
parifh contains, befides the burgh of 
Dunfermline, and the towns of Lime- 
kilns and Charleftown, 3 or 4 fmaller 
villages, making the total population 
in 1794, 9550. 

Dungisbay-head, faid to be the 
Berubium of Ptolemy, is fituated in the 
county of Caithnefs, and forms the 
N. E. corner of the iiland of Great 
Britain. This beautiful promontory 
is of a circular fhape, about a miles 
in circumference ; towards the fea, 
which encompaffes two thirds of the 
Head, is one continued precipice ; on 
the land fide is a deep glen or ravine, 
over which a fmall bridge is thrown. 
On the higheft part of the Head, about 
50 yards from the edge of the preci- 
pice, are the remains of a houfe, which 
has probably been ufed as a watch- 
tower. It is fituated in the latitude of 
58^ 45' N. and about a° 7' W. longi- 
tude from Greenwich. 

Dunian ; a hill in the county of 
Roxburgh, the elevation of which is 
103 1 feet above the level of the fea. 

though thefe are commonly confider- 
ed as forming one parifh, yet the fta- 
tiftical circumftances of each are fo ef- 
fentially different, that it is thought 
proper to give an account of them fe- 

I. Dunkeld, a fmall town in the 
county of Perth, fituated on the N. 
bank of the river Tay. The fcenery 
which furrounds it has long been the 
fubjedt of admiration, as romantic and 
delightful. Nature has been liberal in 
producing and combining fine objects 
in the landfcape ; and the improve- 
ments of the Duke of Athol, conduct- 
ed on an extenfive fcale, and with 
great tafte, have given an additional 
ornament to the whole ; prefenting a 
variety, and a degree of picturefque 
beauty, which is feldom equalled, and 
is perhaps no where furpaffed. Mr. 
Gray, the author of " The elegy in a 
country church-yard" vifited it in 1766, 
and thus expreffes himfelf in a letter 
addrefled to the Earl of Oxford : " The 


[road came to the brow of a fleep de« 
fcent, and between two woods of oak, 
we few far below us, the Tay come 
fweeping along at the bottom of a pre- 
cipice, at leaft 150 feet deep, clear as 
glafs', full to the brim, and very rapid 
in its courfe ; it feemed to iffue out of 
woods thick and tall, that rofeon either 
hand, and were overhung by broken 
rocky crags of vaft height ; above them 
to the W. the tops of higher moun- 
tains appeared, on which the evening 
clouds repofed : down by the fide of 
the river, under the thicker! fhades, is 
feated the town of Dunkeld ; in the 
midft of it Hands a ruined cathedral, 
the towers and fhell of the building 
ftill entire ; a little beyond it, a large 
houfe of the Duke of Athol, with its- 
offices and gardens, extends a mile be- 
yond the town ; and as his grounds 
are interfered by the ftreets and roads, 
he has flung arches of communication 
acrofs them, that add much to the 
fcenery of the place." Dunkeld is a 
place of great antiquity ; it was the 
capital of ancient Caledonia ; and a- 
bout the dawn of Christianity, a Picftifh 
king made it the feat of religion y by 
erecting there a monaftery of Culdees, 
which King David Lin 1 130, converted 
into a biihopric, and ranked it the firft 
in Scotland. It is a burgh of barony,, 
and its only magiftrate is a baron-bailie 
appointed by the Duke of Athol, who 
is fuperior. Charles II. offered it a 
charter of erection into a royal bo- 
rough, but/ the offer was declined. 
The principal ftreet extends in the di- 
rection of the Tay, interfered with 
by-lanes, and containing fome good 
houfes. The" principal manufacture 
is of linen and yarn, for carrying on 
which it is conveniently fituated. It is 
the chief market town of the High- 
lands, and befides a weekly market, it 
has the privilege of holding 6 yearly 
fairs. The fituation of Dunkeld is 
very healthful, and is frequently re- 
commended by phyficians as a fum- 
mer refidence for their confumptive 
and nervous patients ; the oftenfible 
reafon is the opportunity of obtaining 
goat whey; but the purity of the air, 
the ferenity of the mind, produced by 
the contemplation of the charming 
fcenery, and gentle exercife, form not 
the leaft powerful and beneficial me- 
dicines. The cathedral has once been 
a fine pile of building, though now 


much dilapidated ; the architecture is 
partly Saxon, and partly Gothic, like 
moft'of the old abbeys; the choir is 
ftill entire, and converted into the pa- 
rifh church; it was built in 1350 by 
Bilhop Sinclair, who is here buried. 
On the north fide of the choir is the 
charter-houfe, built by Bifhop Lauder 
in 1469, the vault of which is now 
ufed as the burying-place of the family 
of Athol ; and the upper room is occu- 
pied as a charter-room by the Duke. 
The tower, which ftands at the weft 
end of the north aifle, is very elegant, 
and remarkable for a rent of the wall 
from top to bottom, nearly 2 inches 
wide. Very near the cathedral is the 
manfion of the Duke, a plain neat houfe, 
without any of the magnificence gene- 
rally feen in a ducal refidence. The 
gardens abound with fruit, which ar- 
rives at great perfection. Within the 
laft 60 years, very extenlive plantations 
have been made around Dunkeld ; the 
prefent Duke of Athol has planted 
upwards of 4000 acres, chiefly with 
larix, intermixed with Scots fir. There 
are evidently feen the remains of a 
bridge over the Tay, built by the ce- 
lebrated Gavin. Douglas, who was Bi- 
fhopof Dunkeld in 15 16, and an author 
well known as a profound claffical 
fcholar, a well informed antiquarian, 
and an elegant poet : of all his works, 
his Palace of Honour, and his Tranflation 
cf 'the JE?ieid of Virgil, only remain; ho- 
norable monuments of the correctnefs 
of his tafte, and the vigour of his ima- 
gination. In 1648, Sir James Galloway, 
mafter of requefts to James VI. and to 
Charles I. was created Lord Dunkeld ; 
his grandfon James was attainted at the 
revolution, and dying in the beginning 
of the laft century, the title became 
extinct. Dunkeld and its immediate 
vicinity contain 1086 inhabitants. 

II. Dowally : this diftrict is fi- 
tuated to the weftward of Dunkeld, 
and may very properly be confidered 
as the country part of that parifh. It 
extends in length about 6 miles along 
the N. bank of the Tay ; the breadth is 
uncertain ; for, as the fide of it, which 
is moft remote from the river, confifts 
entirely of high, barren, and uninhabit- 
ed hills, it has never been thought 
of importance to afcertain its line of 
limit with minutenefs. The rocky hills 
of Craigj Barns and King's Seat are fi- 
liated on the lower boundary of Dow- 


ally ; the latter rifes with a very Hid- 
den afcent from the brink of the river, 
and the road to Athol, which partes 
through Dowally, has been cut with 
great labour and expence along the 
bottom of it ; the road overhangs the 
river fo clofely, and at fuch a height, 
that the timid traveller, who looks 
over the wall which has been built for 
fecurity, is difpofed to haften on his 
way ; but a range of tall and thick 
trees, while they conceal the terrors of 
the fcene, add at the fame time to its 
fingular beauty. The declivity of the 
hills is frequently feamed with deep 
glens or ravines, over which bridges 
are thrown. The foil on the hills is 
very ihallow, but affords pafture to 
numerous flock6 of fheep ; and many 
of them are covered with natural fo- 
refts, well ftocked with red and roe 
deer. The foil of the haughs is light 
and fandy ; that of the higher fields 
on the brow of the hills is ftronger and 
deeper, with an intermixture of clay : 
amongft the hills, in the back parts of 
the parifh, is Loch Or die, which abounds 
with trout and eel. The Duke of A- 
thol draws a confiderable revenue from 
the cuttings of his oak woods; and the 
falmon fifhings on the Tay are rated 
a,t 27I. fterling of annual rent. The 
hills of King's Seat and Craigj Bams are 
compofed of fchijlus, intermixed with 
pyrites, and contain fome fcattered 
grains of pure native copper. In a 
land bank by the fide of the Tay, 
fome particles of gold duft have been 
found; a few trinkets have been made 
for curiofity, but the quantity of gold 
was ;fo fmall, and the expence of ex- 
tracting it fo great, that no attention 
has been paid to the difcovery. In 
1798, the population of the diftrict of 
Dowally, or the landward part of Dun-; 
held parifh, was 687. 

DUNKELD (LITTLE) ; a parifh 
in the county of Perth ; its figure is a 
kind of irregular triangle, the longeft 
fides of which are about 16 miles in 
length. Nature has divided it into 3 
diftricts : ift, or diftrict of Mnrthly, 
which extends from the neighbouring 
parifh of Kinclaven to a fmall village 
called Invar, has a furface varied and 
beautiful, with a rich fertile foil, ge- 
nerally enclofed and well cultivated. 
In this diftrict are fituated Murthly- 
houfe, the feat of the Stewarts of 
Grantully, and Birnam hill, rendered 


famous by the pen of Shakefpear. 
The fecond extends from Invar for 10 
miles, along the banks of the Tay to 
Grantully ; andthisdiftridtfrom having 
belonged in former times to the fee of 
Dunkeld, ftill retains the name of the 
Bifhopric : the cultivated lands form 
the fouth bank of the Tay ; the fields 
are level, and the new fyftem of agri- 
culture has given the whole the ap- 
pearance of an almoft continued le- 
vies of beautiful gardens, from one 
extremity to the other. The remain- 
ing diftricl is feparated from the Bi- 
fhopric by a hilly tradt of confiderable 
extent and elevation ; it is a valley 
9 miles in length, having the river 
Bran winding at the bottom the whole 
extent, till it falls into the Tay near the 
town of Dunkeld. This diftrictis plant- 
ed with populous villages, and the foil 
is generally of a fertile clay or loam. 
One of the proprietors refides near the 
top of the valley, and is beginning to 
ornament the country with planta- 
tions. The hilly part of the whole 
parifli occupies nearly 4000 acres, and 
are either covered with heath, or ex- 
hibit only lofty barren rocks. Near 
Murthly is an inexhauftible quarry of 
fine grey freeft one, and the hill of Bir- 
nam contains excellent flate of a deep 
blue or violet colour : feveral pieces 
of lead ore have been found in the 
fame mountain. Though no iron ore 
has been difcovered, many of the 
fprings indicate the prefence of that 
mineral. There is found in Strath- 
bran a fpecies of argillaceous earth, 
of an exceeding white colour. In 
this parifh are feveral extenfive forefts 
of natural wood, fome of the trees of 
which are of great fize. There are 
feveral fmall lakes in the diftricl: of 
Strathbran, which abound with pike. 
On the river Bran is a fine cafcade, 
near which the Duke of Athol has 
built an elegant boudoir ; (vide Bran.) 
The military road from Perth to In- 
vernefs paffes through the pariih, af- 
fording good accommodation at the 
inns of Invar and Amulrie. There is 
a confiderable military entrenchment 
on the S. bank of the Tay, fuppofed 
to have been formed to guard a pafs 
upon that river, which is fordable at 
this place. On the banks of the Bran 
are to be feen the ruins of the ancient 
caftle of Trochrie, formerly one of the 
feats of the Gowrie family. Remains 


of druidical circles, of circular caitles, 
and prodigious piles of ftones, or 
cairns, fq frequent in other parts of 
the Highlands, are alio to be feen here. 
Population in 1792, 2705. 

DUNLOP ; a parifli in the county 
of Ayr ; it is of an oblong figure, be- 
ing 7 miles long, and if broad; it 
ftands upon high ground, and the fur- 
face confifts of a great variety of hills: 
none of thefe are remarkable for their 
height, but many of them afford beau- 
tiful and extenfive profpects of the 
furrounding country ; the ground is, 
however, of eafy accefs, and well a- 
dapted either for pafture or cultiva- 
tion : the foil in the weftern parts 
of the pariih is a light loam, or thin 
clay ; and towards the E. the prevail- 
ing foil is deep and heavy, with a cold 
wet bottom : the greater part is en- 
clofed, and well cultivated : the prin^> 
cipal attention is paid to the dairy, 
and the farmers here have been long 
famous for that kind of cheefe, which 
is named after the parifli, " Dimlop 
cbeefe." Several ftripes of planting have 
been made out fome years ago by Mr. 
Dunlop of Dunlop, and the late Mr. 
Muir of Calwell, two of the proprie- 
tors. Population in 1791, 779. 

DUNNET ; a parifh in the county 
of Caithnefs. It extends about 10 
miles' in length, and on an average i\ 
in breadth ; it is one of the moft nor- 
therly parilhes in Great Britain ; in- 
deed, the extremity of Dunnet-head is 
found, by the lateft obfervations, to 
be fomewhat farther N. than even 
Dungi/bay-bead, or Jobn-o-Groats. Ex- 
cept Dunnet-head, there is fcarcely an 
eminence in the pariih. The foil is 
in general light, with little clay or 
deep loam ; by far the greater part 
is uncultivated, and incapable of cul- 
tivation. There are feveral fmall lakes 
which fupply the mills with water, 
The coaft is in general bold and rocky, 
but from Dunnet-head it is fiat, and 
affords fafe anchorage to veflels in fe- 
veral bays and harbours ; the coafts a- 
bound with fifh, and afford a confider- 
able quantity of feaweedfor the making 
of kelp. There are feveral caves in 
the rocks, and the veftiges of feveral 
old chapels are diftinclly feen. Free- 
ftone, of excellent quality, is quarried 
at Dunnet-head; but in this remote 
region it is of little value. Popula,» 
tion in 1791, about 1400. 



Dun net-he ad is an extenfive pro-' 
jnontory, running into the Pentland 
Frith on the weftern border of the pa- 
rifh of Dunnet ; it coniifts of feveral 
hills interfperfed with valleys, in which 
is a confiderable extent of pafture for 
fmall cattle and iheep ; through its 
whole extent, which cannot be lefs 
than 8 miles, Dutmet-head prefents a 
front of broken rocks to the fea, the 
height of which varies from ioo to 400 
feet ; it is joined to the land by a nar- 
row neck or rjlbmus, about a mile and 
a half bread : a great variety of fowls 
frequent the rocks ; one called the 
Layer or Pi'ffin, is found in no other 
place of the Britifh ifles, except Hoy- 
head in Orkney, the Cliffs of Dover, 
and Dunnet-head. In the caves, at 
the foot of the precipice, others are 
occafionally found. 

DUNNiCHEN; a parifh in the 
county of Angus, extending in length 
about 4 miles, and from 2 to 3 in 
breadth. It is moftly arable, though 
the furface is hilly ; and fome of the 
hills are elevated to the height of 750 
feet above the level of the lea. The 
foil is tolerably fertile, and it is water- 
ed by two fmall brooks, which arife 
from a neighbouring mofs. There are 
feveral extenfive marl pits, the marl of 
which Mr. Dempster, by a plan re- 
commended by the late Dr. Black of 
Edinburgh, has been able to convert 
into a tolerable quick lime. Mr. Demp- 
ster, whole honeft and patriotic con- 
duct, as a ftatefman will be long re- 
membered by his country, is the chief 
proprietor, and has lately feued a part 
of his ground for a village called Le- 
tham, where there is a ftamp-ofiice, 
and a weekly market for the fale of 
yam and brown linens ; which manu- 
facture Mr. Dempfter has exerted 
himfelf greatly to promote. About a 
mile from the village is Dunnichen- 
houfe, the refidence of that gentleman. 
There is plenty of excellent freeftone. 
A few tumuli have been opened, and 
found to coptain urns, enclofing hones 
and afhes. Population in 1791, 873 ; 
in 1801, 1049. 

DUNNING ; a parifh in the county 
cf Perth, fituated at the northern ex- 
tremity of the Ochil hills, where they 
terminate iu Stratherne. The high 
and muirland parts which are elevated 
at leaft 1000 feet above the level of 
t-be fea, are laid out for fheep pafture ; 

the declivitiesare in fomeplaccs gentTe, 
and admit of the plough, but from the 
elevated and expofed fituation, the 
produce is fcanty ; in the lower parts 
the foil is arable, and partakes of the 
nature of carfe land, capable of railing 
any corn. The village of Dunning 
confiits of a confiderable number of 
houfes, many of which have been lately 
built, are elegant and commodious, 
and exhibit fpecimens of architectural 
tafte not often to be met with in a 
country village. In the immediate 
neighbourhood, Mr. Graham of Orchil 
has lately feued out the village of New 
Pitcairn or Dragon's Den. Duncridb, 
the property and refidence of Lord 
Rollo, holds a diftinguhhed place in 
the parifh ; the eftate was a grant to 
the family of Rollo by David Earl of 
Stratherne, with the confent of King 
Robert his father, the charter bearing 
date 13th Feb. 1380. The hoiife of 
Keltie, the property of the Drummonds 
of Keltie, is an ancient edifice, and has 
been long famed for the genuine hof- 
pitality of an open and generous-heart- 
ed owner. Population in 1796, about 

DUNNOTTAR ; a parifh in the 
county of Kincardine. It is of a tri- 
angular figure, extending about 4 miles 
on each fide ; it is fituated on the 
coaft, at the beginning of the great 
hovj or hollow of the Mearns, a valley 
which extends through the fhires of 
Angus and Perth, under the name of 
Stratkmore. The furface is uneven, 
with frequent rifings ; but thefe are 
inconfiderable, and do not deferve the 
name of hills ; towards the coaft the 
foil is a kind of clay loam ; but as we 
recede, it degenerates into a wet, 
gravelly muir. The fea coaft is very 
bold, formed of alternate ftrata of 
freeftone and plumfmdd'mg-ftone, the 
latter containing nodules of quartz 
and limeftone, which have the appear- 
ance of being water worn, united to- 
gether by a cement, compofed of ar- 
gillaceous and quartoze matter : there 
are many deep caves in the rocks, 
which are much frequented by gulls 
and other fea fowls. At the N. E. 
corner, where the fmall rivulet Car- 
ron runs into the fea, is fituated the 
town of Stonehaven or Stonehi-ve, hav- 
ing a fine natural harbour, which 
might be much improved ; (vide 
Stonehaven.} The turnpike road 



from Montrofe to Aberdeen paries 
through the town of Stonehaven, and 
another road runs directly from that 
town to Perth, through the valley 
of Stratbmore. The caftle of Dun- 
aottar, now in ruins, is lituated on a 
perpendicular rock, level on the top, 
of feveral acres extent, and almoft Se- 
parated from the land by a deep chafm ; 
it forms one of the molt majeftic ruins 
in Scotland, and before the invention 
of artillery, muft have been impregna- 
ble ; it was built during the conteft 
between Bruce and Baliol, by an an- 
cestor of the Marifchal family; fo 
great was its reputation for ftrength, 
that in 1661, it was ufed for the de- 
pofvt of the regalia of Scotland, to 
preferve them from the Englifh army. 
Population in 1792, including the 
town of Stonehaven, 1962. 

DUNOON; a pariSh in Argyll- 
fhire, fituated in the district of Cowal, 
on the W. fide of the Frith of Clyde. 
It extends about 24 miles in length, 
and at an average 2 in breadth. The 
general appearance of the country is 
flat and agreeable, having a few emi- 
nences covered with natural wood in 
the back parts of the parifli. The foil 
is fandy and fertile ; but of late years, 
many of the belt farms have been unit- 
ed into fheep walks, and thrown into 
pafture. The coaft is alfo fandy, with 
funk rocks, poffeffing no fafe creek or 
harbour for veffels of any burden. 
Formerly the village of Dunoon was 
very considerable, and was a place of 
refort, on account of a ferry, which 
was the principal inlet to the district ; 
but a new road being opened by Loch 
Lomond, round the head of Loch 
Long, has contributed to its decay. 
There is no manufacture carried on 
in the parifli, the inhabitants being 
moftly fifhers. The caftle of Dunoon 
was once a royal refidence, of which 
the family of Argyll were hereditary 
conftables ; it was alfo the refidence 
of the BiShop of Argyll, during the laft 
period of Epifcopacy in Scotland. Po- 
pulation of Dunoon in 1791, 1683. 

DUNREGGAN; a fmall village in 
the county of Dumfries. It lies on 
the water of Dalwbcit, over which is 
a ftone bridge, forming a communi- 
cation with the village of Minniehime. 
Thefe united villages are well built, 
and contain upwards of 400 inha- 

DUNROSSNESS; a parifh In 

Shetland. Vide Mainland. 

DUNSCORE ; a parifli in the di- 
strict of Nithfdale, county of D umfries. 
It extends from the river Nith, acrofs 
the country to the river Urr, nearly 
12 miles long; but its breadth varies 
from half a mile to fourmiles ; it is level 
along the Nith, but in general it is 
hilly ; and, towards the upper end, 
rocky and mountainous : fome parts 
of the foil are deep and fertile, but by 
far the greater proportion is light and 
Shallow, on a cold till bottom : from 
the afpect of the country, it is evident 
that it is fitter for pafture than for 
tillage : accordingly, we find a great 
number of fheep and black cattle 
reared for the English market. Be- 
sides the Nith and Urr, the pariSh is 
watered by the river Cairn, which 
runs through the middle of it, and 
here changes its name to Cluden. In 
this pariih the celebrated Robert Burns 
rented a farm for fome years, and, 
under the patronage of Robert Rid- 
del, Efq. of Glenriddel, eftablifhed a 
library or reading fociety, for the in- 
struction and amufement of the pea- 
fants and tenants. This plan he de- 
tailed, in a letter addrefled to Sir John 
Sinclair, and it has been very generally 
followed in many parts of the king- 
dom. Population of Dunfcore, in 
1 791, 913. 

DUNSE ; a considerable town and 
pariSh in the county of Berwick. The 
town is delightfully fituated in the 
center of the county, encompaiTed on 
the W. N. and E. by the Lamniermuir 
hills, a fine plain 25 miles in extent 
lying towards the S. The ancient Site 
of the town was on the top of the 
beautiful hill called Dunfe Law, which 
is elevated from a bafe of about 2-| 
miles in circumference, to the height 
of 630 feet above the level of the lea: 
afterwards, the town was rebuilt at 
the foot of the hill. The fmall water 
of Whittadder paffes by it. About 
half a mile from the town is Dunfe- 
caftle, a large, Stately, venerable build- 
ing, the family refidence of Hay of 
Drummelzier ; it commands an ex- 
ten five. pro fpecl towards the S. as far 
as the Cheviot hills, and is furrounded 
with feveral hundred acres of thriving 
plantations. Nearly a mile from Dunfe 
is the celebrated mineral well, called 
Dunfe Spa, aftrcng chalybeate, fimik".f 



to that of Tunbridge in England. In 
1761, Dr. Francis Home of Edinburgh 
publifhed a very accurate analyfis of 
its contents. According to his ftate- 
ment, it contains iron, muriate of 
foda, lime, and carbonic acid. It is 
much reforted to, and efteemed very 
efficacious in complaints of the fto- 
mach, and in all cafes of debility. 
There is an extenfive bleachfield in 
the neighbourhood of the town ; and 
there is alfo a woollen manufacture to a 
confiderable extent. The population 
of the town is about 2400. — The pa- 
rifh of Dunfe is an oblong fquare of 8 
miles by 5, extending over a part of 
the diftricl of Lammermuir, and over 
the head of that fertile plain which is 
called the Merfe. That part which 
lies in Lammermuir is hilly, and much 
covered with heath. : fome of it, how- 
ever, is cultivated, and has a thin, dry, 
and gravelly foil ; the reft of the pariih, 
or that which lies in the diftrict of 
Merfe, is of a rich, light loam, with a 
mixture of clay, exceedingly fertile, 
and in general enclofed. In this parifh 
the improvements in agriculture have 
proceeded with great rapidity : the 
gentlemen of property let the example, 
which was followed up with great 
fpirit by the tenants ; by which the 
the country has been drained and en- 
clofed, and the climate greatly im- 
proved. The river Whittadder, which 
takes its rife in Lammermuir, runs 
through the whole extent of the parifh, 
and contains excellent falmon. Cock- 
burn Law, which rifes to the height 
of 900 feet above the level of the lea, 
is a fine land mark for Ihips navigating 
the German ocean. On this hill are 
the ruins of a very old building, 
named Woden's or Edin's ball ; (vide 
Cock burn Law.) The learned and 
celebrated metaphyfician and theolo- 
gift, Joannes Duns Scotus, was born 
in Dunfe, in the year 1274. The houfe 
where he was born is ftill fnewn. Po- 
pulation in 1793, 3324. 

Dunsinnan, or Dunsinane ; one 
of the Sidlaw hills, in the parifh of 
Collace, and county cf Perth. It rifes 
from the plain, infulated, and of an 
oval form, with a flat and v£rdant 
fummit ; at one place is to be traced 
a winding road cut into the rock ; on 
the other fides it is fteep, and of diffi- 
cult accefs ; it is noted for the caftle 
of Macbeth, of which there are new 

very few remains. The traditions ia 
the neighbourhood concerning the 
predictions of the witches, and the 
defeat and death of that ufurper, are 
fo fimilar to Shakefpear's hiftory of 
Macbeth, that it is probable that great 
dramatift was on the fpot himfelf, and 
was infpired with fuch uncommon 
poetical powers, from having viewed 
the places where the fcenes he drew 
were fuppofed to have been tranfa^ted. 
Dunfinnan is found, by actual barome- 
trical meafurement, to be 1024^ feet 
above the level of the ka. 

Dunstaffhage ; an ancient caft'le 
in Argyllihire, laid to have been found- 
ed by Ewiu, a Piclifh monarch, before 
the commencement of the ChrifiJan 
era. Whether this is true or not, it 
is certainly a place of great antiquity, 
and one of the firft feats of the Pietilh 
and Scottifh princes. It is fituated on 
a promontory, almoft infulated, in the 
arm of the fea called Loch Etive, a- 
bout 2 miles from Connel, and about 
the fame diftance from the fite of the 
ancient Beregomum. In this caftle was 
long preferved the famous ftone chair 
or feat, the palladium cf North Bri- 
tain, which was ufed as the corona- 
tion chair ; it was removed to Scone 
by Kenneth II. from whence it Was 
taken by Edward I. and carried to 
Weftminfter abbey, where it ftill re- 
mains. Some of the ancient regalia 
are ftill remaining in the caftle, of 
which the Duke of Argyll is heredi- 
tary keeper under the crown. At a 
fmall diftance from the walls of the 
caftle, which are all that remains of 
its former grandeur, is a fmall roofieis 
chapel, of exquifite workmanfhip and 
elegant architecture, where many of 
the Kings of Scotland are fa^d to be 

DUNSYRE, fituated at the weftem 
extremity of Lanarkshire, is a parifh 
about 5 miles in extent each way : be- 
fides the arable part of the pariih, 
which is a valley running between the 
hills of Dunfyre and Dolphington, 
there is a confiderable extent of hilly 
country, fit only for fheep pafture. 
The foil is poor, and. the general ap- 
pearance of the country is naked, 
without plantations, and without en- 
clofures. Dunfyre is equidiftant from 
the German and Atlantis oceans ; and 
in this pariih a, rivulets tyke their rife T 
one of which runs eaftward to the 


Tweed, while the other, mixing with 
the waters of the Clyde, empties itfelf 
into the weft em fea. The parifh is ele- 
vated to the height of 700 feet above 
the level of the lea. There is plenty 
of peat mois, which is the chief fuel ; 
but coals may be had at the diltance 
of 1 a miles. The river Medwin con- 
tains a few trouts. There is a row of 
iepulchral cairns, fome of which have 
been opened, and found to contain 
human bones and urns. Population in 
179a, 360. 

DURISDEER; a parifh in Dum- 
friesihire, extending in length 8 miles, 
and in breadth about 5. It is almoft 
furrounded with hills, having a plea- 
fant opening towards the S. and S. W. ; 
it is divided by the river Nith, and the 
fmall river Carron runs through it; 
except the furrounding hills, the ge- 
neral appearance of the parifh is flat, 
and the foil tolerably fertile : there are 
about 3000 acres arable, and 11000 
pafture and plantations. The hills 
bear the name of Lowthers, and feem 
to contain the fame minerals as the 
neighbouring mines of Lead-hills and 
Wanlockhead : freeftone of various 
kinds is found in the parifh ; and in 
feveral places there is the appearance 
of coal and lead. The village of Dur- 
ifdeer. is pleafantly (ituated on the 
banks of the Nith, over which is a 
handfome bridge of 3 arches. The 
Duke of Queenfberry is almoft the fole 
proprietor. Population returned to 
Sir John Sinclair, 1019. 

DURNESS ; a pariili in the county 
of Sutherland, computed to be 15 
miles in length, and 13 in breadth. 
The greater part is a peninfula, form- 
ed by Loch Eribole and the bay of 
Durnefs, two arms of the fea. The 
fcenery of the parifh is wild and 
mountainous ; but towards the fhore, 
efpeciaily where the peninfula termi- 
nates in Far-out-bead, there are feveral 
beautiful fields, and rich pafture. A- 
long the ibore there is a tract of flat 
fand, but the rocks of the head lands 
tower to a great height. Cape IVrath 
34 fituated at the N. W. corner of the 
parifh ; befides which, there are a 
other remarkable promontories, viz. 
Far-uut-head and White-bead. Loch 
Eribole is a fafe and fpacious harbour ; 
a great quantity of kelp is burnt on the 
fiiores. There are feveral very remark- 
able caves; of which that of Smo or 


Smoab is the largeft and moft magnifi- 
cent ; it is a natural vault 70 yards 
high, and in fome places 100 yards 
wide : a fhort way within the mouth 
of the cave is an aperture, through 
which a ftream of water defcending, 
forms a fubterraneous lake, the extent 
of which has never been afcertained, 
A fon of Lord Reay, long fmce, in 
a boat, attempted to difcover the ex- 
tremity, but was obliged to deiift, the 
foul air having extinguifhed his lights. 
The whole parifh refts on an uninter- 
rupted bed of limeftone. The fmall 
rivef Hope, which waters this diftrict, 
contains a few trout and falmon. The 
moft remarkable monument of anti- 
quity is the famous tower Dim JDor- 
nadilla, about 18 feet of which ftill 
remain. If a light-houfe were erect- 
ed on Cape Wrath, it would contri- 
bute greatly to the fafe navigation 
along thefe coafts. Population in 1790, 

DURRIS ; a parifh in Aberdeen- 
fnire, extending about 8 miles in 
length, and j£ in breadth. It lies on 
the S. bank of the river Dee, from 
which the ground rifes, till, in the 
fouthern extremity of the parifh, it 
terminates in the ridge of Grampian 
mountains. The furface is, on the 
whole, hilly, and the foil thin and 
poor. There are feveral high moun- 
tains, of which Cairn-1r.0neo.rn is the 
higheft, being elevated to the height 
of upwards of 1000 feet above the le- 
vel of the fea : on the top of Mount 
Gower, another of the Grampians, is 
a mineral fpring, fimilar to Harrow- 
gate. Lord Peterborough has lately 
made out a large plantation of larixes 
and Scots fir, which are in a thriving 
ftate ; there are, befides, a fmall wood 
of natural trees. There is the appear- 
ance of an ancient fortification, upon 
a hill named Caftle-hill, having a re- 
gular fofle and glacis. Population in 
1791, 651. 

CHUS ; thefe united parifhes are fitu- 
ated partly in the county of Moray, 
and partly in that of Invernefs ; they 
extend in length about 20 miles, and 
nearly 17 in breadth. The general 
appearance is hilly, with fir, birch, 
and alder, on the fkivts of the hills ; 
higher up it becomes rocky and co- 
vered with heath. The Spey runs 
between the two parifhes, and the 


river Dulnan interfects Duthil into two 
equal parts for upwards of 13 miles. 
The foil on the banks of both rivers is 
fertile, but liable to be overflowed : 
the reft of the diftrict is thin and gra- 
velly. There are two fmall lakes in 
Rothiemurchus ; one of them, Loch- 
nellan, has an ifland and a ruinous 
caftle, noted for a remarkable echo. 
The waftes in the parifh abound with 
game of all kinds. The great military 
road from Dalnacardoch to Inverness 
pafles through the parifh, on which is 
the ftage inn of Aviemore. In the 
diftrict of Rothiemurchus is an inex- 
hauftible quarry, or rather mountain 
of excellent limeftone, which is burnt 
with wood, and much ufed for ma- 
nure. There are feveral rocks, which 
are named Craig Elacbie, or rock of 
alarm, from the tops of which fignals 
were raifed on any approaching dan- 
ger. There are feveral mineral fprings, 
celebrated for their efficacy in urinary 
complaints, fuppofed to refemble the 
Seltzer waters, in containing fixed air. 
Population in 1791, 1110. 

DYCE ; a parifh in Aberdeenfhire, 
of confiHerable extent, lying along the 
fide of the river Don. The ridge of 
hills called Tyre-beggar, runs directly 
through the parifh: on the top of one 
of the higheft is a druidical temple. 
The whole of the hill is covered with 
heath, and 2 fmall plantations ; the 
reft of the parifh, particularly on the 
banks of the Don, has a deep rich 
foil, producing fine crops: a few black 
cattle and fheep are reared in the pa- 
rifh, but the chief attention is paid to 
agriculture ; and enclofures are now 
pretty common. Population in 1791, 

DYKE and MOY; an united parifh 
in the county of Moray. It is of an 
irregular four-cornered figure, running' 
up the Moray Frith 6 miles along fhore, 
and ftretching from the coaft foutli- 
ward nearly the fame length ; it lies 
principally on the W. fide of the river 
Findhorn ; but a few farms are fitu- 
ated on the E. fide of that river : a- 
long the coaft is that extenfive fandy 
defert, called the Mwvifion /and hills, 
which Boethius mentions as being 
produced by the fame inundation of 
the fea which fwept away the princely 
eftate of Earl Godwin in Kent, and 
left the Godwin fands in its room. 
This calamitous event happened, at 


the clofe of the eleventh century > near 
the time of the death of Malcolm 
Kenmore King of Scotland. Above 
this defert lies an extenfive muir, which 
is quite unfit for culture, but has been 
found to be well adapted for the pro- 
duction of firs. The reft of the parifh. 
is cultivated, and agreeably diverfified 
with flats and eafy flopes, beautified 
by the windings of rivulets, which are 
fkirted with natural wood, and orna- 
mented with gentlemens feats, gardens, 
and thriving plantations. The foil of 
the cultivated land is in fome places a 
brown, in others, a black loam, ge- 
nerally light, kindly, and of eafy cul- 
ture, but is almoft reduced to a caput 
mortuum, by a long continuance of in- 
ceffant cropping, without a fufficient 
iupply of manure. The coaft is every 
where fandy, and at one place is an 
extenfive bed of the fineft cockles* 
There are 3 fmall villages, the inhabit- 
ants of which are moftly employed in 
the culture of the ground. The river 
Findhorn or Findern, is of confiderable 
value for its falmon fifhings, which are 
all rented by a company in Aberdeen; 
Within thefe 100 years, the barony of 
Culbin, called in the former century, 
" the granary of Moray," has been en- 
tirely covered with the fand, blowing 
from the Mavifton hills; another effect 
of the blowing of the fand, is the change 
made about 120 years ago in the bed 
and mouth of the river, which has oc- 
cafioned the removal of the town and 
harbour of Findhorn, at leaft three 
quarters of a mile down the Frith ; 
and, where the ancient town of Find- 
horn ftood, nothing appears but fand, 
and benty grafs, fcarcely affording a 
meagre pafture to a few fheep. At 
Darnaivay, the feat of the Earl of 
Moray, is an old caftle, nobly elevated, 
with great range and extent of prof- 
pect : adjoining to it is a princely hall, 
built by Thomas Randolph, regent of 
Scotland, during the minority of King 
David Bruce. Its length is 89 feet, 
and its breadth 35 ; the roof is fuperio, 
fomewhat refembling the roof of the 
parliament-houfe in Edinburgh : Earl 
Randolph's table, which is of thick 
oaken plank, and the whole furniture 
of this ancient hall, made in the mid- 
dle of the 1 2th century, are great cu- 
riofities, and pleafing monuments of 
ancient hofpitality and magnificence. 
On the muirs, near the border of the 


parifh, is a fpot of ground, rendered 
claffic by the pen of Shakefpear. On 
this wild muir he lays the fcene of the 
Thane of Glammis's interview with 
the weird filters, well adapted to fug- 
geft the hellifh purpofe, and forward 
the bloody work that fet that ufurper 
on the throne. Population in 1793, 

DYSART; a royal borough, on the 
S. coaft of Fife. Its charter was granted 
about the beginning of the 16th cen- 
tury, and at that time it is mentioned as 
one of the principal trading towns in 
Fife : about the beginning of the laft 
century its trade was much decayed, 
but began to revive about the year 
j 75 6. The harbour is good, and at 
prefent the trade is coniiderable, em- 
ploying about 3 6 veffels in the coal and 
foreign trade. About 750 looms are 
employed in the manufacture of checks, 
of which cloth 795,000 yards are an- 
nually made : a number of hands are 
alio employed in building fhips, and 
upwards of 17,100 bufhels of fait are 
made annually ; but the great trade 
of Dyfart is the exportation of coal, 
with which the neighbourhood a- 
bounds. The town contains about 1730 
inhabitants, and is an earldom in the 
Tollemache family. The extreme 
length of the parifh is about 4 miles 
and its greateft breadth near to 3, con- 
taining 3054 acres. The ground rifes 
gradually from the fea, above a mile 
northward, and then flopes down to 
the river Orr, which forms the bound- 
ary on the N. E. ; the foil is generally 
light, and near the coaft fertile and well 
cultivated ; but in the N. W. a trad of 
land extends, of wet cold foil, en- 


cumbered with large ftones. The 
coaft is bold and rocky, but the pre- 
cipices do not project far into the fea, 
having in many places a fandy beach 
at their foot, covered at high water. 
Befides the burgh of Dyfart, the parifh 
contains 3 villages, Patbbead, Galaton, 
and Borland, which contain nearly 
2600 inhabitants, chiefly employed in 
making nails. Below Pathhead, on a 
freeftone rock projecting into the fea, 
ftands the old caftle of Riven's or Ra- 
vsn's-craig; it was given by James III. 
to William St. Clair Earl of Orkney, 
with the lands adjoining, when he re- 
figned that title, and has remained in 
the family of St. Clair ever fince ; it 
was garrifoned by a party of Crom- 
well's foldiers, but has now fallen into 
ruins. Freeftone and limeftone are 
found in various places near the fur- 
face ; but the chief mines are of coal 
and ironftone. Dyfart coal was a- 
mongft the firft wrought in Scptland, 
upwards of 300 years ago ; for at that 
period, the pit is recorded to have 
been on fire ; it was again on fire in 
1662, faid to have been occafioned by 
the fpontaneous combuftion of a quan- 
tity of pyrites. Buchanan relates this 
dreadful occurrence in elegant poetry. 
The feams, now working, are about 
60 fathom below the furface : about 
100 men are employed, and upwards 
of 20,000 tons are annually raifed. 
The ironftone is very rich, yielding 
about 12 cwt. of metal per ton of ore. 
Lieut.-General Sir James Erfkine St. 
Clair is chief proprietor, and occa- 
fionally r elides at his feat in the parifh. 
Population in 1793 ( including Dyfart 
and the villages), 4863. 



EAGLE SHAM; a parifh in the 
county of Renfrew. It extends 
in length about 6 miles from N. to S. 
and is about 5 miles in breadth. From 
the banks of the Cart, which are loamy 
and fertile, the ground rifes gradually 
towards the weftern border, which is 
muiry, and covered with heath. Se- 
veral rivulets interfect the parifh, in 
their courfc from the high muiry 


ground to the Cart, which alfo has its 
fource in the fouthern border. The 
village of Eaglefham is delightfully fi- 
tuated; it confifts of 2 rows of houfes, 
about 200 yards diftant, having a fine 
clear rivulet running in the middle : 
the houfes are newly built, on a plan 
of the late Earl of Eglinton, the pro- 
prietor : the area before the houfes is 
appropriated for bleaching, and the 

E A L 

fides of the rivulets are adorned with 
trees i a conuderable cotton work is 
lately erected ; it is diftant g miles 
from Glafgow, between which there 
is an excellent turnpike ; and the road 
from Ayr to Edinburgh by Hamilton 
pafles through the village. The hills 
of Duntvar and Balagich are elevated 
nearly ioo feet above the level of the 
fea : there are feveral chalybeate wells, 
and about 2 miles from the village, at 
Bnlagich hill, are found many pieces 
of barytas, or ponderous fpar; the ap- 
pearance of this mineralj which is the 
frequent attendant on ores of lead, 
and other fymptoms, render it very 
probable that there are filver and lead 
in that part. Several large maffes of 
Opnond Jlone, a fpecies of lava, are 
often met with. Population about 


EALAN NAN ROANS ; an iiland 
on the N. coaft of Sutherlandfhire, an- 
nexed to the parifli of Tongue ; it is 
about 2 miles in circumference, and is 
inhabited by 4 or 5 families, contain- 
ing about 40 inhabitants. It is entirely 
compofed of coarfe puddingftone, on 
the furface of which is a ihallow foil, 
almoft entirely produced by the effect 
of art. About the year 1783, the cen- 
ter of the ifland funk coniiderably, 
leaving a pool, of water where there 
was arable land before. 

ifland in Argylhhire, fituated at the 
mouth of Loch Ridden, in the parifh 
of Inverchoalain, memorable in the 
annals of the -17th century. In the 
year 1685, when the Duke of Mon- 
mouth attempted an invalion of the 
country, the unfortunate Archibald 
Earl of Argyll was induced to favour 
the invafion. He brought with him 
3 frigates, and a confiderable quantity 
of arms and ammunition. With thefe 
he landed at Dunftaffnage, on the 
N. W. coaft of Argyllshire, and having 
collected an army of 3000 men, he pro- 
ceeded to Eallangheirrig, which he 
fortified very ftrongly, and there de- 
pofited his fpare arms and ammunition. 
Soon after, upon the appearance of 
fome (hips of war, the garrifon fur- 
rendered, and the whole ammunition 
falling into the hands of the royal 
party, put an end to any further hoftile 
operations on the part of that unfor- 
tunate nobleman, who, with his party, 
found means to efcape, but was foon 


afterwards taken, and met with a fate 
he little merited from his country. 

EAKLSFERRY; an ancient fmall 
town in the coaft of the Frith of Forth, 
in the county of Fife. It was a royal 
borough, having parliamentary icpre- 
fentation, which it forfeited in com- 
mon with fome other towns in the 
fame county, through their inability 
to pay their proportion of the expence 
of fupporting a commiflbner ; it is go- 
verned by 3 bailies, 15 counfellors, and 
a treafurer, the oldeft bailie acting as 
provoft; it has afmall harbour, where 
filhing boats are fafe, and where a 
fmall (loop or two may lie during the 
fummer months; it lies in the parifh 
of Kilconquhar, and contains about 
350 inhabitants. 

EARLSTOUN ; a village and pa- 
riih in the diftrict of Berwickfhire, 
called Lauderdale ; the extent of the 
pariih is about 6 miles in length, and 
from 3 to 4 in breadth ; waflied on 
the E. border by the Eden, and on 
the W. by the Leader, both of which 
rivers abound with trout ; towards 
the banks of the Eden the furface is 
level, and the foil light and dry ; in 
the weftern border it is more uneven, 
and the foil inclines to a ftrong tough 
clay. There are feveral extenfive plan- 
tations, and many fields are fheltered 
by ftrips and clumps of planting. 
There are feveral villages, of which 
Earlftoun and Mellerjlain are the larg- 
eft ; the former is in a low fituation, 
almoft fuiTounded with hills, and is 
famous as the birth-place of Sir Tho- 
mas Learmont, commonly called Tho- 
mas the Rhymer. He flouriihed 
in the 13th century, and part of his 
houfe is ftill ftanding, called Rhymer's 
Tower ; and a ftone in the front wall 
of the church has this infeription, 
" Auld Rhymer's race lies in this place" 
Earlftoun is alfo famous for a great 
fair for fheep and black cattle, held 
on the 29th of June ; and another fair 
is held on the 3d Thurfday of Octo- 
ber. This village is well adapted for 
trade, being fituated on the banks of 
the Leader, in the vicinity of extenfive 
woods, and having the turnpike from 
Edinburgh to Jedburgh, and from E- 
dinburgh to London, palling near it. 
In 1 79 1, the parifh of Earlftoun con- 
tained 1352 inhabitants. 

Earn ; a lake and river in Perth - 
fhire. Vide Erne. 


Earsay 5 a confiderable lake in the 
ifiand of Arran, which abounds with 
trout and fine falmon. 

EASDALE ; a fmall ifiand of the 
Hebrides, annexed to Argyllfhire ; it 
is nearly circular, about x\ mile in 
diameter, and is celebrated for its 
having afforded the beft and greateft 
quantity of flate ( ardefia tegularis) 
of any part of equal extent in Great 
Britain. The flate occupies the whole 
ifiand, traverfed at many places with 
bafaltic veins, and thin layers of quar- 
toze and calcareous ftones. The flate 
has been quarried here upwards of ioo 
years ago, and of late has been wrought 
to lb great an extent, that upwards of 
5,000,000 of dates are annually fhipped 
from the ifiand. The number of work- 
men employed are about 300. The 
conftant demand for the Eafdale flate 
has caufed the furface to be cut very 
low, except at the S. end, and as the 
greater part is now in a level with the 
fea, it muft either be abandoned, or 
wrought at a confiderably greater ex- 
pence, by means of machinery. It is 
fuppofed that by quarring, flate of 
the fame quality would be found in 
the neighbouring iflands of Luing and 

EASTWOOD; a parifh in the 
county of Renfrew. It is of a very 
irregular figure, but its greateft length 
may be about 4 miles, and its breadth 
nearly 3 : the general appearance pre- 
fents that fine variety of landlcape for 
which the county of Renfrew is dif- 
tinguifhed ; the little hills riling on e- 
very fide are adorned with plantations 
and natural woods ; while a number 
of fmall rivers wander amongft fertile 
fields in the bottom of the valleys ; 
the lands are all enclofed, and each 
farm affords ample proof of the great 
increafe in agricultural knowledge and 
induftry. There are feveral manufac- 
tures carried on to confiderable extent, 
particularly in the weaving of muflin, 
bleaching, calico printing, and the 
cotton in general. A new and thriving 
village called Pollock/haws, has been 
lately built, on the Glafgow road, a- 
bout i\ miles from that town. In the 
neighbourhood of the village of T born- 
lie-bank there is a ftratum of fchijius, 
wtli deferving the attention of the na- 
turahft ; it is feveral yards in thicknefs, 
and contains a great variety of marine 
productions in a petrified ftate. The 


orthoceratltes, both plain and fulcaterl, 
retain the original flidl, and many of 
the fpecimens of fhells are filled with 
ironftone, containing a quantity of 
calcareous matter : many nodules of 
ironftone, of different fizes and fpecies, 
are found imbedded in the layers of 
j'chiftvs ; ( vide Mr. David Ure's mi- 
neralogy of the parifh es of Rutherglen 
and Kilbride.) Population in 1993, 

ECCLES ; a parifh in the county of 
Berwick, extending 8 miles in length 
from E. to W. and nearly 6 in breadth ; 
contains about 11,000 acres of ground, 
fcarcely one acre of which is wafte or 
ufelefs. The foil is in general good, 
and confifts of loam, gravel, or clay ; 
of which the laft is the moft prevalent. 
The farms are all enclofed in the 
beft manner : and on many eftates the 
thriving hedge-rows give the whole 
the appearance of a highly cultivated 
garden. Of late years Berwickfhire 
and the Lothians have made great im- 
provements in the practice of agricul- 
ture, but in few places have they been 
carried on to equal advantage, and 
with fuch rapidity as in the parifh of 
Eccles ; and, in confequence, the ge- 
nerality of the farmers are wealthy and 
opulent, and live in an elegant and 
comfortable ityle. The river Tweed 
is the boundary on the S. and poffeffes 
a valuable falmon fiihing, the property 
of the Earl of Home. There was ah 
ancient nunnery, of which nothing re- 
mains except 2 vaults, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the manfion of Eccles, 
the refidence of Sir John Paterfon ; 
there is a monument erected to one of 
the Perries, who fell in an engagement 
with one of the rival family of Douglas, 
in which the {laughter was fo dread- 
ful, that tradition reports that a little 
ftreamlet in its neighbourhood rah 
with blood for 34 hours. Population 
in 1793, 1780. 

ECCLESFECHAN; a village in 
the parifh of Hoddom, in Dumfries- 
fhire. It is a confiderable market town, 
and one of the ftages on the London 
road from Edinburgh by Carlifle ; it 
contains upwards of 500 inhabitants. 

I a parifh in the fouthern extremity of 
Kincardinefhire, on the high road from 
Montrofe to Bervie. It is nearly of 
a rectangular form, extending 5 miles, 
in "length, and 3 in breadth. The fur- 


face is pretty level, but is interfered 
with feveral dens and rivulets, and is 
elevated in fome places to little hills ; 
Upwards of three-fourths of the whole 
is arable, the remainder is muir or 
mofs; the foil is in general a deep clay, 
or an artificial loam, 12 or 15 inches 
deep on the clay, produced by long 
cultivation, and the frequent applica- 
tion of manure. The North Elk river, 
which forms the boundary on the S. 
poifeffes feveral valuable falmon fifh- 
ings, which bring nearly ioool. of year- 
ly rent to the proprietors. The burn in 
Den Fend forms a beautiful cafcade, 
by falling over a perpendicular rock 
63 feet in height. The Kame of Ma- 
thers, the ancient re fidence of the Bar- 
clay family, ftands on a peninfuated 
perpendicular rock, the bale of which 
is warned by the fea : the caftlis of 
Morphy and Laurlejlon are alfo ancient 
buildings. There are 2 villages, fylton 
and St. Cyrus, the former of whijh is 
fituated on the coaft, and contaiis a- 
bout 180 inhabitants, chiefly empljyed 
in the fifhing. Upon the farm of|Eaft 
Mathers is a valuable limeftone qulrry , 
the property of Lord Arburthiot ; 
and Mr. Scott of Criggie has liely 
opened one near Milton, which, t is 
hoped, will prove as ufeful tothe 
country, as profitable to himfelf : tjere 
is plenty of excellent freeftone. Ppu- 
lation in 1794, 1763. 

ECCLESMACHAN ; a parifl in 
the county of Linlithgow ; in lelgth 
it is about 4 miles, interfered bythe 
parimes of Linlithgow and Uphll ; 
Its breadth is not above a mile. The 
whole is a flat corn country, re- 
ducing in abundance all forts of gain 
raifed in Weft-Lothian ; the foj is 
partly clay, and partly loam. TEre 
are few or no farms in'which coal^ire 
not to be found ; but none is wrotht 
at prefent. On the confines ofche 
N. W. extremity lie the hills of Bth- 
gate, where formerly lead mines sre 
wrought, which were very produive 
of lilver, a ton of lead yielding 17 
ounces of that valuable metal. Tgre 
is abundance of excellent freeflhe, 
and near the church is a weak fuljm 
reous fpring, called the Bullion 4//, 
which is retorted to in fcrophijus 
affections. Population in 1793, 

ECHT ; a parifh in Aberdeenire 
about 10 miles W. from the coity 
town ; it is nearly_of a fquare f< 


containing about 11,000 acres; though 
it is a hilly diftrir, few of the hills 
are of great height, and many of them 
are under tillage to the very ; 
the foil is partly clay, and partly light 
rand, In nrcctty places highly fufce'ptible 
of improvement. The Hon. Alex- 
ander Duff has an elegant feat, called 
Houfedale, furrounded with extenfive 
plantations of various kinds of trees. 
On the top of the Barmekin, one of 
the higheft hills, is an ancient circular 
fortification, concerning which tradi- 
tion is filent. There are alfo feveral 
cairns and druidical edifices. It con- 
tains 963 inhabitants.' 

Eck (Loch) ; a lake in the diftri<$ 
of Cowal, in Argyllfhire ; it is about 
6 miles in length, and rather more than 
half a mile in breadth. It is formed 
by the waters of the river Cur, and 
difcharges itfelf into the Frith of Clyde 
by the river Eachaig; it contains trout 
and falmon, and abounds with the 
frefh water herring, which is only 
found here and in Loch Lomond. 

ECKFORD ; a parifh in Teviot- 
dale; it extends nearly 7 miles in 
length, and about 3* in breadth, in a 
triangular figure, watered on one fide 
by the Teviot, and interfered by the 
Kail water, which here joins the 
former river. Upon the banks of the 
rivers the foil is a light loam, rifing into 
gentle eminences; it has been originally 
covered with heath, but by proper 
cultivation is now rendered green and 
fit for pafture ; lb that there are no 
waftc lands, except a muir called Ca- 
•vertown Edge, where the Kelfo races 
are run, being diftant 4^ miles from 
that town. A few plantations have 
been lately laid out, which will fhort- 
ly be a great ornament and flielter to 
the country. There are 2 fmall vil- 
lages, Cavertoqvn and Cefsford, the 
latter of which is a barony in the 
Roxburgh family. The ruins of an- 
cient caftles are frequent, and feveral 
curious antiquities have been dug up. 
Population in 1793, 952. 

ED AY ; one of the Orkney ides, is 
about si miles long ; and nearly 1 £ 
broad ; it confifts chiefly of hills of a 
moderate height, affording excellent 
pafture ; it poffeffes 2 good harbours 
or roadfteads, each lheltered" by a 
fmall iflet, where veffels of any burden 
inay ride in fafety. There is an old 
chapel in ruins, and the remains of fc- 


Tc-ral religious houfes. Near this ifland 
are feveral pafture ifies or holms ; on 
which are the ruins of feveral religious 
edifices. Eday contains about 600 

EDDERACHYUS; a pa*i£h in the 
county of Sutherland ; it occupies the 
N» W. corner of the ifland of Great 
Britain, extending from Cape Wrath 
fo-uthwards 20 miles in length, and a- 
bout 10 in breadth; it is interfered 
by feveral hies or arms of the fea, 
which abound with fifh, and afford 
g-ood harbours for fmall veifels. The 
face oT the country, like the reft of 
the Highlands, is mountainous and 
rocky, and the more inland part, 
which cohftitutes part of Lord Reay's 
deer foreft, prefents a vaft group of 
rugged mountains, with their fummits 
enveloped in clouds, and divided from 
one another by deep and narrow glens, 
whofe declivities are fo rugged and 
fteep, as to be dangerous to travellers 
unacquainted with the way, or unfur- 
nifhed with guides; yet inthefe wilds 
are reared many cattle, the pafture 
they afford being rich and luxuriant. 
Several iflands are on the coaft, of 
which Handa is only inhabited. Lord 
Reay is the fole proprietor. Popula- 
tion in 1793, 1024, 

EDDERTOWN ; a parifn in the 
f aftern diftrict of the county of Rofs. 
It is about 10 miles in length, and 7 
in breadth, walhed on the N. by the 
Frith of Tain : the foil is in general 
rich and good, but the high hills in 
the vicinity, by attracting the clouds, 
render the climate cold, and the har- 
vefts late. There are no natural woods, 
but Sir Charles Rcf3 of Balnagown, 
and Mr. M'Leod of Cadboll, have 
lately planted fome hundred acres with 
Scots fir : there are the remains of fe- 
veral encampments, and many rude 
itones and cairns are faid to point out 
where a prince of Denmark snd his 
followers lie interred. Population in 

17935 iooo« 

Eden; a river in Fifefhire. It takes 
its rife on the borders of Perthfhire, 
between the towns of Strathmiglo and 
Abernethy, and taking a courfe dut 
E. falls into the German Ocean at the 
bay of St. Andrews, nearly 17 miles 
from its fource ; it receives many tri- 
butary ftreams from the Lomond hills, 
and paffes by the royal borough of 
^upar, over which a bridge is 


tin-own ; it is a confiderable river, and 
having a very level courfe from Cupar 
to the fea, it might be made navigable 
at no great expence ; more fo, as the 
tide flows within a fhoi-t diftance of 
that town ; it abounds with trout and 
a few falmon, but the hfhing of the 
latter is much deftroyed by the nu- 
merous feals or pboci which refort to 
St. Andrews bay. The placid ftream 
of the river, and the tine fcenery which 
diverfifies and adorns its banks, long 
fince fired the imagination of the native 
poet Johnstone, and found a place 
in his fong : 

" Arva inter nemorifque umbras, et paf- 

ata lata 
Le?itfiuens > i>itreis, labitur Eden aquis." 

E)en is alfo the name of a river in 
Bervickfhire. Vide Edenham parifh, 

EDENHAM, or EDNAM ; a vil- 
lage and parifh in the county of Rox- 
burgh. The village is pleafantly fitu- 
atet on the fmall river Eden, which 
rife in the borders of Selkirkfhire, and 
jobs the Tweed at Edenmouth, about 
2 niles below the village. It is regu,- 
lar/ built, the houfes being all of brick, 
cohered with tyle or flates ; there i3 
a manufacture of woollen cloth, fimi- 
larto that called Englifh blankets, and 
amxtenfive brewery is lately eftablifh- 
ed, it contains nearly 300 inhabitants. 
Tie parifh extends 3! miles in every 
diEction, watered by the Eden, and 
banded by the Tweed on the S. and 
S.i. ; the furface is beautifully varied, 
luring only 2 riling grounds which 
dterve the name of hills ; the foil is 
eseedingly fertile and well cultivated, 
IV-. James Thomson, author of "the 
Stfons," was bora at Edenham manfe, 
iithe year 1700. Under the patron- 
a,e of the Earl of Buchan, and other 
priotic gentlemen, it has been pro- 
ofed to erect a monument to his meV 
rory, on the fummit of Edenham hill, 
oe of the eminences above mention- 
e; but the plan has not been accom- 
pflied : feveral noblemen and gentje- 
nn, however, with a laudable zeal 
f- the literary fame of their country, 
tve met annually at Edenham for 
trie years paft, to celebrate Thorn - 
h's birth-day, and to forward the 
bfcriptions for the erection of that 
onunient. Edenham, in 1793, con- 
ined about 600 inhabitants. 
EDENKEILLIE ;, an extenfive pa- 



rifh in Moray (hire, being 12 miles in 
length, and 10 in breadth; the furface 
is hilly, but not mountainous; the 
higheft hill, the Knock of Moray, being 
of fmall elevation. On the banks of 
the Findhorn and Divie, is much old 
natural wood, and the mod varied and 
romantic fcenery. There is a confi- 
derable falmon fifhing on the former 
river, which is let at the yearly rent of 
90I. fterling. Befides the extenfive na- 
tural woods, there are far more ex- 
tenfive plantations, particularly on the 
eftate of the Earl of Moray. The caf- 
tles of Dunphail, and of the DoiOnehill 
of Relugds, are celebrated remains of 
antiquitv. Population in 1793, 1800. 
LOTHIAN, is bounded on the N. by 
the Frithof Forth and the river Amond, 
which divides it from Weft-Lothian 
or Linlithgow ; on the E. by Hadding- 
tonfhire ; on the S. by the counties of 
Lanark, Peebles, and . Berwick ; and 
at the W. corner by part of the county 
of Linlithgow. It extends about 30 
miles in length, and its breadth varies 
from 16 to 20; containing in all about 
360 fquare miles, or 230,400 Englifli 
acres. The furface of the country is 
pleafant, having much level ground, 
interfperfed with fome hills, watered 
with many agreeable ftreams, and fhel- 
tered and decorated with woods. The 
arable land, which may be calculated 
about one third of the whole, is in a 
ftate of high cultivation, and affords 
excellent crops. The 2 great ridges 
of hills which pafs through the county, 
called the Moorfoot and the Pentland 
hills, afford pafture ; the former is far 
fuperior, in quality to the latter: in 
thefe hills it is generally remarked that 
the N. fide of the hill is the fmeft and 
beft pafture, contrary to what we 
fhould be apt, a priori, to imagine. 
Like the other parts of the country, 
this diftrict experiences the confe- 
quences of an infulated fituation ; be- 
ing fubjecl to that inftability and un- 
certainty, that the climate in one day 
exhibits the weather of every feafon 
of the year ; the cold E. winds in the 
fpring are exceedingly detrimental to 
fruit, and in autumn the baa'rs or mifts 
from the fea, are apt to whiten and 
wither the corns before they are ripe. 
The immediate vicinity of many of 
the farms to the metropolis affords the 
opportunity of procuring ftrcet dung 

eafily, and has been of material ad- 
vantage in improving the land ; it bis 
this difadvantage, however, that by 
long continuance the fields become 
very full of weeds, particularly the 
/caller or wild muftard ; it is imagined 
that this would be obviated by throw- 
ing the held out in pafture for a few 
years, and afterwards liming it well 
before ploughing. The chief rivers 
of the county of Edinburgh, are the 
North and Soufu EJks, which, uniting, 
fall into the Frith cf Forth at the town 
of Muffelburgh ; the Amond, which 
falls into the lame Frith at the village 
of Cramond, and the water of Leith, 
which forms the harbour of thattawfi : 
all of thefe abound with trout. The 
iflands of Inchkeith and Cramond, 
and of Inchmickery, alio belong to 
this county, (fee thefe articles.) Few 
diftricts of Scotland afford more mi- 
nerals than the county of Edinburgh ; 
it abounds every where with coal, 
limeftone, and freeftone of fuperior 
quality ; and iron ore is very abundant, 
of different fpecies : the compound 
ftone, called the Petunfe Pentlandica, 
is found in great quantity in the Pent- 
land hills, and has been moil fuccefs- 
fully employed in the manufacture of 
the Britilh porcelain. In the parifh of 
Ratho is found a fine fpecies of <wbet- 
Jlone or hone, of the fmeft fubftance ; 
and in the parifh cf Duddingftone, at 
Brickfield, is found fome of the pu'reft 
clay, fit for making the fineft earthen 
ware. All the hills exhibit marks of 
volcanic origin, being chiefly com- 
pofed of porphyric lava and bafaltic 
whin/lone, which in many places, pgf- 
ticnlzrly Arthur' s-Seat and Craig-Lock- 
hart, exhibit regular cryftallizations : 
near Glencrofs, and in the Braid-kills, 
are found great veins of the heavy fpar, 
larytes, or as it is termed by the miners, 
marmor metallicum, which is fo regu- 
lar an attendant on metallic veins, es- 
pecially of lead and copper; it is hoped 
that fome valuable treafure will fooh 
be brought to light. All the hills con- 
tain fpecimens of thofe curious and 
rare minerals, which are termed •zeo- 
lites, jaf per s, /pars, &c. From the vi- 
cinity to the metropolis, numerous 
feats of nobility and gentry are every 
where to be feen ; an attempt even to 
name the moft remarkable would be 
futile ; eipecially as they fhall be no- 
ticed in the defcription of the parochi- 


al diftrift in which they are fituated. 
Befides the city of Edinburgh and 
its fuburbs, in which we may include 
the town of Leith, this county con- 
tains feveral large towns and villages, 
as Dalkeith, Muffelburgh, Liberton, 
Laffkyade, and Gilmerton, and is di- 
vided into 3.1 parifhes, containing in 
all 122,655 inhabitants. The valued 
rent is 191,0541. 3s. 9d. Scots, and the 
real rent is 151,5001. fterling. 

EDINBURGH; t>e metropolitan 
city of Scotland, and the county town 
of Mid-Lothian, to which county it 
often gives its name. It lies in 55 ° 57' 
N. latitude, and 3* 14' W. longitude 
from London ; it formerly was much 
confined in its limits, confifting chiefly 
of what is now termed the Old Town ; 
but its extent has been lately much 
increafed by 'the buildings on the N. 
termed the New Town, and fome 
handfome ftreets and fquares which 
have been built on the S. The Old 
Town is fituated on a narrow fteep hill, 
about a mile in length, terminated on 
the W. by an abrupt rocky precipice, 
on which the caftle is built, and def- 
cending with a gradual declivity to the 
E. where the palace of Holyroodhoufe 
is fituated on a beautiful plain, called 
St, Ann's Yards, or the King's J: ark . 
from this plain, on both fides of the 
hill, 2 valleys extend the whole length 
of the high-ftreet ; the fouthern one 
occupied by the Cowgate, a narrow 
mean lane; the other terminating in a 
marfh, which was lately drained, called 
the North Loch. The high-ftreet, 
which runs along the ridge of the hill 
from the caftle to the palace, on ac- 
count of its length, width, and the 
height of the houfes, is accounted one 
of the moft ftriking and remarkable in 
Europe ; its form has not unaptly been 
compared to that of a turtle ; the 
caftle begin the head, the ftreet the 
back, and the numerous by-lanes, 
which go off at right angles, its [helving 
fides. Nearly in the middle of the 
high-ftreet ftandsthe TolbooJj,a.n ugly 
and ruinous pile, which has been long 
intended to be demolifhed, and acts of 
parliament have been procured for 
that purpofe, the terms of which have 
been twice allowed to expire without 
any thing having been done. On the 
S. of this disfigured building ftands 
the fine Gothic cathedral of St. Giles, 
containing 4 places of public worfhip 


within its roof. It is faid to have beeii 
originally founded in 854 : above, there 
is a lofty fquare tower, from which 
arife feveral (lender and elegant arches, 
terminating a point, and fupporting ' 
a very handfome fpire ; the whole is 
ornamented with final] turrets, and 
intended to exhibit the refembiance of 
an imperial crown, but the effect is 
not equal to the defign. In this fteeple, 
which is elevated 161 feet from its 
bafe, is a fine fet of mufical bells, 
which are played from 1 to 2 o'clock 
every day. Near to this is the par- 
liament-boufe, now occupied by the 
courts of feffion and exchequer 5 the 
great hall, which is occupied by the 
court of the Lord Ordinary, is 123 
feet long, and 49 broad ; its roof, 
which has been lately repaired and 
embellifhed, is much admired for the 
beauty of its workmanfhip, and the 
elegance of the architecture ; it is or- 
namented with feveral portraits, and 
it has a fine marble ftatue of Duncan 
Forbes, lord preiident of the court of 
fefiion, by Roubilliac, executed at the 
expence of the faculty of advocates ; 
this hall is termed the outer-houfe. 
1 tie inner chamber, where the lords of 
ftffion and j.uft-iciary hold their court, 
enter;, from it, and its appearance is 
by no means equivalent to the ho- 
nourable office to which it is appro- 
priated : above the great hall is the 
court of excheoner, where the barons 
of that court fit in judgment ; below, 
is the room occupied as the Advocates 
Library,, which is one of the beft col- 
lections of books and manufcripts in 
the kingdom. In the middle of the 
fquare or clofe, which i s before the par- 
liament-houfe, there is a beautiful e- 
queftrian ftatue of CharlesII.inbronze, 
in which the proportions are admir- 
ably obferved. On the oppofite fide 
of the high-ftreet, a little to the E. is 
the Royal Exchange ; founded in the 
year 1753, by the patriotic George 
Drummond, Efq ; it is a very elegant 
building, in the form of a fquare, and 
coft, including the price of the area, 
31,457b 'fterling; it is not occupied 
as an exchange, the merchants ftill 
tranfacting their bufinefs on the ftreet 
near where the crofs formerly ftood. 
At the corner of the high-ftreet, form- 
ed by the South Bridge, is the Tron 
church, founded in 1637, but of late 
much modernized and improved*- 



Proceeding farther E. the ftreet af- 
Fumes the narrre of the Canongate, 
which may be confidered as a fort of 
burgh of vaffalage, governed by a ba- 
ron-bailie, and 2 other refident ma- 
giftrates, appointed by the town coun- 
cil ; on the north fide of this ftreet is 
an elegant church, and the whole is 
terminated by the royal palace of 
Hotyroodhoufe. It is a very neat and 
handfome building, in the form of a 
fquare, the greater part being built by 
James V. and completed by Charles 
II. The fquare, in the center, is fur- 
rounded with piazzas ; and the chief 
rooms have been lately fitted up for 
the reception of a part of the unfortu- 
nate royal family of France, when ob- 
liged by the troubles in that kingdom 
to take refuge in this country : there 
are, belides, apartments for the com- 
mander in chief for North Britain, for 
the Duke of Hamilton as hereditary 
keeper of the palace, and for other 
noblemen. The great hall, where the 
nobles of Scotland meet to choofe the 
iixteen peers, is hung round with ima- 
ginary portraits of the Scottifh mo- 
narchs, from Fergus I. to James VI. 
Adjoining to the palace is the fmall 
ruinous chapel of the Holycrofs or Holy- 
rood, which was fet apart as a chapel 
royal, and for the Knights of the order 
of theThiftle ; it was founded by David 
I. in 112 8, and completely deftroyed 
by the Prefbyterians, when their re- 
forming zeal laid wafte every thing 
which had the appearance of idola- 
trous worfhip. The environs of the 
palace afford an afylum for infolvent 
debtors, and the park, or St. Ann's 
Yard, permits them to take healthful 
exercife, that plain being alio within 
the bounds of the fancluary. In the 
middle of the laft century, courts and 
fquares were unknown in Edinburgh ; 
the Parliament Clofe was the only va- 
cant fpace within the royalty : the 
fquares which have appeared in the 
S. fide of the town are of recent date, 
and are the laft improvements in the 
conveniency of building, which have 
appeared within the limits of the an- 
cient royalty. From the confinement 
in fpace, and the great demand for 
houfes in the neighbourhood of the 
court, the houfes of the Old Town are 
piled to an enormous height, fome of 
them amounting to 12 or 13 ftoreys : 
each of thefe were denominated lands, 

and the accefs to thefe feparate lodg- 
ings was by a common ftair, expofed 
to every inconvenience arifing from 
filth, fteepnefs, darknefs, and danger 
from fire. Such, in a great meafure, 
is the fituation of the Old Town at this 
day : the fteepnefs of the afcent makes 
the accefs from the N. and S. to the 
high-ftreet very difficult ; and, with- 
out doubt, had been the great means 
of retarding the enlargement of the 
city : to remedy this inconvenience on 
the N. and with a view to extend the 
town in that quarter, an elegant bridge, 
called the North Bridge, has been 
thrown over the Loch, which joins the 
riling ground on the N. to the middle 
of the high-ftreet. In like manner, to 
facilitate the communication with the 
S. the South Bridge has been thrown 
over the valley in which the Cowgate 
runs, which is built on every fide, ex- 
cept at the middle arch ; and the ele- 
gance of the houfes and fnops cannot 
fail to ftrike all ftrangers with furprife 
and delight : the price of the areas 
for building on this ftreet cannot be 
mentioned without aftonifhment:- one 
lot fold at the rate of 151,0001. per a- 
cre ! fome were fold at 109,0001. ! but 
the general price was from 8o,ocol. to 
96,0001. for the fame extent! — The 
New Town is fituated on an elevated 
plain, N. from the old city, and u- 
nited to it by the North Bridge and the 
Earthen Mound, hereafter mentioned. 
It was begun to be built in 1767; and 
we may with juftice obferve, that no 
city in the world can exhibit more re- 
gularity, beauty, or magnificence, than 
the new buildings laid down here. It 
confifts of 3 parallel ftreets, running 
E. and W. nearly a mile in length, inter- 
fered with crofs ftreets at regular and 
convenient diftances. The moil north- 
erly is Sgueen's-Jlreet, about 100 feet 
broad, the S.fide of which only is built, 
commanding an extenfive view of the 
Frith of Forth, the county of Fife, and 
the flapping in the river: thefouthernis 
Prince' 's-ftreet, fimilar to i^ueen' s-ftreet, 
the N. fide only being built, and look- 
ing towards the majeftic buildings of 
the Old Town, the caftle-hill, and the 
fortifications : at the W. end of this 
ftreet is an elegant church, called the 
Weft kirk, which terminates the vifta 
with its fine fpire. The middle, or 
George' street, does not extend the 
length of the other two, being termi- 



TiStpQ on the E. by St. Andre-iv , s Square, 
and on the W. in a fimilar manner, 
by Charlotte's Square; the former of 
-which is finely ornamented by the ele- 
gant houfe of Sir Laurence Duuclas, 
now Occupied as' the Bxtiije-offiee. In 
George' s-jlreet is St. Andrew's church, 
a very handfome building ; the fpire 
is very elegant, but by far too (lender 
for its great height : exactly oppofite 
to this church, and receding from the 
ftreet in the fame proportion as the 
portico of the church advances, is the 
Phyficians' -hall, a fmall elegant build- 
ing, with a portico of 8 handfome 
Corinthian pillars in front: farther to 
the W. of the fame ftreet ftands the 
AJfembly-rooms, which, though a heavy- 
looking building on the outfide, is 
elegantly fitted up within, containing, 
befkles the fpacious faloon, and the 
large dancing-room, many fmall rooms 
for tea, cards, and retiring-rooms for 
the ladies. At the N. end of the 
North Bridge, are the Regifier-ojfice 
and the Theatre; the former is an 
elegant building, on a plan of the 
elder Adams, extending aoo feet iff 
front towards the bridge, and 40 feet 
back from the line of Prince's-ftreet ; 
it has a tower at each end, and in the 
center of the building is a dome or 
cupola, covered with lead ; the in fide 
forms a faloon, lighted at the top, and 
having a fine ftatue of his Majelty, by 
the Hon. Mrs. Damer, in the center : 
round the faloon are depofited the re- 
cords, and a ftone gallery with an iron 
baluftrade affords conveniency for ex- 
amining them: the reft of the build- 
ing is divided into 97 vaulted apart- 
ments, where a number of clerks are 
eonftantly employed in carrying on 
the b'lfinefs of the court of feffion. 
The whole is under the direction of 
the Lord Regifter, who is one of the 
great officers of ftate, and the prin- 
cipal clerks of feffion are his deputes. 
Nearly oppofite to the Regifter-office 
is the Theatre, with a neat portico, 
and ornamented at top with a ftatue 
of Shakefpear, fupported by the comic 
and the tragic mufe : the houfe is 
neatly fitted up within, but by no 
means with the elegance fnitable to 
the theatre of the metropolis. Not 
far from this, on Leith walk, is an 
Equejlrian Amphitheatre, the Circus of 
which is about 60 feet diameter. On 
the top of the Calton-hill, which lies 

nearly oppofite to the Circus, is the' 
Obf:rvatory, the direction of which is 
now attached to the profefforfhip of 
natural philofophy in the univeriity : 
near it, on the fame hill, is lately e- 
rected a Bridewell, after an exteniive 
and elegant plan of the late Mr. A- 
dana'sj On the Calton burying ground, 
near the verge of the hid, is a line 
circular monument, in the Greek tafte, 
with fide wings, erected to the me- 
mory of David Hume, Efq. the hifto- 
rian of England. Before we leave the 
New Town, we muft not forget to 
mention the Earthen Mound, and 
H r eirs Mufeum. The Earthen Mound, 
whichforms acommunication between 
the New and Old Town, is entirely 
compofed of the earth and rubbilh 
dug from the foundations of the new 
buildings ; it is 800 feet in length, 
and its breadth is nearly one half of 
that extent ; the height from the fur- 
face of the ground, formerly covered 
with the North Loch, is at the S. end 
92 feet, and at the N. end 58 feet, 
containing 455,250 cubic yards of 
earned earth, which, allowing 3 cart- 
loads to every cubic yard, makes 
1,305,750 cartloads in the mound. 
This ufeful ftreet coft the city only the 
expenceof fpreadingthe earth; where 
as, had the city been at the expence 
of driving the rubbilh, it would have 
coft 32,643k 15s. fterling, fuppofmg it 
fo low as 6d. per cartload. Weir's 
Mufeum is an extenfive collection of 
natural hiftory, in excellent preserva- 
tion, and we are more gratified when 
we confider that it was formed by .1 
man whofe fortune was far from li- 
beral, but whofe exertions were very 
great. On the S. fide of the Old Town 
the ftreets are not near fo elegant and 
regular; but many of the buildings are 
exteniive and beautiful. At the S.end 
of the South Bridge is the Unit'erjity, 
for a defcription of which, vide Edin- 
burgh (University of.) Nearly 
oppofite to it, at the diftance of 500 
feet, is the Royal Infirmary, built in 
1738, and the contributors incorpo- 
rated by royal charter. The building 
confifts of a body, and 2 wings in front, 
and a new wing has been lately added, 
extending backwards from the W. end. 
The front is elegant, adorned with a 
fine ftatue of George II. in a Roman 
habit, with two appofite fcriptura? 
lines on each fide : — " J ivas fick and 



ye wifited me; — I was, v. iked and ye ' chemical private lectures. The High 
clothed me." In the hall is a buft of Sc&oalvS. Edinburgh lias been lung de- 
George Drummond, Efq. one of the ftrvedly famous for the fcholars it has 

chief benefactors, with this infeription 
" George Drummond, to whom this 
country is indebted for the benefit 
which it derives from the Royal In- 
firmary." The hofpital can accom- 
modate nearly 300 patients, all in fe- 
parate beds ; the male patients occu- 
pying one fide of the horde, and the 
females the other. Two wards are 1 
appropriated to the clinical patients, 
or thofe cafes on which the phy ficiaus 
give lectures. The upper ftorey is oc- 
cupied as the furgeons wards, and the 
lower part of the fpirc is tire theatre 
where chirurgical operations are per- 
formed, and u here a fermon is preach- 
ed weekly by the chaplain to con- 
valefcents, and thofe whole cafes do 
not prevent their attenciance. Eefides 
the apartments for the lick, there are 
rooms for the houfe furgeon and 
clerks, for the nurfes and other fer- 
vant-s, and confulting rooms for the 
furgeons and phylicians. There are 
two regular attendant phylicians, be- 
fide the clinical phyfician, and 4 fur- 
geons, who attend, in rotation. The 
ftudents pay 3 guineas for leave to 
attend, which brings nearly 500I. fter- 
ling per annum towards defraying the 
expence of the houfe. Analogous to 
this inftitution is the Dijpenfary, found- 
ed by the exertions of Dr. Andrew 
Duncan, in 1776, for the poor, whofe 
difeafes are of fuch a nature as to 
render admiffion into the Infirmary 
improper : the houfe is a neat plain 
building, in Richmond-ftreet, having 
a fine bafs relief of the " good Sama- 
ritan" over the entrance : here, nu- 
merous patients are relieved ; and, as 
the phylicians officiate gratis, the only 
expence is the apothecary and the 
medicines. The Lying-in Hofpital in 
Park-Place, has alfo been attended 
with the moft beneficial effects ; and, 
it is hoped, that it will not be given 
up from want of fupport. Connected 
with medical purfuits, we may here 
take notice of halls lately built by the 
Royal Medical Society in Surgeon's 
Square, and by the Royal Pbyfical So- 
ciety in Richmond-ftreet. The old hall 
for the meeting of the Royal College 
of Surgeons, is fituated in Surgeon's 
Square ; and near it are feveral com- 
modious theatres for anatomical and 

produced: the old buildings becoming 
ruinous, a new building, on an elegant 
and anextenfive plan, was built in 1 7 7 7, 
for the accommodation of the teachers 
and their fcholars. There is a rector 
and 4 matters, whofe falaries are trif- 
ling, but their fees for teaching render 
it a place of conhderable emolument. 
Eefides the High School, there are 
4 eftablifhed Englifh fchools in Edin- 
burgh, under the patronage of the 
town council, and many private fchools, 
where every branch of education is 
taught at a moderate rate. The Con- 
cert, or St. Cecilia? s-ball, ftands in 
Niddry-ftreet ; it was built in 1762, 
after the model of the opera theatre 
of Parma, from a plan of Sir Robert 
Mylne : the rnufic room is oval, co- 
vered with an elliptical concave dome, 
lighted at the top ; the orcheftra is 
at the upper end, which is termin- 
nated by a fine organ, and the feats 
are ranged in an oval form, capable of 
containing about 500 perfons ; it isfup- 
ported by private fubferiptions, and. 
the affairs of the fociety are managed 
by a governor, deputy-governor, a 
treafurer, and 5 directors : they gene- 
rally employ excellent performers, and 
the directors diftribute tickets gratui- 
toufly to all ftrangers for admittance 
to their weekly concerts. The largeft 
fquare in Edinburgh, George's Square, 
is fituated in the S. fide of the Old 
Tonvn, adjoining to the Meadows or 
Hope-Park. It contains many very e- 
legant houfes of nobility and gentry, 
and in the S. E. comer, a fmall neat 
Apfembly-room has been lately built by 
fubfeription. There are, befides, fe- 
veral other fquares in this quarter, as 
Nicbolfou's, St. Patrick's, Brcqjuu's, Ali- 
fon's, Sec. which are equally of orna- 
ment, and conducive to health. As we 
do not conceive it neceffary to defcribe 
ail the churches and old edifices in the 
city, we fnall now give a curibry view 
of the public buildings, which have 
been erected for charitable purpofes. 
Heriot's Hofpital ftands moft promi- 
nent, both in point of elegance and 
importance : this beautiful Gothic pile- 
was founded in 1628, according to a 
defign of Inigo Jones, and was finifhed 
in 1650, at the expence of 30,0001. in 
confeauence of a mortification by 
T 2 



George Heviot, goldfmith and jeweller 
to James VI. " for the maintenance, 
relief, and bringing up, of fo many 
poor and fatherlefs boys, freemens 
ions of the town of Edinburgh." 
The annual revenue of this charity is 
about 4000I. and about 140 boys are 
boarded and educated on the inftitu- 
tion. Watfon's Hofpital, a neat mo- 
dern building, was founded in 1738, 
*' for the maintenance and education 
of the children and grandchildren of 
decayed members of the merchant 
company of Edinburgh," in conle- 
quence of a bequeft of i2,oool. from 
George Watfon, an accountant of the 
Bank of Scotland; its revenue is nearly 
2000I. per annum, and in it about 60 
boys are maintained and educated. 
The Orphan Hofpital maintains about 
50 girls. There are alfo a Merchants 
Maiden Hofpital, a Trades Maiden Hof- 
■fital, Gillejpie's Hofpital for decayed old 
merchants, 3 Charity WorkhoUfes, an 
Afylum for the Blind, an Alms-houfe, 
called the Trinity Hofpital, and feveral 
other charitable inftitutions. In phi- 
lofophy and general literature, Edin- 
burgh poffeffes many focieties and in- 
ftitutions. The Royal Society of Edin- 
burgh, the Antiquarian Society, and the 
Speculative Society, are too well known 
to require eulogium. The Royal Me- 
dical and Royal Pkyjical, already men- 
tioned, and the Natural Hiftory Socie- 
ties, are eftablifhed and kept up by 
ftudents for the difcuflion of thefe 
fubjects, and for the improvement of 
public fpeaking : the Juridical Society 
is eftablifhed for the fame purpofe, 
and many eminent lawyers are ranked 
amongft its members. For amufe- 
ment, there are alfo the Royal Society 
of Archers, the Company of Golfers, 
the' Company of Hunters, and the 
Royal Academy or Manege for riding, 
the mafter of which has a falary from 
his Majefty. There is alio a fociety 
for the Propagation of Chriflian Know- 
ledge ; another for the fons and wi- 
dows of the Clergy, and feveral focie- 
ties for the encouragement of arts, 
manufactures, filheries, &c. &c. As 
Leith is the port Of Edinburgh, only 
a miles diftant, and better fitted for 
the carrying on of trade than the city, 
moft'of the merchants reiide at that 
port ; fo that the fupport of the city 
depends on the confumption of the 
neeefiaries, as well as the fuperfluities 

of life. The principal dependences 
of the trades people and fhop-keepers 
are from its being the feat of the 
court, and of the univerfity ; which 
caufe a confiderable concourfe during 
the feflions. The country gentlemen, 
and thofe who have made fortunes 
abroad, generally refide in the city a 
great part of the year, for the fake of 
the public diverfions and thecompany ; 
and a great part of the rents of coun- 
try gentlemen are drawn and "circu- 
lated amongft the bankers and other 
agents. At Edinburgh, indeed, are 
carried on many manufactures ; in 
particular, of fine linen and cambric ; 
and, if printing be accounted^ manu- 
facture, few towns in the kingdom 
can vie with Edinburgh. Several newf- 
papers are regularly publifhed, and 
feveral periodical works have been 
long carried on, which are defervedly 
ranked amongft the beft magazines of 
the prefent day. Betides the 14 in- 
corporated trades, there are feveral 
incorporations for the carrying on of 
bufinefs and manufacture. The Mer- 
chants Company was eftablifhed by 
royal charter in 1681, and they levy 
annually from each member, a final! 
fum for defraying insidental expences, 
and for the fupport of their poor. 
There are 4 banking companies, who 
iflue notes, befides many private bank- 
ers, who difcount bills, and tranfact 
other bufinefs. The Bank of Scotland, 
the capital of which was originally 
ioojoool. but nowincreafedi,ooo,oool. 
was eftablifhed by act of parliament in 
1695. The Royal Bank of Scotland 
was incorporated by royal charter id 
1727, the original capital wasi io,oool. 
but is now the fame as that of the 
Bank of Scotland. The Britifh Linen 
Company was erected into a body cor- 
porate in 1746, with power to raife a 
capital of ibo,oool. fterling, to pro- 
mote and encourage the linen manu- 
facture of the kingdom ; and the effect 
of its operations appears from the 
amazing increaie of that manufacture 
fince the erection of that company. 
Sir William Forbes, James Hunter 
and Company, are the only private 
bankers who iffue their own notes. 
There are alfo feveral infurance offices, 
fome of which have their origin in 
Edinburgh, and others are branches 
from the offices in London. In tht 
political conftitution, of Edinburgh, 


the town council have the direction | 
of ail public affairs ; the members of 
that body are 33, including the ordi- 
nary and extraordinary counfellors : r 
from thefe the lord provoft, dean of 
guild, 4 bailies, and treafurer, are 
elected. The lord provoft, who is 
ftyled Right Honourable, is high fheriff, 
coroner, and admiral within the city 
and liberties, and within the town, 
harbour, and road of Leith : he has 
alfo a jurifdiction in matters of life 
and death ; he is prefes of the con- 
vention of royal boroughs, colonel of 
the trained bands, of the city guard, 
and of the Edinburgh jail. Within 
the city he has the precedency of all 
the great officers of ftate, and the no- 
bility, walking on the right hand of 
the King, or his Majefty's commif- 
lioner, and has the privilege of a fword 
and mace carried before him. The 
bailies have jurifdiction under the lord 
provoft ; the dean of guild has the 
charge of the public buildings, and no 
houle can be erected without his war- 
rant. Formerly the provoft was one 
of the officers of the Scottilh parlia- 
ment ; all the magiftrates are fneriffs- 
depute, and juftices of the peace. The 
town council are patrons of all the 
churches in Edinburgh, of moft of the 
profefforfhips in the univerfity, and 
are the electors of the city's reprefen- 
tative in parliament : they are fupe- 
riors of the Canongate, Portfburgh, 
and Leith, and appoint baron-bailies 
for the government of thefe refpective 
diftricl:s, and thefe officers appoint re- 
fident bailies, to whom they delegate 
their authority. For the fafety of the 
city, the io-wn guard and watchmen pa- 
trole every night; and the police is fo 
ftrict, that robberies are very rare, and 
jlreet-murderis unknown. The free re- 
venues of the city, ariling partly from 
duties of different kinds, and partly 
from landed property, is eftimated at 
upwards of io,oool. ilerling per annum ; 
butthe places of profit and emolument, 
at the difpofal of the town-council, 
maybe eftimatedatnotlefsthanso,oool. 
annually. The markets of Edinburgh 
are well fupplied with provifions of all 
kinds, and'there are 2 large refervoirs 
for water, from which every part of 
the city and Leith are amply fupplied : 
moft of the water is brought to the 
refervoirs from the diftance of 4 or 5 
eiiles ; and, it is calculated, that the 


pipes yield upwards of 4240 pints in 
a minute, or 3000 tons in 24 hours: 
after fupplying the inhabitants, a large 
ftream of limpid water runs down the 
ftreets for many hours day and night. 
Leith is diftant only 2 miles from Edin- 
burgh, and is connected with it by a 
fine walk or promenade for foot paf- 
fengers ; and ftage-coaches ftart every 
half hour, at a low fare. There are 
alfo ftage-coaches eftablifhed from 
Edinburgh, in almoft every direction 
through the kingdom. Before we pro- 
ceed to give a fhort fketch of the rife 
and progrefs of the city, it will be ne- 
cefiary to defcribe the caftle, as being 
connected witli the hiftory. Edinburgh 
caftle, as before mentioned, is fituated 
on the weftern extremity of the hill 
on which the Old Town is built. The 
buildings of the town terminate about 
300 feet from the caftle-gate,. and this 
vacant fpace is termed the caftle-hill. 
The caftle confifts of an area of about 
6 acres, and from its fituation is £0 
ftrong, that, if the fact did not contra- 
dict our fpeculation, we fhould have 
conjectured it, before the invention of 
artillery, to have been impregnable. It 
is fituated on a precipitate, and in many 
parts, perpendicular rock, about 300 
feet high, and abfolutely inacceffible, 
except from the caftle-hill. Here the 
entry is defended by an outer barrier 
of palifadoes : within is a dry ditch, 
draw-bridge, and gate, defended by 
two flanking batteries of 4 guns., and 
the whole is commanded by a half 
moon, mounted with large brafs artil- 
lery. Beyond this are two gateways, 
the firft of which is very ftrong, and has 
two portculliffes. Immediately beyond 
the inner gateway, upon the right, is a 
battery of 8 guns, of 18 and 12 pound- 
ers ; and near to thefe, are ftorehoufes 
for gun carriages, and other imple- 
ments of artillery ; next to thefe, on 
the north, is the grand arfena!. con- 
taining 8000 ftand of arms, and other 
apartments for the fame ufe, capable 
of containing 22,000 more ; next is 
the bomb-proof powder magazine, 
and the fort-major's, the governor's, 
and the ftoremafter's lodgings ; be- 
yond thefe are a mortar ai:d feveral 
gun batteries. The upper part of the 
caftle contains 1 half moon battery, a 
chapel, a parade for exercife, and houfes 
in the. form of a fquare, .appropriated 
for the officers lodgings. Abo^t _j_ 



years ago new barracks were erecled 
on the W; fide of the caftle, and the . 
whole wards can now accommodate 
about 1600 men. On the E. fide of 
the fquare were formerly royal apart- 
ments, and the chamber is ftill fhewn 
where James VI. was born ; in another, 
the regalia of Scotland were depofited 
with much formality, on the 26th 
March, 1707, and are faid to be ftill 
kept there, but they are never fhewn; 
and a fufpicion has arifen, that they 
have been carried to London, which 
is more confirmed, as the keeper of 
the jewel-office in the tower of Lon- 
don fhews a crown, which he calls the 
crown royal of Scotland. The go- 
vernor of the caftle is generally a no- 
bleman, whofe place is worth about 
1000L a year. As the governor never 
refides, his apartments are occupied 
by the deputy-governor, who is cal- 
culated to be worth 500I. per annum. 
There is alio a fort-major, a ftore- 
keeper, a maftcr-gunner, a furgeon, 
and a chaplain ; neither of the two laft 
refide. There is a company of invalids 
with their officers, and generally the 
whole effective of fome marching regi- 
ment. Notwithftanding the natural 
ftrength of the caftle, it is not able to 
withftand a fiege regularly conducted; 
none of the fortifications, except the 
powder magazine, are bomb-proof, 
and the fplinters from the rock would 
make a bombardment ftill more formi- 
dable ; it is, however, a commodious 
centrical fituation for foldiers, and is 
nfed as a, ftate prifon for thofe accufed 
1 of treafon, and for prifoners of war ; 
as fuch it is kept in good repair. With 
regard to the antiquity of Edinburgh 
and its caftle, we are much in the dark ; 
thomoft ancient name by which we find 
it diftinguifhed, is that of Cajlelb Mynyd 
Agiied, or " the caftle of the hill of St. 
Agnes :" afterwards it was named 
Cafirum Puellarum, becaufe the Pic"tiih 
princeffes were educated in the caftle, 
till they were married. The ages when 
thefe names were given cannot now 
be cxaclly afcertained, but the town 
doe6 not feem to have been of very 
great antiquity, as Mr. Whittaker in- 
forms us, that the celebrated King Ar- 
thur fought a battle on the fpot where 
it is fituated, about the end of the jth 
.-ditary. The caftle is more ancient; 
it continued in the hands of the Anglo- 
Saxons from the iuvafion of Octa and 

Ebufa, in the year 452, till the defeat 
of Egbrid King of Northumberland, 
in 685, by the Picts, who repoffcffed 
themfelves of it : the Saxons recon- 
quered it in the 9th century, and kept 
it till the year 956, when it was given 
up to Indulphus King of Scotland. 
The firft time we have the town named 
by the title it now has is in 1128, when 
King David I. founded the abbey of 
Holyroodhdufe, by a charter dated 
burgo meo de Edvinejburg. In n 74, 
the caftie of Edinburgh was furrend- 
ered to Henry II. of England, to pur- 
chafe the freedom of King William I, 
who had been defeated at Alnwick, 
and taken prifoner by the Engliih. 
When William regained his freedom, 
he entered into an alliance with Henry, 
and marrying Henry's coufin Ermen- 
garde, received the caftie 26 part of her 
dower. In 1 2 15, a provincial fynod and 
parliament was held within the city, at 
which time it appears to have been a 
place of great note. In 1296, the caftle 
was befieged by Edward I. of England, 
and taken by affault ; it was again re- . 
covered in 1313, by Randolph Earl of 
Moray, afterwards regent during the 
minority of David II : at laft Robert 
Bruce demoliihed this fortrefs ; as well 
as feveral others, left they fhould affift 
the endeavours of the Englifh to over- 
awe the inhabitants into fubmiffion. 
It lay in ruins for many years, till it 
was rebuilt by Edward III. of England, 
who garrifoned it ftrongly. In 1341, 
it was again in poffefiion of the Scots, 
acquired by a ftratagem of William 
de Douglas, the fame who had contri- 
buted to the victory gained by the 
Scots at the Borough muir ; (vide For- 
dun's Scotichronkon, lib. 13. cap. 47.) 
About this time we find that Edin- 
burgh was the ufual refidence of the 
royal family ; it was the frequent feat 
of the parliament, and the feveral mo- 
narch s had conferred on it many pri- 
vileges ; in particular, the fuperiority 
of the port and mills of Leith. In 1461, 
a very confiderable privilege was con- 
ferred on the city by Henry VI. of 
England, in confequence of their kind- 
nefs to him when in a ftate of exile, 
viz. that the inhabitants fhould have 
liberty to trade to all the Engliih ports, 
on the fame terms as the city of Lon- 
don. James IV. conferred many pri- 
vileges on the city, many of whici; it 
ftill enjoys. By the overthrow of that 



monarch, at Flowden, the inhabitants 
•were thrown into the utmoft confter- 
nation and difmay for the iafety of the 
city : but the magistrates accommo- 
dating themfelves to the exigency of 
their Situation, bravely refolved to de- 
fend the city to the laft extremity ; 
they levied money to extend and re- 
new the fortifications, which had fallen 
into diSrepair, and enacted that every 
fourth nvan fhould watch and ward 
in rotation. Although this alarm foon 
iubfided, and the inhabitants were 
gradually relieved from the trouble of 
watching at night, yet a ceitain num- 
ber Were appointed to prevent disturb- 
ances, which continue to this day, and 
are termed the itewn guard. At this 
period of alarm, the plague alfo made 
its appearance, and almoft depopulat- 
ed the city, In 1504, the town was 
nearly rebuilt with wooden hcufes; 
and in the fame century, Edinburgh 
and Leith were completely laid wafte 
by an Englifh fleet, which had failed 
up the Forth 1 ; but thefe towns foon re- 
covered from their runious ftate, and 
became more fplendid than before. 
In 13 70, the cattle underwent a long 
fiege ; the town being held by the 
party of the regent, while Sir William 
Kirkaldy, the brave governor of the 
caftle, declared for Queen Mary. He 
was obliged to furrender by the inter- 
ference of Queen Elifabeth ; but the 
Englifh commander, who promifed 
him honourable treatment, gave him 
up to the regent, by whom he was 
fhamefully hanged. After this period, 
we find few occurences of great mo- 
ment in hiftory in which the city was 
particularly concerned, till the period 
of 1715 and 1745, when it came into 
poffeffion of the rebel army ; and in 
the latter year, the pretender had his 
father proclaimed at the crofs in great 
pomp, and paffmg his time in idle gran- 
deur, inftead of profecuting the advan- 
tages which he had obtained, allowed 
the advantage to be loft,andEdinburgh 
proved to Charles, the fame that Ca- 
pua of old was to Hannibal. In 1778 
and 1779, two very alarming difturb- 
ances happened, thatthreatenedagreat 
deal of bloodfhed, though happily they 
were terminated without any. The 
firft was the mutiny of Lord Seaforth's 
regiment of Highlanders; and the other 
was the destruction of the Popifh cha- 
pels, and other depredations on thofe of 

the Catholic perfuafion. Tn a capital 
like Edinburgh, which is making rapid 
improvement, and in a country where 
trade, agriculture, and commerce are 
fo much on the increaie, the manners 
of the people cannot be Stationary, nor 
their ftyle of living long the fame. The 
higher ranks fpend, now and then, a 
portion of their time in London, and 
fall into the fafhions of that metropolis. 
As the inferior ranks always copy the 
manners of their fuperiors, thefe are 
gradually communicated from one cir- 
cle to another, till a change isproduced 
in the whole community ; wealth af- 
fording the means, luxury creeps in 
apace. We mail contrail our account 
of the prefent manners, with that given 
by an Englishman who vifited Edin- 
burgh in 1598, as quoted by Mr. Arnot. 
" Myfelf," fays he, " was at a knight's 
houfe, who had many fervants to at- 
tend him, that brought in his meat, 
with their heads covered with blue 
caps, the table being more than half 
fumifhed with great platters of por- 
ridge, each having a little piece of fed- 
den meat; and, when the table was 
ferved, the fervants fat down with us % 
but the upper mefs, inftead of porridge, 
had a- pullet, with fome prunes in the 
broth : and I obferved no art of cook- 
ery, or furniture of houfehold- Stuff, 
but rather rude neglect of both, though 
myfelf and my companions, fent from 
the governor of Berwick, about bord- 
ering affairs, were entertained after 
their belt manner. The Scots, living 
then in factions, ufed to keep many 
followers, and fo confirmed their re- 
venue of victuals, living in fome want 
of money. They vulgarly eat hearth- 
cakes of oats, but in cities have alio 
wheaten bread, which, for the moit 
part, was bought by courtiers, gentle- 
men, and the beft fort of citizens. 
They drink pure wines, not with fztgar 
as the EngViJh : yet, at feafts, they put 
comfits in the wines, after the French 
manner ; but they had not our vint- 
ners' fraud to mix their wines. I did 
never fee nor hear that they have any 
public inns with figns hanging out ; 
but the better forts of citizens brew 
ale, their ufual drink, (which will dii- 
temper a Stranger's body) ; and the 
fame citizens will entertain paffengers 
upon acquaintance or entreaty. Their 
bedfteads- were then like cupboards 
in the wall, with doors to be opened 



and fhut at pleafure, fo as we climbed 
up to our beds. They ufed but one 
fheet, open at the fides and top, but 
clofe at the feet, and fo doubled. — 
When paffengers go to bed, their cuf- 
tom was to prefent them with a deep- 
ing cup of wine at parting. The coun- 
try people and merchants ufed to drink 
largely ; the gentlemen fomewhatmore 
iparingly ; yet, the very courtiers, by 
night meetings, and entertaining any 
itranger, ufed to drink healths not 
without excefs ; and, to fpeak truth 
without offence, the excefs of drinking 
was then far greater in general among 
the Scots than the Englifh. TVlyfelf 
being at the court, invited by fome 
gentlemen to flipper, and being fore- 
warned to fear this excefs, would not 
promife to fup with them, but upon 
condition that my inviter would be 
my protection from large drinking, 
which I was many times forced to in- 
voke, being courteoufiy entertained, 
and much provoked to carouiing; and 
fo for that time avoided any great in- 
temperance. Remembering this, and 
having iince obferved, in my converfa- 
tion at the Englifh court, with the 
Scots of the better fort, that they 
fpend great part of the night in drink- 
ing not only wine, but even beer; as 
myfelf cannot accufe them of any great 
intemperance, fo I cannot altogether 
free them from the imputation of ex- 
cefs, wherewith the popular voice 
chargeth them. The hufbandmen in 
Scotland, the fervants, and almoft all 
the country, did wear coarfe cloth 
made at home of gray or fky-colour, 
and flat blue caps, very broad. The 
merchants in cities were attired in 
Englifh or French cloth, of pale co- 
lour, or mingled black and blue. The 
gentlemen did wear Englifh cloth or 
iilk, or light ftuffs, little or nothing 
adorned with filk lace, much lefs with 
lace of filver or gold; and all followed 
at this time the French fafhion, efpe- 
cially in court. Gentlewomen mar- 
ried, did wear clofe upper bodies 
after the German manner, with large 
whale-bone fieeves after the French 
manner, fhort cloaks like the Ger- 
mans, French hoods, and large falling 
bands about their necks. The un- 
married of all forts did go bare-headed, 
and wear fhort cloaks, with mod clofe 
linen fleeve3 on their arms, like the 
virgins of Germany. The inferior fort 

of citizens wives, and the women of 
the country, did wear cloaks made of 
a coarfe liuff, of two or three colours, 
in checker-work, vulgarly called -plod- 
an. To conclude, in general, they 
would not at this time be attired after 
the Englifh fafhion, in any fort ; but 
the men, especially at court, follow 
the French fafhion ; and the women* 
both in court and city, as well in 
cloaks as naked heads, and clofe 
fieeves on the arms, and all other gar- 
ments, follow the fafhion of the wo^ 
men in Germany." About 20 or 30 
years ago, the generality of the people 
of Edinburgh were in ufe to dine at 
a o'clock : fhop-keepers were wont 
to lock their fliops at one for dinner, 
and open them again at two o'clock ; 
bufmefs was attended to by all ranks 
after dinnef : a fimple dinner, con- 
fining of one or two plain difhes* 
was the ufual fare ; wine was feldom 
or never feen at the tables of the 
middle ranks. The intercourfe of 
the fexes was kept up chiefly at tea 
vilits at 5 o'clock. The people of 
Edinburgh were exemplary for their 
regular attendance at church. Public 
places were little frequented ; except- 
ing at the theatre, the middling ranks 
feldom appeared at any public amufe- 
ments. Families had, in general, only 
one or two maid-fervants * a livery- 
fervant was, we believe, unknown in 
the middling ftation. The wages of 
a maid-fervant, in general, was from 
3I. to 4I. a-year ; they dreffed in red 
cloaks or tartan plaids, and feldom 
wore fiioes but on Sundays. The ta- 
verns and lodging-houfes were poor 
and dirty ; there was no fuch place as 
a hotel. At this period the inhabit- 
ants of Edinburgh were greatly in- 
commoded for lodging ; people of 
quality and fafhion were obliged to 
fubmit to fmall, dull, and unhealthy 
habitations: as a proof of this, it is 
only neceffary to mention, that, even 
as late as the year 1783, the houfe 
which, in 1763, the then Juftice Clerk 
inhabited, was pofiefTed by a French 
teacher ; the Lord Prefident Graigie's 
houfe by a rouping Wife, (falefwoman 
of old furniture) ; Lord Drummore's- 
houfe was left by a chairman for want 
of accommodation ;, and a houfe lately 
occupied by one of the prefent Lords 
of Seffion is now poffefled by a tailor. 
Of late the change is alio,, in every 



other refpect, remarkable. The tables 
of the middling ranks not only exhibit 
varieties of difhes, but wines are al- 
niolt univerfaily drank ; and, when a 
party goes abroad .to dine,, there they 
alio ipend the afternoon. It is much 
to be regretted that the ladies are fo 
much neglected in thefe parties; the 
gentlemen, in general, preferring the 
bottle to the drawing-room. That 
foftnefs and elegance of manners, 
which can only be acquired in the 
company of ladies, is much on the 
decline. The hour of dinner now is 
4, and often 5 o'clock, and bufmefs is 
but feldom attended in the evening. 
Sunday is now the principal day for 
feeing company; of ccurfe,the church- 
es are but badly attended. The drefs 
of people of fafhion was coftly and 
elegant ; it was accounted abfolutely 
necefTary to be in drefs at a public 
place. This part of ceremony is much 
given up, and people go to affemblies, 
plays, and concerts, much in the fame 
way as they go to dinner. The ladies, 
itill, however, attend more to drefs ; 
many good confequences might be 
figured to enfue, were the gentlemen 
equally attentive to. this part of ce- 
remony. Hoipitality is a leading fea- 
ture of the inhabitants. The lower 
ranks may, with juftice, be charged 
with intemperance, and this is much 
owing to the cheap price of whiiky. 
There were very few inftances ( if any ) 
of a citizen of Edinburgh keeping his 
carriage 20 years fince; now, there are 
many. The. lodgings, particularly of 
the New Town, and other newly e- 
recled buildings, are elegant and 
healthy. In general furniture is to 
be feen correfponding to the houfes. 
Though the wages of fervants have 
been much the fame thefe 20 years, 
yet their appearance and drefs is great- 
ly improved ; now, perhaps, thefe are 
on the other extreme. The extent of 
the ancient and extended royalty of 
Edinburgh is about 2 Englilh miles 
from the W. end of the Fountain- 
bridge to the E. end of the Abbey- 
hill, and nearly the fame length from 
the Grange toll-bar on the S. to 
Broughton on the N. and the circum- 
ference is about 7 miles. It compre- 
hends 9 parochial districts ; but in cal- 
culating the population, the parilhes of 
Canoiigate, St. Cuthbert's, South and 
North Leith, are included j making the 

whole, in 1791, 84,886. In the vicinitv 
of Edinburgh there are many ruins of 
ancient religious eilablifhments, which 
it would be foreign to our work to 
detail at length ; for a defcription of 
Leith, as the port of the city, fee 
Leith; and at Arthur's-Seat will 
be found the mineralogy of that moun- 
tain. The Calton and Caftle-hill are 
chiefly compofed of a fpecies of hard 
whinftone, of a dark colour, called trap 
by the Swedifh mineralogies, and cor~ 
neus trapezius nigerfolidus by Schmeif- 
fer : fome of it contains a confiderable 
quantity of decompofed hematites and 
fcbeorl, and is acted upon by the mi- 
neral acids: many of the rocks affume 
a bafaltic appearance, in irregular 
cryftallizations : the lower ftratum of 
the Calton is of coarfe breccia, com- 
pofed of pieces of porphyric lava, 
cemented by a reddifh feldt-fpar ; a- 
bove this is a ftratum of porphyry. In 
1785, a conliderable quantity of the 
rare mineral, called the margodes by 
Linnaeus, w r as difcovered in this ftra- 
tum, from the fize of a pea to that of 
a nutmeg, of a teffalated cryftallized 
fnape, refembling a garnet; it is near- 
ly of a fimilar nature to the zeolite, of 
which many beautiful fpecimens have 
alfo been found. In St. Cuthbert's, 
or Weft Church parifh, is that excel- 
lent freeftone quarry which fupplies 
the city, and contributes to its ele- 
gance. Near Stock-bridge, in the fame 
parifh, is St. Bernard's well, a ftrong 
fulphureous fpring, which is much re- 
forted to for its medicinal virtues. 
The late Lord Gardenftone, thinking 
highly of the quality of the water, 
and finding relief from drinking it, 
caufed a very elegant temple to be 
erected over it, containing a ftatue of 
Hygeia, the goddefs of Health, which, 
though beautifully proportioned in it- 
felf, is by far too large for the temple 
under which it ftands. 

Edinburgh (University of.) In 
the year 15 81, the magiftrates and 
town council of Edinburgh obtained 
a grant from James VI. for founding 
and eftablifhing an univerfity or college 
within that city. "The patrons, aided 
by various donations, purchafed the 
area, belonging to the collegiate pro- 
voftry and prebends of the Kirk-a-field, 
on the S. fide of the city, and began im- 
mediately to prepare the buildings in 
the belt manner, for the reception of 


the teAchers and ftudents ; and in the j 
month of October, 1583, Robert Rol- 
lock, who had been invited from a | 
profefforfhip in St. Andrews, began to 
teach. He was elected principal next 
year, and 4 other profeffors were foon 
after appointed. In 161 7, James VI. 
having vifited Scotland, after his ac- 
ceffion to the crown of England, and 
having ordered a public philofophical 
difputation at Stirling-caftle, was fo 
fatisfied with the merits of the mem- 
bers of the univerfity of Edinburgh, 
that he conferred on it many privi- 
leges, and defired that for the future 
itfliould be named " the college of 
King James," which it ftill bears in 
all its diplomas and public deeds. 
For feveral years the foundation of 
the college was only a principal, and 
4 regents or profeffors of philofo- 
phy ; but a profeffor of humanity 
or Latin was afterwards appointed, 
a profeflbr for mathematics, and one 
for the Hebrew and oriental languages. 
The medical profefforfhips were in- 
itituted in 1685 ; but thefe were only 
titular, till the year 1720, when, in 
confequence of the great abilities and 
exertions of Monro the father, an 
attempt was made to teach every 
branch of medical knowledge in a 
regular manner, and the attempt fuc- 
ceeded fo well, that, ever fmce, the 
reputation of the univerfity as a fchool 
of medicine has been conftantly in- 
creafmg in Britain, and even amongft 
the moil diftant nations. The ce- 
lebrity of this college has been greatly 
owing to the uniform attention of the 
magiftracy in filling the vacant chairs 
with men of known abilities in their 
refpective departments, and they have 
been always attentive to the inftitu- 
tion of new profelTbrfhips, as the pub- 
lic feemed to demand them : moft of 
the chairs have fmall falaries, and the 
falary of the king's phylician is di- 
vided amongft thofe of the faculty of 
medicine who have none. The in- 
ftitution at prefent confrfts of a prin- 
cipal and 3 profeffors of the faculty of 
theology ; 4 profeffors of the faculty of 
law; 8 of the faculty of medicine; 7 of 
the faculty of arts; and a profefforfhip 
of agriculture and rural affairs, lately 
tftablifhed. Bcfides thefe, 2 of the 
medical profeffors give regular clinical 
lectures on thofe cafes in the Royal 
Infirmary, which are judged to be moft 


important. In conferring degrees* 
thofe of Dollar of Divinity and La-vj 
are honorary, and conferred on men 
of known learning and talents ; thofe 
of Mafier of Arts and Doctor of Medi- 
cine are conferred on candidates, after 
ftrict private and public examinations. 
The number of ftudents in the differ- 
ent clafles amount to upwards of 
1000 yearly. There are only 50 bur- 
faries, and thefe do not exceed rat 
per annum. The winter feffion lafts 
from the middle of October to the 
beginning of May ; and the fummer 
feffion, during which botany, natural 
hi/Itry, and the clinical lectures are 
taught, begins with May, and lafts- till 
Auguft. The profeffors are diftin- 
guifhed by long black gowns, but the 
ftudents have no particular drefs. The 
old buildings being very mean, and 
unfit for the reception of fo many 
profeffors and ftudents, and quite un- 
fuitable to fuch a flourifhing univer- 
fity, and the improved ftate of the 
city, the magiftrate's and council fet 
on foot a fubfeription, for erecting a 
new and magnificent ftructure, accord- 
ing to a defign of the late Robert A- 
dams, Efq. architect. The eftimate 
for completing the whole was 64,000!. 
and of this nearly 30,000k was imme- 
diately fubferibed for. On the 16th 
of November 1789, the foundation 
ftone was laid with great folemnity 
and grandeur by the Right Honour- 
able Lord Napier, Grand Mafter-ma- 
fon of Scotland, in pretence of the 
magiftrates of Edinburgh, the prin- 
cipal, profeffors, and ftudents of the 
univerfity, and a number of the firft 
nobility and gentry of the kingdom. 
After the committee had expended the 
fubferiptions, which amounted in all 
to about 38,000!. the building was 
obliged to be given up, and though 
the N. front, and part of the E. is 
now fmifhed, it is probable, unlets 
parliament makes it a national con- 
cern, and giants large fupplies, it will 
never be finifhed. The E. and W. 
fronts are to extend 255 feet, and the 
S. and N. 358. There are to be lodg- 
ings for the principal, and 8 of the 
profeffors. The library is intended to 
be 160 feet in length ; the mufeum of 
the fame extent ; the hall for examin- 
ations and conferring degrees 90 feet 
by 30. The large and commodious 
anatomical theatre is already fmilhed> 


and there is to be a fimilar room for 
,i chemical laboratory, and large halls 
for the ihftruments and experiments of 

the proftfibrs of mathematics, natu- 
ral piiilofophy, and agriculture. The 
whole, if completed, will be the moil 
fplcndid ftri-icture of the kind in the 
world, and at the fame time the moil 
complete and commodious. Connected 
with the Univerfvty are the College Lib- 
rary, the Obfervatory, and the Botanic 
GafAen. The Library was founded in 
1580, bv Mr. Clement Little, advo- 
cate, who bequeathed it to the town 
council ; and itwasfor fometime under 
the direction of the minifters of Edin- 
burgh, but it was afterwards prtfented 
to the univerfity. Like other collec- 
tions of the fame nature, it is entitled 
to a copy of every work entered at 
Stationers' -hall ; and it receives from 
each ftudent at matriculation, a fmall 
contribution, and 5I. from each pro- 
feiTor en his admiffion: thefe fums a- 
mount to about 170L per annum. Be- 
sides a valuable collection of books and 
manufcripts, it has feveral excellent 
portraits; and, lately, a fine marble 
buft of the late celebrated Br. William 
Cullen, was erected by the members 
•of the faculty of medicine. The mu- 
feum of natural hiftory contains a to- 
lerable collection of natural curionties, 
and the number is daily increaling. 
The collection of anatomical prepar- 
ations, principally collected by Monro 
the father and the fon, is exceedingly 
valuable ; and the midwifery prepar- 
ations are no lefs fo. The Obfervatory, 
as mentioned in the account of Edin- 
burgh, is fituated on the Calton-hill, 
and is now under the direction of the 
prcfeltor of natural philolbphy ; it is 
far from being complete, though it 
contains the famous reflecting tele- 
fcope, invented by the late Mr. Short, 
efteemed the moft perfect inltrument 
of the kind in Britain. The Botanic 
Garden is about a mile from the uni- 
verfity, on the road from Edinburgh 
to Leith ; it canfifts of about 5 acres 
of ground, and contains a great variety 
of plants brought from every part of 
the world. The profeflbr of botany 
is botanift to the king, and receives a 
falary of 120I. annually for the fupport 
of the garden. The late Dr. Hope, 
who planned the gar-den, and brought 
it to its prefent ftate of improvement, 
erected in 1778, a monument to the 


memory of Linnxus. It is a neatvafc, 
fupported on a pedeftal, with this in- 
fcription : 

" Linnao pofuit Jo. Rope." 

EDLESTOWN ; a village and pa- 
rifh in the county of Peebles. The 
village is fituated near the burn of 
EMeftu-jjn, on the poll road from E- 
dinburgh, from which it is 17 miles 
diftant. It contains about 200 inha- 
bitants. The parifh extends 10 miles 
in length from N. to S. and its greateft 
breadth from E. to W. is about 7 . 
miles. The furface is moltly hilly, 
and devoted to the pafturage of iheep 
and black cattle. It is watered by the 
Edlejlo-jon river, which takes its rife 
from various fprings on the N. and 
N. E. boundaries, and forming at 
Co^vey'j Linn a cafcade of 35 feet, falls 
into the Tweed near Peebles. A fmall 
lake alfo gives rife to the South Efk ri- 
ver, which falls into the fea at Muffel- 
burgh. The parifh, in 1793, contained 
710 inhabitants. 

EDROM ; a parifh in Berwickfhire ; 
is about 10 miles in length, and 6 in 
breadth, extending along the foot of 
the Lammermuir hills, and into the 
flat country of the Merfe : a great 
part of the foil is fertile, and when 
well cultivated, produces excellent 
corn ; but, towards the hills, it is 
muiriih and fhallow ; it is watered 
by the two rivulets Blackadder and 
in/tttadder, which here unite near a 
hamlet called Allanto^vn. The cele- 
brated mineral fpring, which is called 
Diaife Spa, is on the borders of this 
pariih, where its march runs with the 
parifh of Dunfe. The greater part of 
the land is well enclofed, and drains 
have earned off feveral fmall lakes and 
marfhes, with which the face of the 
country was formerly much disfigured. 
Population in 1790, 1336. 

EDZELL ; a parifh on the N. W. 
corner of the county of Angus. It is 
nearly furrounded by 2 rivulets, which 
here unite, and receive the name of 
the North Efk. The foil is of an in- 
ferior quality, fhallow, and lying on a 
rocky or gravelly bottom. The whole 
parifh belongs to the Hon. W. Ramfay 
Maule of Panmure, and Sir Alexander 
Ramfay Irvine, Bart. The waters of 
the North Efk, in this neighbourhood, 
appear to contain calcareous matter 
diflblved in them ; for the whole becj 


of the l'iver is covered with calcareous 
concretions. The caftle of Edzell is 
a moft magnificent ruin ; it long was 
the property of the family of Lindfay, 
but now belongs to Mr. Maule. There 
are 3 druidical temples, the ftones of 
which enclofe an area of an elliptical 
form, 45 feet in length by 36 ip 
breadth. Population in 1792, 963. 

EGLISHAY ; one of the Orkneys ; 
it is a pleafant, low lying ifland, with 
a imall Gothic church in the W. part, 
formerly dedicated to St. Magnus, the 
tutelar faint of the Orkney ifiands. 
This church has a pyramidal fteeple, 
and a vaulted choir, which joins to the 
body of the church. The coaft is in 
general fandy, and one or two of the 
bays afford ihell fand, which has been 
fuccefsfully employed as a manure. 
The foil is very good, and in general 
capable of cultivation ; a confiderable 
tracb on the N. fide, of fandy hills, 
covered with bent, contains great 
numbers of rabbits. There are 12 
or 13 boats employed in the fifhing, 
and in trading with Shetland and the 
neighbouring ifies. In the months of 
October and November, great quanti- 
ties oifpongc a.n&fan-coral are annually 
thrown afhore. It contains upwards 
of 2 10 inhabitants. 

EIGG ; one of the weftern ifies, at- 
tached to the county of Invernefs, and 
is one of the clufter which compofes 
the parifh of Small Ifies. It is between 
4 and 5 miles in length, and from 2 to 
3 in breadth, and is computed to be 
about 8 miles diftant from the Arifaig, 
the nearer! part of the main land ; it 
is partly flat, and partly hilly and 
rocky, having a fmall valley running 
through it. The low grounds are to- 
lerably productive. In Eigg are feen 
frequent fpecimens of bafaltic pillars 
over the whole ifland ; and along the 
coail the rocks are chiefly of a honey- 
comb lava, exceedingly light and po- 
rous, having a great refemblance to 
pumices, and other volcanic produc- 
tions. Eigg is the property of John 
M'Donaid, Efq. of Clanranald, who 
receives 343I. 12s. 3d. of yearly rent ; 
it contains 400 inhabitants. 

Eil (Loch) ; the inner part of an 
inlet from the fea, on the borders of 
Argyll and Invernefs-fhires, which, 
nearer the ocean, is known by the 
name of Loch Llnnhe : near its head 
is the Houfe of Loch MT f the occafion- 


al refidence of the chief of the family 
of Cameron, who take their defigna- 
tion from it. At the part where the 
loch turns northward, and changes its 
name from Linnhe to Eil, ftands Fort 
William, and the adjoining village of 

Eildon Hills ; three conical hills 
in the neighbourhood of Melrofe, in 
the county of Roxburgh ; the elevation 
of two of them is about 2000 feet a- 
bove the level of the fea, but the N. 
E. hill is chiefly noted for the veftiges, 
of a regularly fortified Roman camp, 
which communicates with other mili- 
tary (rations on the two other hills. 

ELGINSHIRE, or the county of 
MORAY. Vide Moray. 

ELGIN, or ELGYN ; a royal bo- 
rough and county town of Morayfliire, 
to which it fometimes gives its name. 
It is pleafantly fituated on the banks 
of the fmall river Loffie, about 2 or 
3 miles from its influx into the Ger- 
man ocean, where there is a fmall vil- 
lage, called Lojp.e-mouth-, with a toler- 
able harbour ; it is faid to have been 
built by Helgy, general of the army 
of Sigurd, the Norwegian Earl of 
Orkney, who conquered Caithnefs, 
Sutherland, Rofs, and Moray, about 
the year 927. At what time Elgin 
was erecled into a royal borough does 
nqt appear ; the oldeft charter extant 
is from Alexander II. anno i234,"who 
grants to the burgefies of Elgyn a guild 
cf merchants, with as extenfive privi- 
leges as any other borough in Scotland 
enjoys. It was the policy of the fove- 
reign, in the middle ages, to give great 
privileges and. immunitiesto the towns, 
for the purpofe of balancing the dan- 
gerous power which the feudal fyftem 
afforded to the nobles ; but when the 
regal governments at any time became 
feeble, thefe towns, unequal to their 
own protection, were under the ne- 
ceflity of placing themfelves under the 
fhelter of fome powerful lord in the 
neighbourhood : accordingly, we find 
the town of Elgyn accepting charters 
of protection, and difcharges of taxes 
from the Earls of Moray, who held it 
in a fpecies of vaflalage, about the end 
of the 14th, and the beginning of the 
15th century. At laft, Charles I. in 
1633, eftablifhed and confirmed all the 
grants of his royal predeceflbrs ; and 
the fett of the burgh was ratified by 
the convention of royal boroughs, in 



1706. Andrew Bifhop of Moray, in 
j 224, translated the biihopric of Mo- 
ray from Spynie to Elgin ; but that 
cathedral was defrroyed by Alexander 
Lord of Badenoch. About the year 
1414, it was completely rebuilt, in a 
ftyle of great magnificence. From the 
ruins, which ftill remain, it appears to 
have been a large and fplendid edifice, 
in the Gothic ftyle of architecture ; 
in length above 260 feet, and upwards 
of 34 feet in breadth ; not furpafied 
in beauty by any building of that na- 
ture in the kingdom. The revenues 
were very confiderable ; for, after fe- 
veral eftates were feued off, there re- 
mained at the Reformation, what 
would now produce an annual income 
of upwards of 4CC0I. fterling. The 
harbour of Lojfie-month, which is the 
property of the borough, admits vef- 
fels'of 80 tons atfpring tides; and a 
confiderable quantity of corn is fhip- 
ped for Leith and Grangemouth. The 
whole revenue of the town may a- 
mount to nearly 200I. per annum. It 
contains nearly 3000 inhabitants. The 
pariih of Elgin extends about 10 miles 
in length, and 6 in breadth : the fur- 
face is fiat, rifmg gently towards the 
Black hills ; in the back parts of the 
parifh, the foil is in general fandy, 
with calcareous particles, but many 
places are of a rich loam and clay, ex- 
ceedingly fertile. Near the town of 
Elgin, on an eminence, called the 
Lady-hill, are the remains of a fortifi- 
cation, which is well known to have 
exifted in the reign of William the 
Lion, King of Scotland. The ruins 
of the priory of Plufcardine are truly 
magnificent ; the church was never 
completed, as the foundations of the 
W. part of the crofs were only laid ; 
but, in the part which has been finifh- 
ed, are fmall pieces of frefco ivork, of 
very lively colours, and tolerably ac- 
curate deiign. The beautiful glen, in 
which this fine ruin is iituated, is the 
property of the Earl of Fife, who has 
done much to render the fcenery more 
ftrikingly piiturefque. In 1792, the 
parifh contained 4534 inhabitants. 

Elliot; a fmall rivulet in the 
county of Angus. It takes its rife from 
the great morafs termed Dilty mqfs, 
in the parifh of Carmylie, and after a 
meandering courfe of about 4 miles S. 
in the bottom of a deep den, falls into 
the German ocean, about 2 miles W. 

from the royal burgh of Aberbrothock; 
the banks, near its confluence with the 
ocean, are finely covered with trees, 
and the alrhoft runious caftle of Kelly, 
romantically Iituated on the verge of 
a precipice, which overhangs its bed, 
renders the fcenery peculiarly intcr- 
efting. A neat bridge of 3 arones is 
thrown" over it, in the line of road 
from Dundee to Arbroath. 

ELLON; a pariih in Aberdeen- 
fhire ; extending about 9 miles in 
length from N. to S. and about 5 in 
breadth. The furface is uneven ; but, 
though there is a good deal of rifing 
ground, the height is inconiiderablc, 
and cannot be named hills. In the 
low grounds, on the banks of the river 
Ythan, the foil is dry; but in the north- 
ern parts it is generally wet and mofTy. 
There are a few fmall plantations of 
fir, afh, elm, and alder; but they ferve 
rather for ornament and fhelter, than 
for any other purpofe. The village 
of Ellon is pleafantiy fituated on the 
Ythan, over which is thrown a hand- 
fome bridge : here is a confiderable 
falmon fifhing, which rents at 80I. fter- 
ling ; and the Ythan is navigable to 
large boats, within half a mile of the 
town. The village contains about 200 
inhabitants, and the country part 1630 ; 
making the population of the pariih 
about 1830 fouls. 

El st (Loch) ; a lake in the pariih 
of Criech, in the county of Sutherland. 
It is about 2 miles in length, and dil- 
charges itfelf into the Frith of Tain, 
by a rivulet of the fame name. 

ELY or ELIE ; a town and parifh 
in the county of Fife. The town was 
formerly a royal borough, by a charter 
from Malcolm II. but was disfran- 
chifed from fending members to par- 
liament, on account of its inability to 
maintain them ; it ftill, however, re- 
tains the privileges of a royal borough, 
with that exception ; it is fituated on 
a dry and healthy fpot, fo near to the 
fea, that it wafhes the walls of fame 
of thehoufes ; it poffefTes an excellent 
harbour, and is the deepeft water in 
the Frith of Forth, except Burntifland ; 
it is remarkably eafy of accefs, and per- 
fectly fafe; but with all its advantages, 
the trade is fo trifling, that it is going 
faff, to decay for 'want of the necefTary 
repairs : to the eaftward of the har- 
bour, and at a fmall diftance from it., 
Wadehaven is. fituated, fo called, it is 



fald, from general Wade, who recom- 
mended it to government as proper for 
a harbour for the reception of men of 
war; it is very large, and has water 
from 20 to 22 feet at common tides. 
The pariih is fmall, being only about 
a fquare mile in extent ; the whole is 
enclofed, and is the property of Sir 
John Anftruther, who has here an e- 
legant refidence, called Ely-houfe. Ru- 
bies of a brilliant lufture have been 
found near the more, gradually wafhed 
from the rocks. Population in 1793, 

Endrick River has its fource in 
the pariih of Fintry, in Stirlingfhire. 
It runs E. and S. for about 3 miles, 
and then turns due W. ruihing in full 
ftream over the Lcup of Fintry, form- 
ing a cataract of 91 feet in height: 
after receiving the river Mane, and o- 
ther plentiful ftreams in its courfe, and 
forming 2 beautiful cafcades at Gart- 
nefs, the fpot where the famous Napier 
of Merchifton invented his logarithms, 
it lofes itfelf in Loch Lomond, about 
14 miles from the hill where it takes 
its rife. 

ENSAY ; one of the fouthern divi- 
sions of the Harris ifles. It is about 2 
miles long, and 1 broad ; it is verdant 
all over, having an excellent foil, well 

EORSA ; a fmall ifland of the He- 
brides, lying between the iflands of 
Mull and Icolmkill ; it contains 2 fa- 
milies or 13 inhabitants. 

Eribole (Loch); an arm of the 
fea, in the parifh of Durnefs, county 
of Sutherland. It is a fpacious har- 
bour, with excellent anchorage, well 
iheltered by the bright and elevated 
rocks of Whiten head on one hand, and 
by the rocks ofRufpin on the other. 

Ericht, or Errack; a lake in 
Perthfhire. It is the largeft in the 
county, except Loch Tay,- being 24 
miles in length, but fcarcely a mile in 
breadth ; it lies at the head of the di- 
ftrict of Rannoch, and extends forne 
miles into the county of Invernefs. Be- 
ing fituated in the very heart of the 
Grampians, it is encompafied on all 
fides by lofty mountains, and rugged 
cliffs of the moft tremendous afpect. 
In the valleys, between the hills, there 
is fome herbage ; but Ceres is a ftran- 
ger to the banks of the lake, having 
relinquifhed that poffeffion to heath, 
and afewftraggling birches and alders; 

a haunt for the game of the foreft. In 
one of the valleys, on the N. hde, 
within fight of the lake, a houfe was 
built fome time ago by Mr. Dundas 
of Arnifton, Mr. Hamilton of Pent- 
caitland, and others, for the purpofes 
of hunting, on a feu granted by the 
Duke of Gordon. In the neighbour- 
hood of this lake, the unfortunate 
Prince Charles, after his defeat at Cul- 
loden, is faid to have remained feveral 
weeks concealed ; often without the 
common necefiaries of life. From the 
E.end of this lake runs the river Ericht, 
which, uniting with the river Ganir, 
the outlet of Loch Rannoch, acquires 
the name of the Tummel, and after- 
wards joins the river Tay, not far from 
the caftle of Blair of Atliol. 

Ericht, or Erocht, is alfo the 
name of a river in the diftrict of Stqr- 
mcnt, in the fame county. It is foraw 
ed by the union of the Ardle and Black- 
water, or Shee, and after a courfe of 
13 or 14 miles S. E. falls into the Ifla : 
in its paffage through the valley of 
Strathmore, it is a very rapid river, 
frequently overflowing its banks, and 
doing confiderable damage to thefarm- 
ers, from which circumftance it has 
received the appellation of the Ireful 
Ericht ; its channel is in general rocky 
and uneven, and it often varies in its 
depth and breadth ; the banks in fome 
parts are very low, but in moft places 
they are very high and rugged, and 
often covered with wood. About 2 
miles N. from the village of Blair- 
Gowrie, they rife at leaft 200 feet 
from the bed of the river, and on the 
W. fide are formed for about 700 feet 
in length, and 220 feet in height, of 
perpendicular rock, as fmooth as if 
formed by the tool of a workman. 
Here the botaniit will find ample fund 
for entertainment, and the naturalift 
will be highly gratified by the appear- 
ance of the primary ftrata of freeftone, 
admirably difplayed. About one mile 
below Blair-Gowrie is the Keith, a fine 
natural cafcade : the fcenery on the 
banks of this river are peculiarly beau- 
tiful, and its picturefque appearance 
has been much increafed by the nu- 
merous feats which have been built in 
its neighbourhood. It abounds with 
falmon and trout, and for 2 miles be- 
low the Keith, it is faid to afford bet- 
ter rod-filhing than any other river ir^ 
the kingdom. 


Erne, or Earn \ a lake and river 
in Perthfhire. The lake is about 8 
miles long, and ij broad, fituated at 
the head of that beautiful ftrath or vale 
through which the river runs, and to 
which" it gives its name. The banks of 
the lake for above 5 miles on each fide, 
are clofely covered with a foreft of na- 
tural oak, and the profit arifing from 
the fale of the bark and timber is nearly- 
equal to the rents of the adjoining ara- 
ble land ; by its fide is the road from 
Crieff, through the pariihes of Comrie 
and Monivaird to Loch Erne head, 
prefenting a great variety of beautiful 
profpedts, and is perhaps not inferior 
to any of the fame extent in the High- 
lands of Scotland. Loch Erne does not 
abound with fifh, but poffeffes a few 
trouts and pike. Near each end of it 
are 2 fmall iflands, evidently artificial, 
on one of which are the remains of an 
ancient caftle. Ts T ear the upper part 
of the lake, Bewvoirlich mountain rears 
its majeftic fummit, elevated to the 
height of 3,200 feet above the level of 
the fea, commanding a profpedt only 
bounded by the hills in Mid-Lothian, 
and the mountains of Ayrihire. From 
the E. end of Loch Erne runs the river 
Erne, about 4 miles above the village 
of Comrie, and paffing that village, and 
the towns of Crieff and Abernethy, 
receiving many rivers in its courfe, 
through the beautiful and fertile vale 
of Stratherne, falls into the river Tay 
a little below the old caftle of Elcho. 
The Erne has been much and juftly 
admired for thofe beautiful curves 
which it defcribes, and peninfula 
which it forms ; it has feveral bridges, 
but thofe at Crieff, and the village cal- 
led the Bridge of Erne, are the moft 
remarkable ; it abounds with falmon 
and trout, and is navigable for fmall 
floops of 50 or 60 tons, as far as the 
bridge, about 4 miles from its junction 
with the Tay. 

Erngrogo (Loch); a fmall lake 
in the parifh of Croffmichael, in the 
ftewarty of Kirkcudbright ; it covers 
about 40 acres, and is remarkable for 
2 fmall iflands, which are much refort- 
ed to by fea-gulls during the breeding 

Errick; a river which takes its 
rife among the mountains of Strath- 
dearn, in Invernefsfhire ; and flowing 
through the valley of Stratberrick, falls 
into Lochr.efs near the church of Bole- 

E R S 

ERROL ; a village and parifh in the 
Carle of Gowrie, county of Perth. 
The parifh is nearly of a regular fi- 
gure, being j-| miles in length, and 
nearly 3 in breadth, ftretching acrofs 
the Carfe from the foot of the hills to 
the banks of the Tay. Though it is 
in general level, there are feveral rifing 
grounds, which add much to the beau- 
ty of its appearance ; the foil is in ge- 
neral a ftrong clay ; but, in the neigh- 
bourhood of the village, it is a black 
fertile loam : this foil is exceedingly 
favourable for orchards, and a conli- 
derable extent is covered with fruit 
trees. The • country is interfered in 
different places with fmall tracts of 
water, called po^vs, collected chiefly 
from the trenches opened for draining 
the ground: the Tay into which they 
iflue affords falmon in great abund- 
ance, and the fifhings are rented by 
a company in Perth. By the conftant 
action of the tide and current, the ri- 
ver every year carries off many acres 
of excellent land, and the proprietors 
have been obliged to build large ftone 
dykes for the defence of their eftates. 
The village of Errol is pleafantly fi- 
tuated on an eminence, rifing by a 
gradual afcent above the level of the 
country, commanding a profpecr. ex- 
tenfive and delightful : but the houfes 
are as mean as the fituation is pleafant; 
as there is no ftone in the neighbour- 
hood, they are moftly built of clay, and 
huddled together without order or re- 
gularity. The number of the inhabit- 
ants in the town is about 828, in the 
country 1857 ; making the whole po- 
pulation 2685. 

ERSKLNE ; a parifh in the county 
of Renfrew. It is of an oblong form, 
meafuring from E. to W. 6 miles in 
length, and from 3 to 4 in breadth. 
From the Clyde, which forms the 
northern boundary, the ground rifes 
gradually towards the S. producing a 
fuccefilon of gently {welling ridges, of 
inconliderable height. The foil is in 
general light and mallow, of a black 
or gray mould, intermixed with gra- 
vel. The produce of the farms is ra- 
ther feanty, and -many of the farmers 
have found it more productive to al- 
low their lands to remain in pafture. 
Fruit and foreft trees thrive well, parti- 
cularly on the banks of the Clyde. The 
firft fine thread manufactured in the 
kingdom, was by a lady of this parifh, 


of the family of Bargarron, about the 
beginning of the laft century, which 
trade has been kept up in the neigh- 
bourhood ever fince. There are feve- 
ral valuable fi filings on the Clyde. Lord 
r.lantyre's eft ate poifefles 2 or 3 excel- 
lent freeftone quarries ; and there are 
feveral appearances of coal, but the 
fearch has never been fully profecuted. 
Mr/kine, a feat of Lord Blantyre, is a 
fine building, furrounded with exten- 
five parks and plantations. Popula- 
tion in 1792, 808. 

Esk, being evidently a corruption 
of the Gaelic word Uij'g, which figni- 
fies rjuater, is a name applied to many 
rivers in Scotland ; in particular, to 
one jn Dumfriesfhire ; to the North and 
South EJks in Mid-Lothian ; and to the 
North and South EJks in the county of 

Esk, in Dumfriesfhire, rifes in the 
upper extremity of the eaftern diftrict 
of that county, and taking a S. W. 
direction, forms for feveral miles the 
boundary with England, and falls into 
the head of the Sol way Frith. From 
this river the diftrict through which it 
runs has acquired the najpie.-of EJ&d/ffe, 
formerly a lordihip or barony in the 
family of Maxwell, but attainted on 
account of the attachment of that fa- 
mily to the houfe of Stuart. 

Esks (North and South), in 
Mid-Lothian, rife in the borders of 
the county of Peebles, and uniting a- 
bout a mile below the town of Dal- 
keith, fall into the Frith of Fdrth at 

Esk (Inorth), in Forfarfliire, has 
Its fourpeamsngft the Grampian moun- 
tains, on the borders of Aberdeenfhire, 
and running eailward forms the bound- 
ary between Angus and Mearns, pour- 
ing into the German ocean, about % 
miles 1ST. from Montrofe. From it 
the noble family of Carnegie take the 
title of Earl of North Elk. 

Esk (South ), in the fame county, 
alio takes its rife in the Grampians, 
and pafTuig the town of Brechin, falls 
into the ocean at Montrcfe. About 
z miles from its mouth it expands into 
a large bafon, into which the tide 
flows; and contracting oppofite the 
town of Montrofe, a neat wooden 
bridge has been lately erected there, 
on the poll: road from Arbroath to 
that town. There are feveral valuable 
falmou fifhings on the river, and form- 


erly pearls of great value Were found 4 , 
but the muffel beds [mytllus edulis) 
being greatly exhaufted, no fhells have- 
been found old enough to produce the 
pearls. The banks of the river are 
ornamented with many elegant feats, 
of which Brechin-caflle, RoJJte, and Kin- 
naird, are the chief; the latter is the 
refidence of Sir David Carnegie, whofe 
anceftors were denominated from the 
river, Earls of South Efk. 

ESKDALE 5 the eaftern diftrict of 
Dumfriesfhire, through which the ri- 
ver EJk runs. Vide Esk. 

ESKDALEMUIR ; a parifh in the 
county of Dumfries, in that diftrict of 
it to which the Elk gives its name ; it 
is about 11 miles in length, and 8 in 
breadth, extending along the 2 rivu- 
lets, which, united, form the river 
Elk. The furface is mountainous and 
elevated, and only adapted for fheep 
pafture ; but on the banks of the ri- 
vers there are a few meadows or holms, 
which admit of culture. On almoft 
every hill, in the parifh are the marks 
of encampments, fome of which are 
rectangular, and fome of an oval or 
circular form. Population in 1793, 

_ ESSIE and NEVAY ; an united pa- 
rifh in* the county of Angus, occuping 
part of the northern declivity of the 
Sidlaw hills, and part of the valley of 
Strathmore ; containing about 8 fquare 
miles, or 5 130 fquare acreSj about one 
half of which is cultivated. It is walk- 
ed by the river Dean, and by 2 fmall 
rivulets. The foil is various, being a 
fertile loam and clay in the ftrath, de- 
generating in proportion to the eleva- 
tion ; a great part is enclofed and well 
cultivated. There are veftiges of fe- 
veral fortifications, which are afcribed 
to the Romans, but are more probably 
the works of the army of Edward I. 
A fmall vein of filver ore, too inconli- 
derable to be wrought, was difcovered 
feveral years ago in the S. E. corner 
of Effie ; and there is an excellent 
freeftone quarry at the foot of Sidlaw, 
the ftone of which is of a light gray 
colour, and admits of a fine polifh. 
Population in 1793, 630. 

Etie, orE'rivE (Locfit) ; a navi- 
gable inlet of the fea in Argyll 'hire, 
near 20 miles long,, but of very un- 
equal breadth ; its banks are pleafant, 
being indented wit h creeks and bays, 
affording fafe anchorage in any wind 


they are delightfully variegated with 
hills and valleys, meadows, and corn 
iidds, wood and watei", and have fe- 
vcral valuable falmon fifhings, parti- 
cularly at the village of Buna-ive, where 
the lake Awe discharges itfelf into it. 
The extremity of Loch Etive bends 
its courfe in a north-eafterly direction, 
till it terminates in a point, where it 
receives the waters of the Etie river, 
pouring through Glen Etie, a valley 
famous for the residence of Ufnath, 
the father of Nathos, Althos, and 
Ardan, feveral of Offian's heroes- In 
Lock Etive is a fmall ifland, and the 
ruins of a houfe, ftill termed Ealan 
Ufnich, " the ifland of Ufnath." A- 
bout 7 miles from the entry of the 
lake, it contrails into a narrow chan- 
nel, about a mufket-fhot over : this 
place is called Connel, which fignifies 
rage or fury, very defcriptive of it. 
A ridge of uneven and rugged rocks 
here run acrofs two-thirds of the chan- 
nel, and occafion, at particular times 
of the tide, a current flowing with 
dreadful rapidity ; and, when fwelled 
unufually by a fpring-tide, and the 
waters of the Awe, as foon as the 
ebb begins, it difcharges itfelf with a 
violence and noife unequalled by the 
loudeft cataract, and which may be 
heard at the diftance of many miles. 
This celebrated current feems to be 
alluded to by Offian, when he fays, 
" Thefe are not thy mountains, O 
Nathos ! nor is that the roar of thy 
climbing waves." There is a ferry 
at this place, which is fafe at parti- 
cular times of the tide. About % miles 
below, on a promontory almoft in- 
fulated., is the ancient regal refidence 
of Dunftaffnage ; (vide Dunstaff- 
nage.) The mores of Loch Etive are 
* covered with porphyric and granitic 
water-worn pebbles, intermixed with 
great quantities of fhell fand. 

ETTERICK ; a parifh in the county 
of Selkirk, is very extenfive, the ex- 
treme points being diftant 10 miles in 
almoft every direction. The general 
appearance is hilly and mountainous, 
the river Etterick winding through it. 
The foil in the haughs and valleys is 
exceedingly deep and fertile, in a great 
meafure formed by the rich particles 
of earth brought down from the hills, 
and depofited from the waters : not- 
withftanding this fertility, very few 
good crops are raifed, owing to the 


great elevation of the country, and 
the frequency of the rains which pre- 
vent the crops from coming to ma- 
turity. The foil on the hills is moffy, 
and fit only for pafturage. There arj 
two lochs adjoining to one another, 
partly in this parifh, and partly in 
Yarrow, called the loch of the Laaus, 
and 5/. Mary's loch, abounding with 
pike and perch. Numerous flocks of 
fheepare reared in the hills, the higheft 
of which are Ward Law and Etterick 
Penn; the former rifing 1,920 feet a- 
bove the level of the fea, and the latter 
about 2, 2 co. Population in 1 791, 470. 

Etterick Forest comprehends a 
great part of the county of Selkirk ; 
it appears in former times to have 
been covered with trees ; but of thefe 
few veftiges now remain. The pro- 
perty belongs to the crown, who ap- 
points a chamberlain or keeper of the 
foreft to receive the rents. 

Etterick River, takes its rife in 
the parifh of the fame name, and, 
after a winding courfe of 30 miles, 
through fcenes rendered familiar by 
paftoral defcription, receiving the 
ftream of Yarrow near Philip-haugh, 
is abforbed into the Tweed fome miles 
above Melrofe. 

Euchar ; a rivulet in Argyllfhire. 
It takes its rife from Loch Seamyna* 
dale, in the parifh of Kilninver, and 
after a rapid and difturbed courfe 
N. W. falls into the ocean at the 
Sound of Mull. 

Evelicks; a river in the county of 
Sutherland, which falls into the Frith 
of Dornoch. It abounds with trout and 
falmon ; and a fmall fiihing village of 
the fame name is fituated at its mouth. 

EVIE and REND ALL ; an united 
parifh in the mainland of Orkney. 
Vide Pomona. 

EWES ; a parifh in the diflrid of 
Efkdale, Dumfriesfhire. It is about 
8 miles in length from N. to S. and 
its medium breadth is nearly 54 ; it is 
watered by the river Ewes, a tribu- 
tary ftream of the EJk, which it joins 
near Langholm, about 10 miles from 
its fource. The furface is hilly, moftly 
covered with verdure, and fringed 
with thriving plantations, exhibiting 
much picturefque and ftriking fcenery. 
Only a fmall- part is under cultivation, 
the great attention of the farmer being 
the rearing and feeding of fheep. Po- 
pulation in 1791, 320. 



Eye (Loch) ; a fmall lake in the 
pariih of Fearn in Rofs-fhire, about 
two miles long, and half a mile broad. 
From it proceeds the fmall rivulet 
Eye, forming in its courfe a fucceffion 
offmaller lochs, which are much fre- 
quented by aquatic fowls ; it after- 
wards falls into the Moray Frith, near 
the fmall filhing village of Balhitore. 

Eye ; a river in Berwiekfhire, rifes 
in the pariih of Cockburnfpath, and 
taking an easterly courfe through the 
pariih of Ayton and Coldingham, falls 
into the fea at Eyemouth. It abounds 
with trout, and, at particular feafons, 
falmon are caught in it. 

a confiderable town in the county of 
Berwick. It is a borough of barony, 
of which Mr. Home of Wedderburn 
is fuperior and proprietor. At the be- 
ginning of the laft century Eyemouth 
was a fmall fifhing village, which af- 
forded a retreat for fmugglers ; but, 
ihortly after the union, that perni- 
cious trade being much quafhed, the 
gentlemen of the county took advan- 
tage of the excellent natural harbour, 
formed by the river Eye, and erected 
a pier on both fides, by voluntary 
fubfcription : this was executed by 
Mr. Smeaton, who conceived an high 
opinion of the advantageous fitua- 
tion. It lies at the corner of a bay, 

in which (hips can work in and out 
at all times of tide, or lie at anchor 
fecure from all winds, except the N. 
and N. E. : in fuch cafes the harbour 
can be eafily taken, and vefiels of fmall 
burden lie in fafety, defended from 
the impetuohty of the fea by the 
northern pier. Since the erection of 
the harbour, the trade of the town 
has much increafed, and corn and 
meal have been fhipped here to the 
extent of 20,000 bolls annually, and 
in fome years more than double that 
quantity. The coaft abounds with fifh, 
and many fifhing boats are conftantly 
employed. The pariih is fmall, being 
nearly confined to the limits of the 
burgh, containing at. moll only 800 
fquare acres ; the foil is good, and 
produces every fort of grain, of a good 
quality. Upon a fmall promontory 
ftretching out into the lea, are the 
remains of a regular fortification, faid 
to have been erected by the Earl of 
Hertford, afterwards Duke of Somer- 
fet, when going to invade Scotland, 
while he held the regency in the mi- 
nority of Edward VI. Though ail 
the rocks along the coaft are common 
whinftone, yet the rock which com- 
pofes this promontory is a coa.rkpud~ 
dlngjlone. In 1793, the population was 
about 1000. 


FA I R A Y ; one of the Orkney 
iflands, is about a mile long, and 
lefs than half a mile broad ; feparated 
by 2 narrow found from the ifiand of 
Eday. It affords excellent pafture. 

FAIR ISLE ; an ifland lying in the 
middle, betwixt the clutters of Orkney 
and Shetland, the inhabitants of which 
are almoft in a flate of nature. From 
' its fmall fize, and its great diftance 
from the neareft iflands, it in ancient 
times was peculiarly expofed to invad- 
ers. " The natives," fiiys Buchannan, 
" are by far the pooreft of all others; 
for the filhermen from England, Hol- 


land, and other maritime nations, who 
every year frequent thefe feas, feize 
upon, and carry away every thing as 
they pleafe :■" hence, although thefe 
depredations have ceafed, thole ifland- 
ers are Only emerging from the effects 
of fo precarious and diftreffing a con- 
dition, and only beginning to know 
the comforts of a fettled fociety. It 
extends upwards of 3 miles in length, 
and nearly a in breadth ; rifing into 
3 lofty promontories, and encompaff- 
ed with precipitous rocks ; it is every 
where inacceflible, unlefs upon the 
S. E. where, lowering itfelf a little, it 



affords a fafe (ration for imall veffels. 
There are feveral promontories, one 
of which, the Sheep Craig, is nearly in- 
fulated, riGng from the ocean in a co- 
nical fhape to the height of 480 feet. 
The foil is tolerably fertile, and the 
iheep pafture on the hills is excellent, 
and noted for improving the wool. In 
the year 1588, the flag fhip of the 
Duke de Medina Sidonia, the admiral 
of the Spanifh aimada, was wrecked 
on this ifland ; and tradition points 
out the humble refidence of that (hip- 
wrecked nobleman. The ifland is the 
property of Lord Dundas, who draws 
from it about 80I. fterliug of yearly 
rents ; it is reckoned one of the Shet- 
land ifles, and is annexed to the pariih 
of Dunroffhefs, nearly a 5 miles diftant; 
it contains about 220 inhabitants. 

FAIRNTOSH ; a village in Rofs- 
ftiire. Vide Ferrintosh. 

FALA and SOUTRA ; an united 
pariih in the Lothians, of which Fala 
lies in Edinburghfhire, and Soutra in 
the county of Haddington. It com- 
prehends part of the Lammerrnuir 
ridge, of which Soutra-hill is the N. 
W. point, elevated 1000 feet above 
the level of the fea. From the foot of 
this hill the furface is nearly level, 
having a tolerably fertile foil. The 
lands are in general in a ftate of high 
cultivation, and many of them enclofed 
with hedge-rows and ditches, fheltered 
with clumps and belts of planting. 
There are the ruins of an holpital on 
Soutra-hill, founded in n 64, by MaL- 
colm IV. King of Scotland, fcr the re- 
lief of pilgrims, and poor and fickly 
people. Soutra was formerly a very 
confiderable village ; but now there 15 
nothing to mark the happy fpot where 
jt ftood, except a few wretched cot- 
tages, feeble remembrancers of its an- 
cient greatnefs. 

f" Sunk are thy bow'rs in (hapelefs ruin all, 
And the long grafs o'ertops the mould- 
ering wall." 

The pariih is thinly inhabitated, con- 
taining only 372 perfons. 

FALKIRK ; a confiderable town in 
the county of Stirling. It is fituated 
near the river Can-on, on the high road 
from Edinburgh to Glafgow, from 
which cities it is nearly equidiftant ; 
the road alfo to Stirling and the North 
Highlands, paffes through it ; it (lands 
^ippn an eminence, commanding an 

extenfive and delightful profpect of 
the circumjacent country. Falkirk was 
formerly a burgh of regality, under 
the baronial jurifdiclion of the Earls 
of Linlithgow and Callander ; but no 
records are extant of any magiftrates 
having been inverted with the power 
of the burgh, except the bailiff of the 
Earl, who, before hereditary jurifdic- 
tions were aboliihed, had an extenfive 
authority in civil and even criminal 
cafes ; it is now governed by a baron- 
bailie, who is appointed by William 
Forbes, Efq. the lord of the manor. 
This officer can, within the bounds of 
his jurifdiction, enforce the payment 
of rents to any amount, and decide in 
difputes about money affairs, where 
the fum does not exceed al. fterling ; 
he can alfo puniih petty delinquents 
by fine and imprifonment. Falkirk is 
noted for feveral fairs within the year, 
and 3 celebrated tryjls, at which on an 
average there are fold 60,000 black 
cattle, be fides immenfe flocks of (heep, 
and a number of horfes. The town of 
Falkirk contains about 3900 inhabit- 
ants. The pariih is between 7 and 
8 miles in length from E. to W. and 
in fome places more than 4 in breadth ; 
it is watered by the Carron on the N. 
near which lies the extenfive carfe of 
Falkirk, celebrated for its fertility. 
The pariih is exceedingly level, ex* 
cept the eminence on which the town 
is fituated. The great canal interferes 
it ; and numerous villages have been 
built in its neighbourhood, within the 
bounds of this pariih : of thefe, Grange-* 
mouth, Camelon, Eriansford, and Lau- 
riejlon, are the chief; the population 
of which, taken along with that of the 
town, amounts to upwards of 8000. 
The Carron works are alfo in the 
neighbourhood, though not exactly in 
the parochial diftricT: of Falkirk. This 
town, on the 17th January, 1746, was 
the fcene of an engagement betwixt 
the royal and the rebel army, in which 
the latter were defeated, and retreat 
ing northward, were at length totally 
diiperfed at the battle of Culloden. 

FALKLAND ; a town in theeounty 
of Fife, noted for being once the refi- 
dence of the Scottifh kings. It was 
erected into a burgh by King James 
II. in the year 1458, and its charter 
was renewed in 1595, by King James 
VI. " to obviate," as the preamble 
dates, " the damage and inconvenience 
I X 3 


fuftained for want of innkeepers and 
victuallers, by themany prelates, peers, 
barons, nobles, and others of their fub- 
jects, who came to their country-feat." 
In this charter is ftated the right of 
holding a weekly market, and 4 pub- 
lic fairs annually. The government 
is vefted in 3 bailies, 14 counfellors, a 
treafurer, and town clerk, who are 
ielf-elected. The revenue of the burgh 
is communibus annis, from iool. to 1 iol. 
itcrling per annum. The town is neatly 
built, and plentifully fupplied with 
fine water by leaden pipes ; it carries 
on a confiderable manufacture of coarfe 
linens and ofnaburghs. Contiguous to 
the town is a village called Ball'wbrae, 
making the whole population 1057. 
The parifh of Falkland is nearly of a 
fquare form, containing about 10,000 
acres : towards the N. is a confider- 
able plain or flat, called the Park of 
Falkland, about a mile and a half 
fquare, from which the furface gra- 
dually rifes on the S. to that hilly ridge 
which forms the Lomonds: the fides of 
thefe hills are fkirted with furze and 
heath, above which they exhibit a 
beautiful verdure at all feafons, riling 
to a conical fummit, called the Bajlcrn 
Lomond. The whole ridge affords, in 
moft places, excellent pafture, inter- 
fperfed here and there with abrupt and 
rugged mafles of freeftone rock, and 
loofe heaps of blue muirftone. The 
foil is partly a light brown loam, part 
fand and gravel, but by far the greater 
part is a deep, mofs, containing the 
roots of oak and other trees. Befides 
the town of Falkland, and the conti- 
guous fuburb of BaUinbrae, the parifh 
contains 2 other villages, Newton and 
Freuchie, which, together, contain a- 
bout 650 inhabitants. The Eaftern 
Lomond contains limeltone, fmall 
quantities of coal, and an ore of lead ; 
marl is alfo found; and fmall quantities 
oifteaiites. The moft remarkable an- 
tiquity is the palaceof Falkland, which, 
for many years, was the occaiional re- 
fidence of the royal family of Scot- 
land. It is completely ruinous, but 
the family of Skene of Hallyards, are 
heritable keepers of this royal demefne. 
There are the remains of feveral en- 
campments, one of which is on the 
fummit of the Eaftcrn Lomond. In 
1 791, the parifh of Falkland contained 
5198 inhabitants. 
Falloch; a river in Dumbarton- 


fhire, which takes its rife amongft the 
Lennox hills, and, after a rapid courfe 
through the vale to which it gives the 
name of Glenfallocb, falls into Loch 

Fannich (Loch) ; a lake in Rofs- 
fliire ; is about 9 miles in length, and 
from 1 to ii in breadth. It difcharges 
itfelf by a fmall river called Grudie, 
into Loch Lichart, which empties itr. 
felf by the river Connon into the Frith 
of Cromarty. 

FAR ; a mountainous parifh in the 
county of Sutherland, extending about 
30 miles in length, the breadth varying 
from 3 to 14. The foil is in general 
barren and fhallow, but on the banks 
of the river Naver and Borgie it is 
deep, and tolerably fertile. The ex-, 
tent of feacoaft is 11 miles; the fh ore 
is high and rocky, and confifts of 
Strathy-head and bay, Armdale bay, 
Far-head and bay, and other fmaller 
promontories and bays. The whole 
coaft is excavated into extenfive caves, 
affording retreat to immenfe numbers 
of feals. Loch Naver is the principal 
lake in the dinricT:, and there are feve- 
ral fmaller lakes, from which fmall ri- 
vulets take their rife. There are feve- 
ral Pictifh caftles, and a ruin on the 
promontory, of Far-bead. Population 
in 1790, 3600. 

Fare Hill, in the parifh of Mid- 
Marr in Aberdeenfnhe, rifes from a 
bafe of 16 miles in circumference, to 
the height of 1793 feet above the level 
of the fea. 

Farg ; a fmall river in Pertbfhire. 
It takes its rife in the Ochil hills, and 
runs a confiderable way r in a deep and 
narrow glen, before it ifTues into the 
plain of Stratherne : after a courfe of 
7 miles directly N. it bends towards 
the E. and, fhortly after, lofes itfelf 
in the river Earn, at a place to which 
it gives the name of Culfargie. It a- 
bounds with fine trout, and is the 
fcene of agreeable amufement to the 
angler in the proper feafon. 

Far-out-head; averyconfpicuous 
promontory in the parifh of Durnefs, 
in the county of Sutherland. It forms 
the W. border of Loch Eribole, and is 
diftant about 14 miles E. from Cape 

Farrar ; a fmall river in Rofs-fhire, 
which is one of the principal branches 
of the Beauty. 

FEARN; a parifh of fmall extent 



in the county of Rofs, forming a fquare 
of about 2 miles. The furface is nearly 
flat, with the exception of a few emi- 
nences, which are all capable of culti- 
vation. In the center of the parifh 
the foil is a deep loam ; towards the 
S. and W. it is a rich clay ; the N. 
and E. is gravellifh and fandy. Loch 
Eye occupies the central diftricT:, and 
furniihes water to fupply 3 or 4 mills. 
The coaft of the Moray Frith, which 
forms the boundary on the S. E. is 
flat and fandy for about a mile, on 
which are fituated the fmall fifhing 
towns of Balintore and Hilltown ; the 
remainder of the coaft is bold and 
rocky. Free/tone abounds in feveral 
places, but no other mineral has been 
discovered. The village of Fearn is 
fituated near the fite of the old abbey, 
which is a ruin of great antiquity : 
the caflle of LochUn is alfo a remark- 
able building ; it has ftood upwards 
of 500 years, and mull have been al- 
moft impregnable before the invention 
of artillery. There is another very 
ancient ruin at GadboU, of which no- 
thing remains but a few vaults, and 
the fide walls. It is faid that the famous 
lawyer, Sir George Mackenzie, King's 
advocate in the reign of Charles II. 
was born in the caitle of Lochlin. In 
1 791, the parifh of Fearn contained 
1600 inhabitants. 

FENWICK ; a parifh in Ayrfhire, 
about 9 miles long from W. and 
6 miles broad. The furface is broken, 
though none of the eminences are of 
great elevation: thewhole foil ismoffy; 
but, towards the weftern border, to- 
lerably fruitful, and well cultivated. It 
is watered by 2 fmall rivulets, which 
riling in the muirs of Eaglefham, in- 
ttrfect the parifh of Fenwick,- and, 
uniting near the town of Kilmarnock, 
runs into the river Irvine, a few miles 
before it falls into the fea. The vil- 
lage of Fenquick-lovjn is pleafantly fi- 
tuated on the banks of one of thefe 
rivulets ; it is chiefly inhabited by 
weavers, and a bleachfield is fhortly 
to be eftablifhed ; it contains nearly 
200 inhabitants. Coal is found in 
fmall quantities, and there is abund- 
ance of free and limeftone : in the 
quarries of the laft are found petrified 
fhells, and other relics of the ancient 
inhabitants of the ocean. Population 
in 1795, 12S1. 

FERGUS (St.) a parifh fituated in 

that part of the djftrict of Buchan, 
which belongs to the county of Banff. 
It is bounded on the E. by the German 
ocean, and on the S. by the fmall river 
Ugie, which feparates it from Peter- 
head. The furface exhibits an alter- 
nate fucceflion of riling grounds and 
valleys, having a rich clay foil, which, 
when properly cultivated, is abund- 
antly fertile. The coaft is bold and 
rocky ; part of the rocks being excel- 
lent limeftone, and part granite, eafily 
quarried. There is a farmon fifhing 
on the Ugie, the property of Mr. Fer- 
gufon of Pitfour, which lets at icoh 
fterling per annum. The bleachfield 
of Meff. Scott and Co. at Inverugle, 
employs a number of hands ; and, at 
the fame place, Mr. Seller carries on 
a porter and beer brewery with fuccefs. 
A confiderable quantity of fine yarn 
is fpun in the parifh. The great Field 
Marfhal Keith was born at Inverugie- 
ca/ile, in the year 1696 ; a general of 
the higheft military talents which this 
country has produced. Population 
in 1794, 1240. 

FERN; a parifh in the county of 
Angus ; extending about 5 miles in 
length from N. to S. and about 2 in 
breadth from E. to W. at the foot of 
the Grampian hills. The greater part 
of the furface has a light loamy foil, 
with a good expofnre ; but a few 
fields are of a deep clay. The flieep 
farms in the hills afford excellent rich 
pafture to numerous flocks of fheep ; 
it is wafhed by the fmall rivulets 
Crutch and Noran, the latter of which 
is noted for the purity of its ftream. 
There is a blue flate quarry, which is 
fometimes wrought. Population in 
1791, 500. 

FERNELL ; a parifh in the county 
of Angus. Its extent is 3 miles in 
length, and 2 in breadth ; fituated on 
the S. bank of the river South Elk, 
about 3 miles S. E.frorn Brechin. The 
low ground on the banks of the river 
is fertile, having a fine clay and loam}' 
foil, capable of producing any kind of 
grain ; the higher grounds are rather 
of an inferior quality, being compofed 
of black earth, inclining to mofs. Ex- 
cept a fmall eftate of about 100 acres, 
the whole parifh belongs to Sir Da- 
vid Carnegie, Bart, of South Elk, who 
has his refidence at Khmaird-cajtie, an, 
ancient and extenfive building, lately 
modernized in a fuperb and princely 



ftyle. The policies are laid out with 
great tafte, and the extenfive planta- 
tions around it are in a thriving ftate. 
Not far from the church is an old caf- 
tle, once the relidence of the anceflors 
of the family of Airly. Population in 
1791, 620. 

FERRINTOSH ; a village and ba- 
rony in the parifh of Urquhart, in Rofs- 
ihire, the inhabitants of which long 
poffeffed the exclufive privilege of di- 
ftflling whiiky, without being under 
the excife laws ; but this privilege was 
rt fumed by government in 1786, and 
the fuperior of the barony allowed a- 
bout 20,000!. as a compenfation. 

village in the county of Fife, iituated 
at the mouth of the Tay, about 4 miles 
below Dundee. It has its name from 
its local fituation, having been a well 
frequented ferry before the bridge of 
Perth was built. The parifh of Ferry- 
Port-on-Craig extends from the Tay 
S. 5 miles in length, and the breadth 
varies from half a mile to a mile along 
the banks of that river. The fhore is 
partly fand, and partly rocky : and 
the foil varies from clay to loam, with 
an intermixture of fand. A confider- 
able quantity of brown linens is ma- 
nufactured, the weavers being chiefly 
employed by the merchants of Dun- 
dee. The parifh contains 920 inhabit- 
ants, of .which 730 live in the village. 

Fessie ; a fmall river in the diftricT: 
of Badenocb, in Invernefs-fhire, which 
falls into the Spey near the church of 

FETLAR ; one of the mcft north- 
erly of the Shetland ifles. It is about 
4 miles in length, and 3% in breadth, 
with a tolerably fertile foil of loam 
and fand, producing barley, oats, and 
other corn very abundantly. There 
is on this ifland a confiderable quantity 
of that ore of iron which is called bog- 
ore, of a very rich quality : there are 
alfo fome veins of copper ore, and 
there is every reafon to fuppofe that, 
by a careful fearch, plumbago or b'ack 
lead would be found ; two or three 
rocks afford fome- fpecimens of fila- 
mentous afoejlos ; another rock con- 
tains Jleatites, or rock foap, and there 
are feyeral fmall veins of limeftone : 
garnets are fometimes found near the 
center of the ifland. It contains nearly 
800 inhabitants. 
FETTERANGUS 5 a fmall village 

in Buchan, in Aberdeenfhire, the pro- 
perty of Mr. Fergufon of Pitfour, 
M. P. It carries on a fmall trade in the 
making of linen, checks, and linfey- 
woolfey fluffs ; it contains about 200 

FETTERCATRN ; a parifh in the 
county of Kincardine. It lies at the 
foot of the lower tier of the Grampian 
mountains, extending a confiderable 
length into the how or hollow of the 
Meams, containing by accurate mea- 
furement 14,359 Englifh acres. The 
ground on the W. is light and fharp, 
with a fmall mixture of mofs ; on the 
E. it becomes deeper, confifting of a 
fertile clayey loam. The greater part 
is enclofed with hedge and ditch, or 
ftone fences ; and, of late, a great 
quantity of trees, of various kinds, 
have been planted. The greateft ex-> 
ertions in this way has been made on 
the eftates of Wotton and Burn, by the 
late General Lord Adam Gordon. On 
the laft eftate his Lordfhip has built 
an elegant houfe, at a fmall diftance 
from the North Efk river, by the fide 
of which he has laid out fome extent 
five and romantic walks : the policies 
contain about 600 acres of thriving 
plantation on a rude and barren fpot, 
formerly covered with heath and mofs. 
A romantic bridge, called Gannachy 
bridge-, is thrown over the North Efk, 
the foundations of which ftand on 
two ftupendous rocks, elevated to a 
great height above the furface of the 
river. About a mile W. from the vil- 
lage of Fettercairn is an old ruin, cal- 
led Fenmllaa' 's-cajile, where, it is faid, 
Kenneth III. King of Scotland was 
murdered. In 1790, the population 
was about 2000. 

FETTERESSO ; a parifh in Kin- 
cardinefhire, about 10 miles long, and 
between 5 and 6 broad, containing 
24,914 fquare acres; 8000 of which 
are arable, the reft muiry or mofiy, 
upon a hard ftony bottom, which, 
however, is now planted with a variety 
of thriving trees, which add confider- 
ably to the beauty of the country. It 
is watered by the fmall rivers Cowie 
and Carron, near the former of which 
ftands the manfion-houfe of Mr. Bar- 
clay of Urie, furrounded with an ex- 
tenfive plantation : about 2 miles S. 
W. from Urie, is the manfion-houfe 
of Fcttereffb, the residence of the far. 
mily of Marifchal, previous to the at* 



tainder, and now the property of Mr. 
Duff; Derides thefe, there are elegant 
modern houfes on the eftates of Ne- 
therby, Mucbals, and Elfich. The fea 
coaft is bold and rocky, pofTeffing only 
one bay, where fiihing- boats can lie 
in fafety. Near Stonehaven, which lies 
on the immediate border of the parifli, 
Mr. Barclay has lately begun to feu a 
regular village, confining of % parallel 
and crofs ftreets, with a fquare of % 
acres in the middle : the houfes are 
well built, and covered with flates, 
and the inhabitants have the advan- 
tage of the harbour of Stonehaven for 
carrying on manufactures. On the hill 
called Rhi Dikes, or King's Dikes, the 
veftiges of a rectangular encampment 
are very diftinct ; and in every part of 
the parifli are the remains of druidi- 
cal temples. In 1793, the population 
of Fetterefib was 3370. 

Feugh ; a fmall rivulet in Kincar- 
dinefliire, a tributary ftream of the 

Fi&dich, or Feddich ; a consider- 
able river in Banffshire, which unites 
its waters with the Spey, in the parilh 
of Boharm. Its banks are very plea- 
fant, and Fiddhh/ide is fertile to a pro- 
verb in that country. 

FIDDRIE; a fmall ifland in the 
mouth of the Frith of Forth, oppoiite 
to the village of Dirleton. On it are 
the ruins of a building, defigned either 
for a chapel, or a lazaret for the iick. 

Fife-ness ; the eafternmoft point 
of land in Fifefhire, which projects 
into the German ocean, between the 
Friths of Tay and Forth : from it a 
ridge of rocks, called the Car-rocks, 
project a coniiderable way into the fea, 
rendering it very dangerous to ma- 

FIFESHIRE. This extenfive and 
populous county is a fort of peninfula, 
lying between the Friths of Tay and 
Forth ; bounded on the N. and N. E. 
by the Frith of Tay, which divides it 
from Perth and Angus ; on the S. by 
the Frith of Forth, which feparates it 
from the Lothians; the German ocean 
bounds it on the E. ; and on the W. 
it borders with the counties of Perth 
and Kinrofs, and a fmall corner of 
Clackmannan. It extends about 60 
miles in length from Culrofs to Fife- 
nefc, and is about 18 in breadth ; 
comprehending a luperficies of nearly 
480 fquare miles. The face of the 

country is agreeably diverfiiied ; to- 
wards the W. it is mountainous, and 
a ridge of hills extends eaftward al- 
moft its whole length, occupying the 
central diftrict ; towards the N. and 
S. the furface gradually defcends to 
the Friths, exhibiting the moil beauti- 
ful and enlivening profpect of fertile 
and well cultivated fields : woods and 
plantations abound through the whole; 
the hills are covered with flieep, whole 
wool is in high eftimation. Great im- 
provements have been lately made in 
agriculture ; and the farms, efpecialJv 
on the N. declivity, are rented exceed- 
ingly high. It is watered by feveral 
ftreams, none of which deferve the 
name of rivers, except the Eden and 
Le-ven ; the former of which empties 
itfelf into the ocean at St. Andrews, 
and the latter at the village of Leven ; 
both thefe rivers abound with trout 
and falmon ; and on no coaft of Scot- 
land is the white fiihing more produc- 
tive than on the Fife coaft. From its 
fituation, it muft have been very early 
inhabited ; the fiftiings, the coal mines, 
the harbours, and other advantages for 
navigation, muft have attracted fet- 
tlers, and the coaft would be hrft peo- 
pled and beft cultivated, while the 
interior would be more neglected: this 
appears to have been the cafe, when 
King James VI. compared the county 
to a gray mantle with a gold fringe. 
The whole coaft is covered with fmall 
burghs, which that monarch regard- 
ed with particular attention, and very 
early in his reign endeavoured to rend- 
er them fubfervient to his wifhes, of 
raifmg Scotland high in the world as a 
commercial nation ; he granted them 
many privileges and immunities, and 
encouraged the inhabitants by every 
means in his power, to profecute the 
advantages which, by their local fitua- 
tion, they poffeffed; indeed, the muni- 
cipal privileges which they received 
from that monarch, though rendered 
unimportant by the union with Eng- 
land, will long remain a monument of 
his political fagacity and difcernment, 
both which were greater than they are 
commonly reprefented to have been. 
The county can boaft of pofTefiing fe- 
veral ancient feats of royalty: at Dun- 
fermline, at Falkland, at Kinghorn, 
and at St. Andrews, veftiges of royal 
fplendour are ftill to be feen. It con- 
tains 13 royal boroughs, which poffefs 



parliamentary reprefentation, and fe-1 
vtrals which have loft that privilege ' 
from their being unable to defray the ; 
cxpence which attended the fending a j 
commissioner to the Scottifh parha- j 
ment. The 13 parliament towns are, 
Cupar., St. Andrews, Inverkeith- 
ing,Dumferm line, Burntisland, 
Kinghorn, Kirkcaldy, Dysart, 


kr and Easter, Kilrenny, and 
Crail. Of thofe which retain all 
their privileges, except that of fend- 
ing members to parliament, we may 
mention Auchtermucbty, Stratbmiglo, 
Neivbitrgb, Falkland, Kilconqubar, Elze, 
Earhferry, Sec. which, indeed, are only 
fma.ll towns, but deferve notice, from 
their former importance. To the coun- 
ty alfo belongs the fmall iflands of May 
and Inchgarvic; (vide May and Inch- 
garvie.) There are few large eftates 
in Fifefhire, 'it being moftly divided 
into fmall districts, on which the pro- 
prietors have their reiidences ; to at- 
tempt an enumeration of the. principal 
feats would be incompatible with our 
work. From this minute division of 
the land, however, it is worthy of re- 
mark, that in no county in Scotland 
is land of greater value ; few eftates 
being fold at lefs than 25 or 30 years 
pnrchafe. It is divided into 63 paro- 
chial districts, aud contains, by the 
late enumeration in 1801, 93,71.3 in- 
habitants, being nearly 196 to the 
Square mile; a much greater propor- 
tion than is to be found in any other 
county in Scotland. It was anciently 
an earldom in the Macduff family, 
created by Malcolm III. for the fer- 
vices performed by the Thane of Fife, 
in reftoring him to the throne of Scot- 
land, when ufurped by Macbeth. That 
title having expired, it was lately re- 
vived in the Duffs of Braco, lateral 
defcendents of the ancient family : the 
ruins of the residences of that power- 
ful nobleman are ftill evident in many 
parts of the county. The whole of 
the S. fide lies upon coal, and many 
pits are wrought on every part of the 
Cirift : in many places is excellent 
limeftone ; and fome marl is found in 
the district : ironftone,. of excellent 
quality, i: found in the weftern and 
middle quarters, and much is forged 
jr. the diftrict, or exported to the Car- 
ron works. Lead ore is found in the 
■Eqftern Lomond^ one of the two coni- 

cal hills which rife nearly in the mid- 
dle of the county, and are feen at i 
great diftance: in Kembackparifh alfo, 
lead ore has been wrought : at Bal- 
merino beautiful pebbles have been 
found, fome of which are ftriped, and 
fome of the fortification appearance : 
a few agates have alio been found in 
the Eden near Cupar, which have been 
much admired by lapidaries : near 
Earhferry, rubies of a fine water have 
been found ; and, in the poffeffion of 
Lady Anftruther, is a pair of buckles, 
mounted with the fame precious (tone, 
found in the neighbourhood of Ely- 
houfe, the feat of Sir John Anftruther. 
In the limeftone quarries of Innertiel, 
in the parifh of Abbots'-hall, the Spe- 
cimens of petrified (hells, entrcchij 
cornua ammonh, patelLe, and oculei 
echinorwn, are Angularly beautiful, 
and have obtained places in the ca- 
binets of the curious: other limeftone 
quarries alfo contain the fame marine 
exwuia, though in a lefs perfect ftate. 
The valued rent, as ftated in the 
county books, is 362,584]. 7s. jd« 
Scots, and the real land rent is efti- 
mated at 174,000!. fterling. The coun- 
ty of Fife fends one member to par- 

Fillan ; a river in Perthfhire. It 
takes its rife on the borders of Argyll- 
shire, and winding a circuitous courfe 
of 8 or 9 miles through a valley to 
which it gives the name of Strathfillan, 
falls into Loch Dochart ; and, as this 
communicates with Loch Tay, from 
whence the Tay takes its rife, Fillan 
is generally confidered as the head of 
that large river. 

Find haven ; a hill in the parifh of 
Oathlaw, in the county of Angus, is 
elevated about 1500 feet above the 
level of the adjacent country. On its 
fummit are the remains of an exten- 
sive fortification, and towards the N. 
fide it afiumes fomewhat of a bafaltic 

Findhorn, oi"Findhern; a river 
in the counties of Invernefs, Nairn, 
and Moray. It takes its rife in the 
hills, betwixt thofe diftricls of Inver- 
nefs-fhire called Slraiberrig and Strath- 
earn, above 50 miles from the fea: 
alter traverfing, with amazing rapid- 
ity, a tract of mountain otis country, 
in a courfe nearly from S.W. to N.E. 
it dMcharges itfelf into the Moray 
Frith, about 4 miles below Forres, at 



3. fmall bay and village to which it 
gives its name. Over this dangerous 
river there are only 3 bridges from its 
fource to the fea : one upon the mi- 
litary road from Aviemore to Inver- 
nefs, and the other at Dulcy, upoh 
the military road from Grantown to 
Fort George. It abounds with trout 
and falmon, and is navigable for fmall 
veffels as far as the tide flows. 

FINDOCHTIE; a fifhing village in 
the parifh of Rathven, in Banffihire. 
It was fettled as a fifhing ftation in 
I716 ; it is now the property of the 
Earl of Findlater, and contains about 
170 inhabitants. 

Finlagan (Loch) ; a lake in the 
center of the ifland of Ilia, about 3 
miles in circumference. It abounds 
with falmon and trout, and diicharges 
itfelf into the ocean at Lagan bay, by 
a rivulet of the fame name. On an 
ifland within the lake are the ruins of 
an ancient caftle, where Macdonald, 
Lord or rather King of the Ifles, fre- 
quently refided, and made the feat of 
his government. 

FINTRAY ; a parifh in the county 
of Aberdeen ; it extends nearly 5 miles 
in length, and from 3 to 4 in breadth, 
containing about 10,000 acres. The 
furfa.ce is hilly, but in the low grounds, 
particularly on the banks of the Don, 
the foil is rich and fertile ; the back 
parts of the parifh have an inferior 
foil, confifting partly of peat mofs, 
and partly of muir, interfperfed with 
patches of arable land, fome of which 
have a ftrong clayfoil. Nearly 300 acres 
are covered with plantations, on the 
eftates of Sir William Forbes, and Mr. 
Skene of Skene. The Don often over- 
flows its banks, and, fome years, has 
done a great deal of damage. Popu- 
lation in 1791, 9:0. 

FINTRY ; a parifh in the county 
of Stirling ; lituated in the midft of 
that range of hills which reaches from 
Stirling to Dumbarton, andbehind that 
particular diitrid: of them, ufually de- 
nominated the Campfie Fells. The 
general appearance is hilly ; but the 
hills are fmall, covered with verdure, 
and their fhapes are finely diverfified: 
the only inhabited parts are a fmall 
valley on the banks of the Carron, 
and another on the Endrick, but the 
parifh extends nearly 5 miles in length, 
and 4 in breadth. Near the fouthern 
extremity, the Carron bog or meadow 

commences, the largeft, perhaps, ifl 
Scotland, containing about 5000 acres 
in one continued plain, affording ex- 
cellent meadow hay in fummer, and 
in winter affuming the appearance of 
a beautiful lake. The valley in which 
the Endrick vans has been lately plant- 
ed, and the extenfive plantations a- 
round the manfion of Culcruich are a 
great ornament to the country. The 
arable foil is light, quick, and fertile, 
and when enriched with good manure, 
produces excellent crops. A new vil- 
lage has been lately eredted for the ac- 
commodation of the people employed 
in the cotton works lately built on the 
banks of the Endrick. The Endrick 
and Carron take their rife in this pa- 
rifh, and form feveral romantic falls 
in their courfe through it. Near the 
village of Fintry is a hill called the 
Dun or Down, in which is a very fu- 
perb range of bafaltic columns: this 
range confifts of 70 perpendicular pil- 
lars in front, 50 feet in length : fome 
of them are apparently without joints 
from top to bottom ; others contain 
feveral joints, and are eafily feparable 
into loofe blocks: fome of the columns 
are fquare, others hexagonal and pen- 
tagonal ; towards the E. end of the 
range the columns hand feparated 
from one another 3 or 4 inches ; on the 
W. fide the bafaites does not aflume 
a regular form, but ends gradually in 
a mafs of cellular or honey-comb lava* 
The whole mountain abounds with 
iron ore. In 1793, Fintry contained 
543 inhabitants. 

Firmonth ; the higheft mountain 
in the foreft of Glentanar, in Aber- 
deenfhire, is elevated about 2500 feet 
above the level of the fea, and com- 
mands a profpeel of Aberdeen, Mon- 
trofe, and Arbroath, with the mouth 
of Tay* 

FIRTH and STENNESS ; a parifh 
in Pomona, or the Mainland of Orkney. 
Vide Pomona. 

FISHER-ROW ; a fuburb of the 
town of Muffelburgh, from which it 
I is feparated by the river EJk. It is 
' moftly inhabited by fiihers and their 
j wives, who carry the filh in creels to 
J Edinburgh, and are particularly di- 
i ftinguilhed for their ftrength, activity, 
I and laborious exertions ; (vide Mus- 
selburgh and Inveresk.) The fu- 
burb of Fifher-row contains about 
i 1800 inhabitants. 


Fithie (Loch) ; a beautiful lake, 
about a mile in circumference, in the 
parifh of Forfar, Angus-fhire. It is 
the property of George Derhpfter, 
Efq. of Dunnichen, who has ereeled 
on its banks a neat cottage, as a fum- 
mer-houfe or boudoir. 

FLADDA ; a fmall ifland of the 
Hebrides, about 6 miles diftant from 
the ifk' of Sky. It is about 2 miles in 
circumference, and its coafts abound 
with fiih. 

FLANNAN ISLES are about 7 or 
8 in number, about 12 miles N. W. 
from the ilk of Sky. They are not 
inhabited, but are noted for fattening 
iheep : t&ey are fuppofed to be the 
bifida: facra of ancient writers, and to 
have been the refidence of the druids, 
from the number of druidical edifices 
which ftill remain. 

Fleet ; a river in the ftew.irtry of 
Kirkcudbright. It takes its rife from 
a lake of the fame name in the moun- 
tainous part of that county, and, after 
a meandering courfe through the Tale 
of Fleet, palling the large and popu- 
lous village of Gatehoufe, falls into the 
Solway Frith near the church of Tyne- 
holme. The vale of Fleet is beautiful 
for many miles above Gatehoufe ; 
rough heath-clad hills, indeed rife on 
each fide ; but the lower declivities, 
and the intermediate plain, are fertile, 
well cultivated, and adorned with 
large tracts of wood. The lrenery is 
picturefque in a high degree; and few 
rivers, even in the Highlands, poffefs 
fcenes of greater wildnefs, which are 
here contrafted with the beauties of 
cultivation. About 5 miles above Gate- 
houfe, on the eaftern fide of the river, 
is Gamftrndden, the elegant hunting- 
feat of Mr. Murray ; and, on the 
weftern fide, nearly oppofite, is the 
ancient tower of Rufco, formerly the 
refidence of the Vifcounts ofKenmure. 
Eelow Gatehoufe, the appearance is 
no lefs beautiful : within the compafs 
of one landfcape are feen that populous 
village, the houfes of Bardarrocb, Ard- 
nvell, and Calk; the caftle of Cardonefs, 
with a fertile country, interfperfed 
with cottages, farm-houfes, and clumps 
of planting, with the church of Tyne- 
horrjfle, and the Fleet opening into the 
expanded Frith. There is a handfome 
bridge over" the river at Gatehoufe, to 
which it is navigable for fmall veffels. 
It contains ialmon in great abundance. 


FLISK ; a parifh in the county of 
Fife, fituated on the river Tay, op- 
pofite to the Caife of Gowrie, extends 
about 3 miles in length, and 1 in 
breadth. The furface is level, with 
the exception of one hill, called Nor*> 
man's Law, from which the profpecl 
is very extenfive : the foil is fertile, 
and well adapted for the culture of 
wheat. On the weftern diftrict ftands 
the caftle of BaUnbrieck, an ancient 
edifice, approaching faft to ruin, and 
which was long the refidence of the 
Rothes family. On the fummit of 
Norman's Law are the remains of an 
entrenchment. Population in 1791^ 

FLOTA ; one of the Orkney ifles. 
It is 5 miles long, and 3^ broad, moft 
of it encompaffed with high rocks ; 
its heaths afford excellent iheep paf- 
ture, and abound with land fowl ; it 
contains, with the fmall adjoining 
iflandsofFARA, Cava, and Gransey, 
about 240 inhabitants. 

FOCHABERS; a fmall town in the- 
parifh of Bellie, fituated in the county 
of Moray on the W. bank of the ri- 
ver Spey. Formerly the town was in 
the neighbourhood of Gordon-cattle, 
but was lately removed about a mile 
S. to a rifing ground, and built on a 
neat plan, having a fquare in the cen- 
ter, and ftreets entering it at right 
angles. The town is a burgh of ba- 
rony, governed by a baron-bailie, ap- 
pointed by the Duke of Gordon, who 
is fuperior ; it is very thriving, and is 
yearly increafmg in lize. The number 
of inhabitants in 1796 was 935. 

FODDERTY; a parifh in the coun- 
ties of Rofs and Cromarty. It is 
chiefly fituated in a valley furrounded 
with high hills, interfered through its 
whole length by the fmall rivulet 
Peffer, from which the valley derives 
the name of Strathpeffer : this valley 
is nearly 2 miles long, and half a mile 
broad ; but there are farms in the pa- 
rifh which extend much farther a- 
mongft the mountains, fome of which 
equal many of the hills in Scotland 
for height. Benevis is one of the moft 
elevated, and on KnockfaUaric is one 
of thofe vitrified forts, the erection of 
which tradition afcribes to Fingal. 
The foil is tolerable, but the old me- 
thod of cropping is generally followed 
by all claffes of the farmers : fome at-' 
tempts have been made towards alter- 


ipg the fyftem of farming, but have 
always been checked for want of en- 
couragement, none of the proprietors 
allowing their tenants to derive any 
advantage from their improvements, 
or offered any affiftance towards car- 
rying them on. There are feveral ap- 
pearances of coal mints, and fome 
Strata have been difcovered of fcbijlus, 
ftrongly impregnated with bitumen, 
extremely inflammable ; but no ftra- 
tum of importance has yet been dif- 
covered. There are feveral fulphure- 
ous mineral fprings, which are reforted 
to for ftomachic complaints. Popula- 
tion in 1792, 1730. 

FOGO ; a pariih in the county of 
Berwick. It is of a regular oblong- 
figure, extending 6 miles in length 
from E. to W. and between 3 and 4 
miles in breadth ; it is interfered by 
the river Blackadder, and fome of its 
tributary ftreams. The foil is of two 
kinds : the firft, a rich deep loam, 
comprehending the banks of the river, 
and a confiderable tradt on each llde ; 
the other is a light muirifh loam, on 
a cold tilly bed, naturally w r et, but j 
tolerably productive in dry feafons. 
The whole is arable, except a few 
acres of fwampy ground. At a village 
called Chejiers, are the traces of a Ro- 
man encampment very much defaced. 
Fogo contained in 1797, 450 inhabit- 

FORBES ; apariminAberdeenfhire, 
united to Kearn, in forming a paro- 
chial diftrict. Thefe, united, are about 
6^ miles in length, and 2 in breadth, 
lying on the banks of the Don and 
Bogie. The greater part is muir and 
uncultivated, and feveral of the moun- 
tains rife to a confiderable height : 
Cakoar and Correen are elevated nearly 
1200 feet above the Don, which flows 
at their feet. There is one limeftone 
quarry, but the want of fuel renders 
it of little value. Driminner, the an- 
cient feat of the family of Forbes, ap- 
pears to have been built about the 
middle of the 16th century ; it is the 
only feat in the pariih. Forbes is thinly 
inhabited, containing only 370 perfons. 
FORDICE ; a pariih in the county 
of Banff. It lies on the lea coaft, in a 
triangular figure, each fide being nearly 
5 miles in length : the general appear- 
ance is flat, with frequent inequalities 
or rifmg grounds, none of which de- 
lerve the name of hills, except the 


Knock hill, which is the boundary with 
the pariih of Grange, and two conti- 
guous eminences, called the hills of 
Fordice and Durn. Except the two 
fmall bays of Po r r s o y and Sanden p, 
the coad is very bold and rocky ; at- 
tached to the rocks are corallines, and 
fometimesfamplesof corals and fponge 
have been filhed up. The lea weed 
is very abundant, and is much ufed as 
a manure. The Kirktown of Fordice, 
iituated about half a mile from the fea, 
was erected into a burgh of barony in 
1499, at the requeft of Elphinlton 
Bifliop of Aberdeen ; the fuperiority 
of which is now vefted in the Earl of 
Findlater. Befides this village, Port- 
foy is a confiderable trading and fifhing 
town, fituated at the bottom of a bay 
of the fame name, and at the bay of 
Sanclend is a tolerable fiihing village. 
At Portfoy is found that fpecies of 
jafper called Portfoy marble, which is 
quarried and manufactured into chim- 
ney-pieces, funeral ornaments, Sec. The 
quarryis very exten five, running nearly 
4 miles in length. The hill of Durn 
feems to be compofed entirely of mar- 
ble, and a very white quartz, fimilar 
to the petunfe of the Pentland hills. 
There afe inexhauftible quarries of 
excellent limeftone, and near Sandend 
great hopes have been entertained of 
finding coal. Between the ftrata of 
the limeftone are found layers of a 
bituminous/o6i/?z«, of a black colour, 
fimilar to the crop veins in coal coun- 
tries, Boring has been feveral times 
tried, but no difcovery of coal has 
been made. There is a whitiih co- 
loured peat, which is very inflammable, 
and emits a bright light in burning. 
On the hill of Durn is a triple fofie 
and rampart, which appears to have 
completely furrounded it ; and there 
are remains of feveral druidical tem- 
ples, and tumuli. It is faid that the 
famous Archbilhop Sharp was a na- 
tive of this pariih ; and it was alfo 
the birthplace of General Abercromby 
of Glaffaugh. In 1793, Fordice con- 
tained 3425 inhabitants. 

FORDO UN; a pariih in the 
county of Kincardine ; it is of an ob- 
long form, extending in length from 
E. to W. about 10 miles, its greateft 
breadth near the middle is about 7. 
The S. part is flat and plain, making 
a part of the continuation of the val- 
ley of Strathmore, called the ho-jj < 
V 2 


the Meams; the N. diftrict is hilly and 
mountainous, with a thin foil, far in- 
ferior in fertility to the lower part. 
Befides the village of Auchinblae, there 
is another village called Kincardine, 
which gave name to the county, and 
was the county town till the reign of 
James VI. who removed the courts to 
Stonehaven, which has continued to be 
the county town ever fince. There 
are diftinci veftiges of a Roman en- 
campment, and the ruins of an old 
cattle, laid to have been a royal palace 
belonging to Kenneth HI. where he 
fometimes refided. This pariih is no- 
ted for haying been the birth-place of 
Johannes de Fordoun, author of the 
Scoticbronicon ; one of themoft ancient 
and authentic hiftories of Scotland 
which have been publifhed. It alfo 
gave birth to the late celebrated Lord 
Monboddo, well known in the literary 
world for his writings on ancient me- 
taphyfics, and the origin and progrefs 
of language. Population in 1790, 

ANGUSSHIRE. Vide Angusshire. 
FORFAR; a royal borough of con- 
fiderable antiquity, and the county 
town of Angusfhire, where the fheriff 
has held his courts for upwards of two 
centuries, being pretty centrically fi- 
tuated for the adniiniftration of juftice. 
The original charters of erection are 
loft ; but there is extant a royal writ 
of r.o-vodamus, with parliamentary ra- 
tification, dated 1669, which certifies 
and confirms all the ancient charters, 
rights, and privileges of the burgh. It 
is governed by a provoft, 2 bailies, and 
19 counfellors, annually felf-elected. 
The annual revenue arifing from lands, 
cuftoms, &c. is fuppofed to be commu- 
nlbus annis, upwards of 400I. fterling. 
The ftreets are irregular ; but many 
of the houfes are neat, and well built. 
The church is elegant and commodi- 
ous, fituated nearly in the center of 
the town. The town-houfe is newly 
rebuilt ; the front towards the market 
place has a good effect ; but the rooms 
for prifoners are dark and uncomfort- 
able, and the utility of the whole fa- 
bric feems to have been facrificed to 
the attainment of a large upper room 
for public meetings and amulements. 
A confiderable manufacture of ofna- 
hurgs and coarfe linens is carried on 
in Forfar; and the making of coarfe 


fhoes or brogues, as they are called, 
employs a confiderable' number of 
hands. The great drawback on the 
manufactures here, is the diflance from 
afea port; Dundee, the neareft, being 
diftant about 13 miles. The town'of 
Forfar containsabout 4000 inhabitants. 
The pariih of Forfar extends about 
6 miles in length from N. to S. and a- 
bout 5 in breadth. The general ap- 
pearance is level, with the exception 
of the hill of Balnajhinar, which lies 
to the S. of the town. The foil to- 
wards the N. and S. extremity is light 
and fandy; about the middle, of a 
fpouty clay. There are feveral lakes, 
viz. Forfar, Rejrenet, and Fithie, which 
have been almoft drained for the mofs 
and marl with which they abound ; 
(vide Restenet and Fithie.) In 
the loch of Forfar was an ifiand with 
a caftle, faid to have been a place of 
religious retirement for Queen Mar- 
garet, when Malcolm Canmore made 
it his place of refidence. By the drain- 
ing, it is now united to the land. The 
water of Dean, which runs from this 
lake, falls into the Ifla in its courfe 
through Strathmore to the Tay, while 
the waters from the reft of the pariih 
run E. to fall with the Lunan into the 
bay of that name, half-way betwixt 
Arbroath and Montrofe. In 1792, the 
parifh contained 4756 inhabitants; in 
1801, the number was 5165. 

parifh in Fifefhire, fituated on the S. 
bank of theTay, which is about 2 miles 
broad, oppofite to the town of Dun- 
dee. It is 4 miles in length, and about 
2 in breadth : the furface is elevated 
in the middle, declining towards the 
river on the N. the reft having a S. ex- 
pofure of nearly 3 miles: the foil is 
for the moft part a light loam, highly 
fufceptible of cultivation. There are 
2 Trhall harbours, at Newport and 
H r ood-ba<ven, from which there are re- 
gular ferry-boats to Dundee. On the 
banks of the river there are feveral va- 
luable falmpn fiihings, the property of 
Robert Stewart, Efq. of St. Fort: there 
are feveral fmall villages, the inhabit- 
ants of which are generally employed 
in the manufacture of coarfe linens for 
the Dundee market. Population in 
I793> 875. 

FORGANDENNY; a parifh in the 
county of Perth, fituated in the vale 
of Stratherne, about 3 miles S. of the 



town of Perth. It is about 5 miles in 
length, and fcarcely 2 in breadth, con- 
taining in round numbers about 8000 
Scots acres. The lower divifion, which 
.extends from the Erne to the foot of 
the Ochil bills, is a fine level country, 
fimilar in foil to the moft fertile land 
in the .Carle of Gowrie : the upper or 
hilly part exhibits frequent rocks, moft 
of which are, however, covered with 
heath or furze ; in the intermediate 
ipaces the foil is a mixture of reddifh 
clay, loam, and fand. Befides the Erne, 
the fmall river May interfecls the pa- 
rifh, falling into the Erne nearly op- 
pofite to Dapplin, the feat of the Earl 
of Kinnoul. There are a great num- 
ber of fine trees in the low diftricl; and 
the fides of the hills are covered with 
plantations of fir. The village of For- 
gan, fituated in the hills, about half a 
mile from the Erne, is neatly built, 
having a fmall clear ftream dividing 
it into two parts. Befides this village, 
there are three others, called Ardargie, 
Newton, and Path of Condie, which, 
together, contain nearly 400 inhabit- 
ants. Irortftone abounds, and lime- 
ftone has been found on the banks of 
the May : in the wood of Condie, 
which is fituated amongft the hills, 
feveral pieces of copper ore was found 
by the late Mr. Oliphant ; and, near 
the fame place, fome years ago, were 
difcovered certain metallic appear- 
ances, Which invited a company to 
make trial of them : accordingly, lead 
was difcovered, containing a great 
quantity of filver ; but, unfortunately, 
the company failed in trade, and the 
attempt, has not yet been renewed. 
There are veftiges of feveral encamp- 
ments ; particularly on the fummit of 
a hill called Cajlle Law ; the circum- 
ference of its area is about 500 yards, 
and it is regularly fortified with a ditch 
and rampart. Population in 1791, 

FORGAN (LONG) ; a village and 
parifh in the Carfe of Gowrie. Vide 
Long ForgAn. 

FORGLEN; a parifh in the county 
of Banff, of a rectangular figure, 3-5 
miles in length by -z-^ in breadth ; the 
furface is beautifully varied, with 
gently rifing grounds, having a gradu- 
al flope towards the S. where the ri- 
ver Deveron forms the boundary. The 
foil is light and fertile, and the greater 
part is under cultivation. Forg'en, the 

feat of Lord Banff, Hands or, the banks 
of Deveron, on a moft beautiful and 
romantic fituation, furrounded with 
exteniive plantations ; and Camoafic, 
the houfe of Colonel Duff, is an ele- 
gant manfion. Population in 1793, 
about 6co. 

FORGUE ; aparifii in Aberdeenfliire, 
extending about 9 miles in length; its 
greateft breadth being about 6 miles. 
It is interfered by two rivulets, the 
Frendraught and Forgv.c, the latter of 
which is beautifully Ikirted with wood: 
the foil in the lower parts is generally 
a deep rich loam, on a clay bottom, 
producing heavy crops ; towards the 
S. the ground is moftly in a ftate of 
nature, and covered with heath. Up- 
on the eftates of Mr. Morifon cf Bog- 
nie, and Major Duff of Mayen, much 
has been done in planting and improv- 
ing the wafte and barren appearance 
cf the parifh. Forgue, in 1793, con- 
tained 1778 inhabitants. 

Forman or Formon ; one of the 
Grampian mountains, in Aberdeen- 
fliire, the elevation of which is up- 
wards of ioco feet above the Doveran, 
which runs at its bafe. It is entirely 
covered with wood, except on the S. 
E. where ftands Cobairdy, the feat of 
Sir Erneft Gordon, Bart, furrounded 
with a variety of fields, in the higheft 
ftate of cultivation. 

FORMARTIN was formerly a dif- 
tricT: of Aberdeenfliire, and included 
all the lands between the rivers Don 
and Ythan. It is now comprehended 
in the Garioch, and part of Buchan. 

FORRES ; a royal borough in the 
county of Moray. It is neatly built, 
on a rifing ground, near the bay of 
Findhorn, the mouth of which, 3 miles 
diftant, is its fea port, with a fmall vil- 
lage dependent on the town. It is un- 
certain when Forres was erected into 
a royal borough ; but ancient records 
fpeak of it as a town of confiderabie 
note fo early as the 13th century j it is 
governed by a provoft, 2 bailies, and 
dean of guild, annually elected. Forres 
contains' 7400 inhabitants. The parilh 
of Forres is about 4 miles in length, 
and %\ in breadth ; it is moftly arable, 
and fertile, but there are fome parts 
of it covered with heath. The Find- 
horn abounds with falmon, and the 
fifliings on it are very valuable and pro- 
ductive. This river is navigaoie within 
2 miles of the town ; and a canal might 


be made, at a fmall expence, to permit 
veffels to unload at the foot of that e- 
minence on which the borough ftands. 
There is one quarry of limeftone, but 
there is neither freeftone nor granite 
fit for building. South of the town, 
on a rifing ground, ftands the houfe of 
Bands-yards, the feat of Mr. Urquhart, 
commanding an extenfive profpect, 
and furrounded with extenfive planta- 
tions. In 1793, the population of the 
country part of the parifh of Forres 
was 589. 

FORSA ; a fmall ifiand of Argyll- 
fhire, adjacent to the ifiand of Eafdale. 
It abounds with flate, and its miner- 
alogy is fimilar to that ifiand. Vide 

Forse; a confiderable river in 
Caithnefs, which takes its rife in the 
parifh of Halkirk, nearly in the cen- 
ter of the county ; running N. it dif- 
charges itfelf into the Pentland Frith, 
at a fmall village to which it gives its 

Fort Augustus. Vide Augus- 
tus (Fort.) 

Fort Charlotte. Vide Char- 
lotte (Fort.) 

FORTEVIOT; a parifh fituated 
on the fertile banks of the river Erne, 
that gives name to the rich and beauti- 
ful ftrath in Perthfhire, through which 
it runs. The parifh ftretches acrofs the 
level of the ftrath, comprehending 
fome of the higheft of the Ockil hills : 
befides being interfered by the river 
Erne, the river May flows through it, 
in a beautifully variegated courfe ; fall- 
ing into the Erne near a ftone bridge 
of 6 arches. This little river frequently 
fwells to great fize, and defcends from 
the hills with great rapidity, making 
oonfiderable devaftations on the banks 
and adjacent grounds. On its banks 
is fituated Invermay, the refidence of 
Colonel Belches, one of the moft ro- 
mantic and pleafant fpots in Strath- 
erne. Around it are extenfive plan- 
tations, and natural trees ; amongft 
which, the birk or birch hold a con- 
fpicuous place, and perpetuates the 
remembrance of the fcenery defcribed 
in the ballad to which it gave rife : 
*' The Birks of Livertnay." This river 
alfo exhibits fome natural curiofities 
and cafcades, that defervedly attract 
£he attentionof ftrangers; (vide May.) 
Haly-hill, in this parifh, was once the 
fite of the royal refidence ; but the 


traces of the building are very indi- 
ftinct. Population in 1798, 970. 

Fort George, Vide George 

Forth : one of the moft confider- 
able and important rivers in Scotland. 
It takes its rife in the N. fide of Ben- 
lomond mountain, in Dunbartonfhire, 
and running from W. to E. nearly the 
whole breadth of the kingdom, forms 
that Frith or arm of the German ocean 
to which it gives its name. After 
leaving its fource, it fhortly expands 
into a beautiful lake, from which it is 
precipitated in full ftream over a per- 
pendicular rock ; it then forms ano- 
ther expanfion, a third, and a fourth, 
before it defcends into the low coun- 
try : even at its fource, while it is only 
an inconfiderable rill, which a child 
might ftep over, it winds in the fame 
manner, and forms the fame links, as 
when become more majeftic it paffes 
through the Carfe of Stirling. In its 
courfe through the mountains it re- 
ceivesfrom them innumerabletributary 
ftreams, which fhortly increafe its vo-. 
lume, and render its fcenery truly pic* 
turefque and magnificent. About 6 
or 8 miles above Stirling, after receiving 
a large fupply of water from the united 
rivers of Teath, Allan, and Ardoch, it 
enters that extenfive plain, which is 
termed the Carfe of Stirling and Fal- 
kirk. Through this valley the river 
winds in a manner fcarcely to be de- 
fcribed : it feems as if unwilling to 
leave the fruitful and delightful coun- 
try through which it runs, and as if 
wifhing to prolong the term of its ftay 
by lengthening its courfe : its mean- 
ders are fo extenfive and frequent, as 
to form a great many beautiful penin- 
fultz, on one of which, immediately 
oppofite to the caftle of Stirling, ftands 
the ruinous tower of the abbey of Cam- 
bufkenneth, the only remnant of that 
venerable pile, which was one of the 
richeft religious houfes in the king- 
dom. Here the fcenery is truly in- 
terefting : the fertile fields, the man- 
fions and policies, almoft infulated by 
the turns of the river, the ruinous ab- 
bey, the white fails of the veffels ap- 
pearing in every direction, all increafe 
the beauty of the fcene. Some idea 
may be formed of the windings of this 
noble river, when it is mentioned, that 
by land the diftance from Stirling to 
Alloa is only 6 miles ; while by water 


mores of the Frith, every where are 
eftabliflied faltworks ; and the greater 
part of the coafts of the comities of 
Perth, Fife, Stirling, and the Lothian s, 
abound with inexhauftible repofito- 
ries of coal, limeftone, and ironftone ; 
caufing a never-failing refort of veflels 
to the numerous ports to procure thefe 
valuable minerals. Since the comple- 
tion of the great canal between the 
two feas, the tonnage which entered 
the Frith of Forth has increafed greatly, 
and renders it almoft a rival to the 
Thames. The length of its courfe, 
in a direct line, is upwards of 90 miles ; 
but, calculating all the turns and wind- 
ings for which it is fo remarkable, it 
cannot be eftimated at lefs than 250 

Forth and Clyde Navigation. 
Vide Canal. 

FORTINGAL ; a Highland parifh 
in Perthfhire : to it is joined the pa- 
rochial diftrict of Kilchonan, which, 
united, extend fully 37 miles in length, 
and 17 in breadth, occupying the N. 
W. diftrict of the county. It com- 
prehends 3 diftricts, viz. Fortingal, 
Glenlyon, and Rannoch, befides an ef- 
and Inchkeith, and, farther up, the I tate of 16 ploughgates, fituated S. of 
illands of Cramond, Inchgarvie, ( Tay-bridge, 8 miles from the church. 
Inchcolm, and Inchmickery. The j The diftrict of Fortingal is about 5 
Fotth is navigable for veffels of 80 \ miles in length, is a fertile valley, with 
tons as far as Stirling bridge, which J the fmall river Lyon running through 
is almoft the only bridge of confe- j the bottom, containing numerous vil- 
quence over the river ; it is navigable j lages, and finely ornamented with 
for merchant veffels of any burden as [ woods and clumps of trees. Glenlyon 
far as Grangemouth, where it is joined j is a narrow glen, 28 miles in length, 
by the great canal of communication j icarcelymorethanagunfhotinbreadth; 


it is not lefs than 24- Mr. Gilpin ob- 
ferves,that " in this iinuous navigation, 
were the mariner to truft entirely to 
the fails, he would have to wait for 
the benefit of every wind round the 
compafs, feveral times over." After 
paffing Alloa, it expands into a con- 
siderable bay, upwards of 20 miles in 
length, but of unequal breadth. At 
the Queensferry it contracts confider- 
ably, being not more than 2 miles over, 
in the middle of which is the fmall 
ifland of Inchgarvie, with its fortifica- 
tions. For 3 or 4 miles it continues 
contracted, till palling the ifland of 
Cramond and Inverkekhing bay, it 
expands gradually into a Frith, which, 
oppolite to Leith, is 9 miles in breadth. 
It continues of nearly the fame breadth 
for feveral miles, forming many fafe 
harbours and bays on the Fife coaft ; 
till oppofite to Dirleton and North 
Berwick, in Haddingtonfhire, and the 
royal borough of Crail in Fife, it lofes 
itfelf in the German ocean. The 
mouth of the Forth contains feveral 
fmall illands, particularly the ifle of 
May, on which a light-houfe is erect- 
ed, the Bass, the illands of Fiddrie 

from the Clyde ; it pofleffes innumer- 
able harbours ; and, above ^neens- 
ferry, the whole river may be confi- 
dered as one of the fafeft roadfteads 
in Britain. In Inixrkerthing bay, in 
Leith roads, in the Ely, &c. are alio 
fafe places of anchorage. It abounds 
with white fiih of all kinds ; and, 
higher up, there are many valuable 
falmon fifhings ; particularly at Alloa, 
Kincardine, Torrybum, and Culrofs. It 
is generally vifited by an annual fhoal 
of herrings, which are efteemed nearly 
equal to thofe which vilit the weftern 
eoafts of the ifland ; and, within thefe 
few years, great exertions have been 
made in profecuting that kind of fim- 
ery. At Cramond, and Inchmickery 
illands, were formerly immenfe beds 
of oyfters; but, from over fifhing, they 
have been much exhaufted. On the 

the fides being formed of a ridge of 
the higheft mountains in Perthfhire : 
it contains many fmall villages, fome 
of which have no funfhine for 5 or 6 
months in winter. Rannoch is alfo fur- 
rounded with high mountains, having 
Loch Rannoch, a lake 12 miles long, 
and 1 broad, in the middle of the val- 
ley. The foil of this diftrict is very 
indifferent, and in moft parts of the 
pariih exceedingly bad ; many large 
woods of birch, and an txtenfive fir 
wood, ftill remain, of that immenfe 
foreft which occupied the N. diftrict 
of Perthfhire, and the county of In- 
vernefs. Befides Loch Rannoch, there 
are other extenfive lakes, of which 
Loch Errack and Loch Lyon are the 
chief; from each of thefe lakes iffue 
rivers of confiderable fize, which, u- 
nitine, form the Tumwel, which joins 


iis waters to the Tay. ShkhAllin; the 
higheft mountain, meafures ,3587 feet 
above the level of the fea ; and fome 
of the hills of Glenlyon and Befri-ard- 
tlanith, inRannoch, are not much low- 
er. Before the year 1745? this diftricc 
was in an uncivilized, barbarous ftate, 
' vmder no check or reftraint of laws j 
it was the receptacle of thofe free* 
hooters, who laid the whole country, 
from Cupar of Angus to Stirling, un- 
der contribution, obliging the inha- 
bitants to pay them black meal or mail, 
as it was called, to fave their property 
from being plundered- But, govern- 
ment having feht a regiment to refide 
amongft them, and a thief having been 
hung at their doors, they foon felt the 
neceffity of reformation, and of in- 
duftry. Amongft the rocks, at the 
back of the village of Fortingal, are 
ieveral fmall veins of lead ore ; and 
there is a very rich vein in Glenlyon, 
which was wrought fome years, but 
it did not anfwer the expence. At 
the foot of Shichallln iffues a fpring, 
impregnated with fome neutral fait, 
which is highly diuretic, and is much 
nfed in gravellifh complaints. Befides 
a great many forts throughout the di- 
ftricT:, there is an extenfive Roman en- 
campment, of which the area is about 
80 acres ; the fnffi and -vallum are 
much broken down by the plough ; 
but the prastorium is quite complete. 
The late Earl of Braidalbih employed 
fome labourers to dig for antiquities ; 
and a few urns and Roman coins Were 
found. In 1793, Fortingal contained 
about 3914 inhabitants. 

FORTROSE ; a royal borough in 
the county of Rofs, on the N. fide of 
the Moray Frith, nearly oppofite to 
Fort George. It is compofed of two 
towns, viz, Rosemarkie and Cha- 
nonry, joined together by royal char- 
ter. The former was a burgh of con- 
siderable antiquity, being ere died into 
a royal burgh by Alexander II. King of 
Scotland. Ckanonry lies about a mile 
to the W. ; fo called from being the 
Chanonry of Rofs, where the Bifbop 
had his refidence, and is now the prel- 
bytery feat. Thefe were united by 
a charter granted by King James II. 
anno 1444, under the, common name 
of Foktross, now foftencd into For- 
trose; which charter was ratified by 
King James VI. anno 1592, and con- 
firmed with greater immunities by the 


fame monarch in 1612. Thefe enafv 
ters all bear, that the burgh is to be 
" entitled to the privileges, liberties, 
and immunities, heretofore granted .to 
the town of Invernefe." Fortrofe is at 
that time fpoken of as a town flourifh-« 
ing in the arts and fciences, having 
been then the feat of divinity, law, 
and phyfic, in this corner of the king- 
dom. At prefent, the town is fmall, 
and owes its confequence to. the late 
eftablifliment of an academy, under 
the direction of feveral public fpirited 
gentlemen in the neighbourhood, for 
the education of young perfons in the 
languages, and the principles of na- 
tural philofophy. It has a rector and 
two matters, who receive a falary from 
the mortification of 1800 merks Scots 
in 1699, by a Mr. Thomas Forbes, 
bailie of Fortrofe, which had been al- 
lowed to accumulate to a confiderable 
fura. Two fmall parts of the ancient 
cathedral ftill remain, one of which is 
ufed as a burial place of the Macken- 
zie family, and the other is occupied 
as a coiirt-houfe, with the vaulted 
prifons below. From this place is a 
regular ferry to Fort George,- which 
is only 6 or 7 miles diftant. Dr. Geo. 
Mackenzie, the laborious compiler of 
the " Lives of the moft eminentwriters 
of the Scots nation," is faid to have 
been born in this town : it is certain 
he refided here, in an old caftle be- 
longing to the Earl of Seaforth, and 
lies interred in the cathedral ; and 
Dr. James Mackenzie, author of the 
" Art of Preferving Health," is faid 
to have for fome time taught the 
grammar fchool of the burgh. As the 
town of Fortrofe lies in the parochial 
diftricu of Rosemarkie, an account 
of the general appearance and foil of 
the neighbourhood will be found at 
that article. In 1793, the town of 
Fortrofe, comprehending Chanonry 
and the burgh of Rofemarkie, con- 
tained about 740 inhabitants. It joins 
with the northern diftricT: of burghs in 
fending a member to parliament. 

Fort William. Vide William 

Thefe united parifhes lie in two ihire6 5 
the former belonging to the county of 
Perth, and Tullicbolebting politically 
annexed to that of Kir.rcfs. They 
occupy a contklcrable extent of the 
Ochil hills, and the valley at tlicisf 



foot from the river Dovan to wRhin 6 
miles of Kinrofs. The lands are ele- 
vated, and expofed to ftorms and au- 
tumnal frofts, which renders the fea- 
fons later, and the crops lei's produc- 
tive. The hills afford excellent fheep 
pafture, and are in general covered 
with grafs to the very fummit. Seve- 
ral extenfive plantations have been late- 
ly made, and enclofures are becoming 
general. There are two villages, which 
are both burghs of barony ; one called 
the Crook of Dovan, under the fuperi- 
ority of Moncrief Wclwood, Efq. of 
Tulliebole ; and the other Blairingone, 
of which the Duke of Atho! is fuperi- 
or : both thefe have well attended an- 
nual fairs. The river Dovan in its 
courfe forms feveral romantic falls, 
particularly the Caldron linn, the Rum- 
bling bridge, and the Devil's mill; ( vide 
Dovan.) Coal, lime, and ironftone 
are found in great abundance; and 
moft of the hills are compofed of ba- 
faltic whinftone, of a dark blue or 
purple colour, which anfwers toler- 
ably well for building. Population in 
1795, 2505. 

FOULDEN ; a parifh in the county 
of Berwick, is nearly of a fquare form, 
containing about 6 fquare miles. The 
foil varies from a ftrcng clay to loam 
and fand : the whole is fertile, well 
enclofed, and in a high ftate of culti- 
vation. It is interfered by the Wbit- 
tadder, which runs in a den, in many 
places from 40 to 50 yards deep. The 
fea coafc is fteep and rocky, affording 
no creeks or harbours for fifhing boats. 
There is an old ruin called Foulden, 
which appears to have been a place of 
ftrength and fecurity in the border 
wars. The village, which was form- 
erly confiderable, is a burgh of ba- 
rony, under the fuperiority of Mr. 
Wilkie of Foulden, and is privileged 
to hold 2 annual fairs. Population in 
I793> 344. 

FOULIS EASTER, in Perthshire, 
lately united to LyNinr., in forming a 
parochial diftrict. Vide Lundie and 

FOULIS WESTER ; a parifh in 
Perthfhire, in the diftrict of Stratherne, 
about 8 miles in length, and 6 in 
breadth. It is watered by the Almond, 
which here forms feveral romantic 
falls. The foil is a red clay or till, 
which, by cultivation and manure, be- 
comes loamy and fertile : a veryfmall 

portion is enclofed, the greater part 
being fitted for pafture. Abercairney- 
boufe, the feat of Mr. Moray of Aber- 
cairney, is a large and commodious 
building, furrounded with extenfive 
plantations. The village of Foulis 
contains about 140 inhabitants ; near 
which is the ancient manfion of Cur- 
toquhey, the refidence of Mr. Maxton. 
The ruins of an ancient fort or caftle 
are feen about a mile W. from the 
church. Population in 1794, 1224. 

FOVERAN; a parifh in Aberdeen- 
fhire, extends 4 miles in length from 
E. to W. and about 2 in breadth. The 
general appearance is flat, but the 
ground rifes by a gradual afcent from 
the fea : the foil varies from a fandy 
loam to a rich loam and ftrong clay, 
the whole of which is arable. The 
river Ythan forms the boundary on 
the N. at the mouth of which lies the 
fmall village of Newburgh. The 
Ythan is navigable for nearly 3 miles, 
but no harbour has been built, nor 
any accommodation for fhipping. 
There are the ruins of feveral ancient 
caftles and chapels, and a few tumuli 
or cairns are to be feen. Population 
in 1793, 1243. 

FOWLA, or FULE ; one of the 
northern ifles, fuppofed to be the 
Ultima Thule of the ancients, not 
only from the mere analogy of the 
name, but alfo from more undoubted 
teftimony ; for Tacitus fpeaking of 
the Roman general Agricola, regard- 
ing his victories, and the diftance to 
which he penetrated northward, thus 
expreffes himfelf; invenit domuitque 
Infulas, quas vocant Cr cades ,d effect aque 
Thule.'" Now Fowla, which is high 
ground, is eafily feen in a clear day 
from the northern parts of the Ork- 
neys. It is about 3 miles in length, 
and 1 \ in breadth ; it is fituated nearly 
20 miles diftant from any land to the 
weftward of the clutters of Orkney 
and of Shetland, to which laft it is 
politically annexed. It is very bold 
and fteep towards the W. ; and the 
only landing-place, which is called 
Ham, lies on the E. fide, and is much 
! reforted to as a fifhing ftation. It af- 
fords excellent and extenfive pafturage 
I for fheep, and is inhabited by 26 or 
j 27 families, making about 1.0 inha- 
! bitants, who, although the ifland can- 
! not fupply them with provifions, are 
I fo attached to the place, that they are 

I 7. 


feldom known to leave it, choofing 
rather to fubmit to many inconveni- 
ences than to emigrate. 

Foyers, or Fvers ; a fmall river 
in Invernefs-fhire, noted for the ftu- 
pendous waterfall of the fame name. 
The river takes its rife amongft the 
lofty mountains of the parifh of Bole- 
ikine and AbertarfF, and pouring thro' 
the vale of Foyers, falls into Lochnefs, 
nearly in the middle between the eait- 
ern and weftern extremities of that 
lake. The vale is as romantic as can 
well be fuppofed ; the banks of the 
river and the fides of the mountains 
are covered with weeping birch, and 
here and there the mountains prefent 
their naked precipitous fronts, from 
which huge fragments of rock have 
been hurled to the bottom : and here 
the beautiful plant, the Alchimilla alp- 
ina grows in the greateft abundance 
and luxuriance. Dr. Garnett, whole 
defcription of the falls of the Dovan 
has already been quoted, defcribesthe 
falls of Foyers with equal accuracy 
and elegance. " Having left our hor- 
fes," fays he, f at General's Hut, we 
were conducted by our landlord to 
the falls. We firft vifited the upper 
one, which is about a mile and a half 
from the houfe, and nearly half a mile 
above the lower fall. Here the river 
Foyers being confined on each fide by 
fteep rocks, precipitates itfelf with 
great velocity, forming a very fine ca- 
taract. A little below the fall a bridge 
lias been thrown over by the proprie- 
tor, Frazer of Foyers, from which the 
fall is feen ; but, in order to obtain a 
proper view of it, we, with fome dif- 
ficulty, fcrambled down the fteep 
banks to the rocks below,£rom whence 
Ave beheld this romantic fcene in per- 
fection. The bridge and rocks formed 
a fine frame or fore-ground, behind 
which, at the diftance of perhaps 30 
vards, appeared the firft part of the 
fall : the fecond, and mod important 
break; was a few yards nearer, and 
the Ioweft almoft under the arch. Our 
guide was prefent when very acaurate 
meafurements were taken of thefe 
falls. The following particulars are 
therefore put down from his informa- 
tion : feet. 
From the arch of the bridge to 
the furface of the water, after 
the Ioweft part of the fall, - 200 
Height of the fall, - - - - . 70 


The bridge was built about 12 years 
ago ; before which time, the only paf- 
fage over this torrent was a rude alp- 
ine bridge, confirming of fome fticks. 
thrown over the rocks, and covered 
with turf. It was croffed by the pea- 
fantry on foot, butmuft certainly have 
turned giddy the fteadieft head, un- 
accuftomed to fuch fcenes. About 
3 years before the prefent bridge was 
built, a neighbouring farmer, on his 
way home from Invernefs, had called 
at the General's Hut to fhelter him- 
felf from the inclemency of the ftorrri, 
and drive out the invading cold, by re- 
inforcing the garrifon in the ftomach! 
Here he met with fome old acquaint- 
ance, with whom he converfed of 
former times, without obferying the 
frequency of the circulating glafs. 
The fnow continued to fall in thick 
flakes, and they were fitting by a com- 
fortable fire ; at laft, when the fumes 
of the whifky had taken pofTeffion of 
his brain, and raifed his fpirits to no 
ordinary pitch, he determined to go 
home. When he came to this place, 
having been accuftomed to crofs the, 
rude bridge on foot, he habitually 
took thus road, and forced his horfe 
over it. Next morning, he had fome 
faint recollection of the circumftance, 
though the feeming impoffibility of 
the thing made him fufpect that it 
was a dream ; but, as the ground was 
covered with fnow, it was very eafy 
to convince himfelf ; he accordingly 
went, and when he perceived the tracks 
of his horfe's feet along the bridge, he 
fell illj and died fhortly afterwards. 
In our way to the lower fall, our guide 
fhewed a cave of confiderable ftze, 
near the river, where the freebooters 
ufed to fhelter themfelves in turbulent 
times. There was a way of efcape 
towards the water, fhould the main 
entry be difcovered. Our next object 
was the lower fall. When we came to 
the two rude pillars before mentioned, 
we left the road, and went down the 
fide of the hill. The defcent to the 
point of view is difficult, but we were 
amply repaid for our trouble. The 
following particulars are put down 
from the information of our guide : 

From the top of the rocks to the 

furface of the water, - - - 470. 
Height of the fall 111 one continued 

ftrearn, ------- 207 



from the furface of the fmooth 
water above, to the beginning 
of the uninterrupted fall, - - 5 
So that the height of the fall may 

properly be called - - - -312 
Down this precipice the river rulhes 
with a noife like thunder into the abyfs 
below, forming an unbroken ftream as 
white as fnow. From the violent agi- 
tation arifes a fpray which envelopes 
the fpectator, and fpreads to a consi- 
derable diftance. The following beau- 
tiful defcription of this fall was written 
by Burns, as he was Handing by it: 
" Among the heathy hills and ragged 

The roaring Fyers pours his moffy floods; 
Till full he dallies on the rocky mounds, 
Where, thro' a fhapelefs breach, his ftream 

As high in air the burfling torrents flow, 
As deep recoiling furges foam below, 
Prone down the rock the whitening fheet 

And viewlefs Echo's ear, aftonifh'd, rends. 
Dim-feen, through riling mills and carelefs 

The hoary cavern, wide furrounding, 

Still thro' the gap the ftruggling rivertoils, 
And ftill, below, the horrid caldron boils." 

This is undoubtedly one of the high- 
eft falls in the world, and the quantity 
of water is fufficient to give it confe- 
quence : the fcene is awful and grand, 
and I fuppofe, that any perfon who 
has once beheld it, will readily agree, 
that it is worth while to travel from 
Fort William to this place merely to 
fee the fall. Though an immenfe body 
of water falls down the celebrated caf- 
cade of Niagara in North America, 
yet its height is not much more than 
half the height of this, being only 140 
feet."'s Tour, vol. I. p. 332. 
FRASERBURGH; a town in the 
county of Aberdeen. It is fituated on 
the S. fide of the point of Kinnaird's 
Head : the hoiifes are neatly built, and 
many of them are new, and covered 
with tile and flate: the ftreets are fpa- 
cious, and crofs each other nearly at 
right angles : the tolbooth and town- 
houfe are nearly in the center of the 
town : the crofs is a fine ftructure, of 
an hexagonal figure, with 3 equidiftant 
hexagonal abutments : the ground area 
is about 50b feet, and the whole is 
furmounted by a ftone pillar 13 feet 
high, ornamented by the Britiih arms, 
and the arms cf Frafer of Philorth. 

Fraferburgh polTeiTes a fmall but ex- 
cellent harbour, having from 11 to 16 
feet water, allowing veffels of 300 tons 
to enter. Contiguous to the harbour 
is a tolerable road for fhippir.g, in a 
bay nearly 3 miles in length, and up- 
wards of 1 in breadth, with good an- 
chorage. Adjoining the W. end of 
Fraferburgh is the fmall fifiiing village 
of Broadfa, containing nearly 160 in- 
habitants. Fraferburgh was erected in- 
to a burgh of regality in 1613. The 
government is vefted in Lord Saltoun 
as fuperior, 2 bailies, a dean of guild, 
and council. His Lordfhip has the 
right and authority of provoft, with 
power to nominate and appoint an- 
nually the new magiftrates and coun- 
cil, by the advice and confent of the 
old. The revenues of the town are 
nearly jcl. per annum. In the W. end 
of the town is an old quadrangular 
tower of 3 ftoreys, a fmall part of a 
large building intended for a college, 
by Sir Alexander Frafer, whrj, in 159c, 
obtained a charter from the crown, em- 
powering him to erect a college and 
univerfity " in amplijimo forma," aa 
the charter runs, " et modo debito, hi 
omnibus refpeSlibus, ut conceditur etdatur 
cuicunque collegio ct univerfitate intra 
regnum nojlrum, eredo feu erigendo. ,y 
But it does not appear it was carried 
into effect. The only manufacture is 
linen yarn, of which to the amount of 
3000I. or 4000I. is annually exported* 
Fraferburgh contains about 1000 inha- 
bitants. The extreme points of the 
pariih of Fraferburgh are about 8 miles 
diftant, and its breadth fromE. to W. 
is about 3 \ miles ; the meafurement 
exceeds 10,000 acres. The lea coaft: 
extends about 4 miles, and is partly 
fandy and partly rocky. Kinnaird's 
Head is a high promontory, projecting 
into the fea. The water of Philorth 
feparates this pariih from Rathen for 
feveral miles. Along the fhore the foil 
is in general good, but the interior 
parts are gravelly. Except the hill of 
Mormond, which is elevated 800 feet 
above the level of the fea, the whole 
furface is flat and level. Beiides the 
old college there are the remains of 
feveral ancient towers and religious 
ftructures. Near the town Hands Phi- 
lortb-houfe, the feat of Lord Saltoun, 
ftirrounded with extenfive plantations. 
In 1792, the pariih of Fraferburgh 
contained 2 2co inhabitants. 
Z a 


FREUCHIE ; a matyifaduriog vil- 
lage in the parilh of Falkland, in Fife- 
fhire, containing about 48oinhabitanLs. 

Fyers; a river in Invernefs-ihire. 
Vide Foyers. 

F y n e (Loch); an extenfive lake 
or arm of the fea in Argyllfhire. It ex- 
tends from the Frith of Clyde, between 
the ifles of Bute and Arran, in a N. 
wefterly direction, forming the bound- 
ary between the diftri&s of Cowal 
and Kintyre. It is about 32 miles 
in length, and the breadth varies from 
la to 3 ; but its average breadth is a- 
bout 4 or 5 miles. Its coafts are ge- 
nerally flat and fandy, and are mixed 
with granitic pebbles, ornamented 
with many elegant feats; it receives 
many fmall ftreams, and the river Aor- 
eidh or Aray at its northern extremity, 
near the royal burgh of Inveraray, 
where is alfo the princely refidence of 
the Duke of Argyll. There it fpreads 
out into a noble bay before the town, 
forming an irregular circle of about 
12 or 14 miles in circumference, beau- 
tifully indented with a variety of pe- 
ninfuU, and furrounded by mountains. 
It is an object not only beautiful in it- 
felf, but it makes a fine contrail with 
the mountains around it : few of thefe 
are covered with trees, and many are 
entirely naked ; but the want of beauty 
from this circumftance is fully com- 
penfated by the grandeur of their ap- 
pearance. On the banks of the loch 
is the elegant marmon of Ardkinlafs, 
the refidence of Sir Alexander Camp- 
bell, Bart, furrounded with extenfive 
plantations. Loch Fyne has been, for 
time immemorial, noted for its her- 

t Y V 

rings, which are of a fuperior quality 
to any found in the weftern feas. The 
fifhery commonly begins in July or 
Auguft, and continues till the firft of 
January, during which time the lake 
is frequented by innumerable fiioals : 
the rimers exprefs, in very ftrong lan- 
guage, the quantities of herrings which 
abound here, afferting that the lake 
contains one part of w;<(ter, and two 
parts of fifh : in a iingle bay of the 
lake, 500 or 600 boats are often em- 
ployed in taking them ; and the groups 
of thefe little fiihing veffels, with their 
circling nets, make a beautiful moving 
picture. It is conjectured on the belt 
grounds, that there are annually caught 
and cured in this arm of the fea, up- 
wards of 20,000 barrels, valued at 25 s. 
per barrel. 

FYVIE; a parifh in Aberdeen (hire ; 
is about 13 miles in length, and 8 in 
breadth, containing about 20,000 a- 
cres ; 8000 of which may be under 
culture ; the remainder occupied by 
plantations, natural woods, and coarfe 
heathy pafture. The fmall river Ythcm 
interfects it the whole length, abound- 
ing with trout : the furface is uneven, 
but the hills are of fmall elevation : the 
foil is various, but in general kindly, 
efpecially in the neighbourhood of the 
church, and of Fyvie-cajlle, a large and 
elegant feat of the Hon. General Gor- 
don, the chief proprietor. Near the 
church, on the banks of the Tthan, 
are the ruins of a priory, faid to have 
been founded by Fergus Earl of Buch- 
an, in 1 1 79 ; it was afterwards depend- 
ent on the abbey of Aberbrothock. 
Population in 1792, 2194. 



GADIE ; a fmall ftream in Aber- 
deeMihire, which rifes in the bor- 
ders of the Gariccb diftrict, and dis- 
charges itfelf into the Ury, near its 
junction with the Don. The Gadle 
was the native ftream of the poet Ar- 
thur John stone, who hascelebrated 
its beauties in feveral Latin poems. 

Gairie; a rivulet in Angusfhire ; 
has its rife in the parifh of Kirriemuir, 


and joins its waters to the Dean near 
Glammis-caftle, after a meandering 
courfe of nearly 12 miles. 

GAIRLOCH ; a parifh in Rofsfhire, 
fituated on the W.coaft of that county. 
It extends about 32 miles in length, 
and is nearly 18 in breadth: the fur- 
face refembles the other parts of the. 
Highlands, abounding with hills, which 
afford a fcanty pafture for flieep, and 



interfperfed with valleys, which arc' 
tolerably fertile in favourable feafons. 
Jn this parifh lies Loch Marl, a large 
frefh water lake, containing many 
beautiful ifiands. This lake is formed 
by the union of two large rivers, which 
take their rife in the E. end of the pa- 
rifh, and are in Gaelic denominated 
Kenlochew, or " the head of the loch 
river." The coaft of Gairloch is fa- 
mous for the cod and herring fifhery. 
The chief proprietors are, Sir Hector 
Mackenzie of Gairloch, the Macken- 
zies of Gruinord of Letterew,of Kern- 
fary, and of Coull ; all of which, ex- 
cept the laft, have feats in the parifh. 
Population in 1791, about 2200. 

Gairney; a fmall ftream which 
rifes amongft the hills in Kinrofsihire, 
and difcharges itfelf into Loci) Leven. 
Gala River takes its rife in the E. 
end of the pariih of Heriot, in the 
county of Mid-Lothian, and, after re- 
ceiving a confiderable augmentation 
of its ftream from the water of Heriot, 
it runs S. and palling Galafhiels, dif- 
embogues itfelf into the Tweed. The 
whole courfe is Angularly romantic, 
and the fcenery on its banks has fired 
the imagination of many poets, who 
have celebrated its beauties in feveral 
paftorals. " The braiv lads of Gala 
water" is a beautiful Scots fong. 

GALASHIELS ; a village and pa- 
riih in the diftrict of Tweedale. The 
parifh is of an irregular triangular fi- 
gure, on an average about 5^ miles in 
breadth, lying partly in the county of 
Roxburgh, and partly in that of Sel- 
kirk; the Tweed, which divides it into 
two parts, being the boundary of the 
two fhires. The furface is hilly and 
mountainous ; the higheft point, Meg- 
bill, being elevated about 1480 feet 
above the level of the fea. The hills 
are moftly green, and furnifh excel- 
lent fheep pafture. The foil is various, 
being partly a deep loam on a till bot- 
tom, and partly a fhallow loam upon 
gravel, with which it is much mixed. 
Confiderable attention is paid to the 
rearing of fheep, and the improve- 
ment of the wool. Befides the Tweed, 
the parifh is interfered by the Etterick 
and Gala waters, which are well 
known from the beautiful paftoral 
fongs to which they give their name. 
The village oiGalaJhieh, part of which 
is fituated in the parifh of Melrofe, is 
finely fituated on the banks of the 

Gala, and contains about 780 inhabit- 
ants. It has been long noted for tbe 
manufacture of coarfe woollen cloth, 
known by the name oiGalaJkiets Gray, 
of which about 50,000 or 60,000 yards 
are annually made. The rocks are 
chiefly of fchijtus and whinftone ; and 
the red ochrey earth, and the chaly- 
beate fprings, ftrongly indicate the 
prefence of iron. Population in 1791, 

GALATON ; a village in the pa- 
rifh of Dyfart, in Fifefhire, containing 
about 430 inhabitants, who are chiefly 
employed in making nails, and other 
fmall iron work. 

GALLOWAY. The diftrict of 
Galloway comprehends two counties, 
viz. the ihire or ftewartryof Kirkcud- 
bright, and the county of Wigton ; 
the particular defcription of which 
will be given under thefe articles. 
This diftrict, in the earliefc ages of 
which we have written accounts, ap- 
pears to have been peopled by that 
nation, which the Roman writers term 
the Selgova and Novanta ; the inha- 
bitants of Dumfriesfhire being includ- 
ed under the fame general name. 
The Roman province of Valentia, 
which extended over the greater part 
of the N. of England, and S. of Scot- 
land, muft neceffarily have included 
this diftrict ; but being farther remov- 
ed from the contefted ground, which 
lay nearer "the center of the kingdom, 
the inhabitants feem fcareely to have 
been driven out of their poiTeffions : 
and, when the Romans left the ifland, 
the native lords recovered their go- 
vernment without difficulty. The in- 
vafion of the Anglo Saxons forms a 
new aera in their hiftory ; for, upon 
the foundation of the Northumbrian 
monarchy by Ida, Galloway was unit- 
ed to that kingdom, and the ancient 
inhabitants feem to have been driven 
back into the mountains, while their 
invaders poffefied themfelves of the 
fhores. When the Saxon monarchs 
loft their territories in Scotland, the 
rightful owners regained pofieiiion of 
the whole country, from the confines 
of Ayrfhire on one fide, to the moun- 
tains of Clydefdale and the Solway 
Frith on the other. About this time 
the Danifh invaders appeared on the 
coafts, and the Scots, and inhabitants 
of the fouthern diftrict, became mu- 
tually interefted to co-operate againir. 


the Saxons and the Danes ; and, de- 
scended from the fame origin, the lat- 
ter gradually loft their independent 
ftate ; but their ancient cuftoms and 
manners remained unchanged, while 
thofe of the Scots were improved, and 
changed by the union with the Picts 
and Saxons. It is probable, that co- 
loniesfrom the N. of Ireland frequently 
vihted the diftrict of Galloway, and 
became incorporated with the natives ; 
introducing every where the Celtic 
manners and the Celtic tongue : the 
names alfo juflify that idea; for writers 
of this period ftyle them the Gaehve- 
genfes, and their country Gaekueg, the 
country of the Gaels, a term fynoni- 
mous with the Celts. This political 
diftinction, and the diveriity of cha- 
racter, were fufficient to make them 
appear in the eyes of the old writers a 
diftinct race, and procured them the 
appellation of the Wild Scots of Gallo- 
way, which they long retained, from 
their ferocity and impetuous undifcip- 
lined mode of fighting, in which they 
nearly refembled the ancient Irifh, at 
the time of the conqueft of that king- 
dom by the Englifh. At what parti- 
cular period the petty fovereigns of 
Galloway became feudatories of the 
crown of Scotland, cannot be afcer- 
tained. When they went out to battle 
againft their common enemies, the 
Danes, the poft of honour was ufually 
affigned to the Gahvegians ; and we 
have accounts of a battle being loft in 
the reign of David I. by the mifconduct 
of the Galwegians, who led the van 
of the army r In the ixth century all 
Galloway and Carrick was fubjecl to 
Fergus, at that time the moft power- 
ful fubject in Scotland, who, after 
having warred unfuccefsfully with his 
fovereign, Malcolm Canmore, retired 
in the habit of a monk to the abbey 
of Holyroodhoufe. His fons enherited 
his extenfive pofleffions ; and, upon 
the captivity of William the Lion, in 
1 1 60, they threw off the Scottifh yoke, 
and united themfelves to England : 
their dependents inherited Galloway 
for fome time, until, by the marriage 
of Devorgilla (the daughter of Alan, 
the laft lord) with John Baliol of 
Yorkmire, the inheiitance went to 
that family. John Baliol, Ion to De- 
■Vorgilla, loft with the fovtreignty of 
Scotland the lordihip of Galloway; 
aiid it fell into the family of Douglas 


by intermarriage with an heirefs of 
the Comyn family. The Earl of Doug- 
las retained thefe eftates till 1455, when 
they were forfeited to the crown by 
rebellion againft James II. That mo- 
narch granted many of thefe eftates to 
his adherents ; particularly the Max- 
wells of Nithfdale, and the Stewarts 
of Garlies : to the latter of which the 
diftrict ftill gives the title of Earl. 
Galloway was anciently famous for a 
particular breed of fmall horfes, which 
are now mixed with the Irifh and Eng- 
lifh breeds, but retain the fame name. 
The black cattle are ftill noted for 
their excellent fpecies, and the Gallo- 
way fheep are reckoned to afford the 
beft flavoured mutton that Scotland 
yields. A confiderable number of 
fwine are alfo fed for the Englifh 
markets. The diftrict has been divided 
into Upper Galloway, which in- 
cludes the northern parts of Kirkcud- 
bright and Wigton ; Lower Gallo- 
way, the fouthern parts of the fame 
fhires, and the Rinns of Galloway, 
that peninfula or diftrict of Wigton 
which lies W. of the ifthmus formed 
by the approximation of the bays of 
Luce and Ryan. 


The fouthern point of the Rinns is a 
locky promontory, extending feveral 
miles into the fea, and. excavated into 
feveral caverns, into which the fea en- 
ters, producing with a ftrong foutherly 
wind, and a flowing tide, a noife like 
thunder, which is heard at a great di- 
ftance. As the rocks near the coaft 
are exceedingly dangerous to fhips, it 
has been long propofed to erect a 
light-houfe on the top of the promon- 
tory, which would greatly leffen the 

GALLOWAY (NEW) ; a royal 
burgh in the parilh of Kells, in the 
ftewartry of Kircudbright ; it is fitu- 
ated in a delightful vale, which is de- 
nominated Glenkens, from the river 
Ken, which waters it. The houfes are 
neat and regular, but it poffefles no 
manufactures ; its only confequence 
feems to be derived from its poft-office„ 
and its centrical fituation, as a market 
for the different products of the neigh- 
bouring pariflies. It was erected into 
a royal burgh by Charles I. about the 
year 1633, when fcarcely 20 houfes 
entitled it to the name of a hamlet. 
But, in thofe vifits which Charles paiti 

G xa. L 

to Scotland, he generally dealt out 
fuch honours and bounties to his Scot- 
tifh fubjecls, which he had to beftow; 
and, in this inftance, Sir John Gordon 
of Lochinvar obtained a peerage, by 
the title of Viicount Kenmure, and 
the creation of this royal burgh on his 
eftate. In this town the inftitution of 
a farmer club has been of the greateft 
importance, in diffeminating agricul- 
tural knowledge. The whole town is 
the property of Mr. Gordon, the re- 
prefentative of the Kenmure family, 
which was attainted for attachment to 
t,he family ,of Stuart. Kenmure-caftle, 
the refidence of that gentleman, is fi- 
tuated in the immediate neighbour- 
hood, and adds much to the import- 
ance of it. In 1793, it contained a- 
bout 480 inhabitants. 

GALSTON ; a village and parifli 
in the county of Ayr. The parifh is 
ribout 13 miles in length, and from 4 
to 5 in breadth. The furface is di- 
yerfified with hills, which, though ele- 
vated, many of them are arable to the 
top. It is bounded on the N. by the 
river Irvine, and watered by feveral of 
its tributary ftreams. There are two 
considerable lakes, Gait and Brunt- 
rivood ; from the former of which the 
Aven river takes its rife. The old 
caftle of Ceffnock, the property of the 
Marchioness of Titchfield, and Old 
Barr-cajlk, are furfounded with woods 
both natural and planted. There is a 
valuable coal pit about a quarter of a 
mile from the village, and an excellent 
limeftone quarry. In the hill of Gairn- 
faicb is a vein of rich iron ore, and 
molt of the muir edges abound with 
that mineral. There are feveral free- 
ftone quarries, the ftone of which is 
very durable, and eafily wrought. The 
village of Galfton contains about 580 
inhabitants, many of which are filk 
weavers : there are two well fre- 
quented fairs in the year, one in July, 
and the other in December. The 
great roads from Edinburgh to Ayr, 
and from Glafgow to Dumfries, pafs 
through the village : near it are feve- 
ral mills, one of which is named Patie's 
mill, and claims the honour of having 
given rife to that delightful fons:, 
'"■The La/s of Patie's mill." The 
banks of the Irvine, indeed, abftracted 
from the charms of the fair, might 
have infpired a poet of lefs fenfibility 
than Ramfay with the fentiments ex- 


preffcdinthat beautiful paftoral. Ther?; 
are the remains of feveral ancient for- 
tifications, and of a druidical temple. 
Population in 1790, 1577. 

GAMRIE ; a pariih in the county 
of Banff. It is about 4 miles in breadth, 
and extends about 9^ miles along the 
fea coaft, which is very bold, and con- 
firms of an almoft continued front of 
ftupendous rocks, in many places 
200 or 300 feet perpendicular to the 
fea : in fome parts there are fmall 
creeks or bays, which have been con- 
verted into good harbours, particu- 
larly at the town of Macduff, and the 
village of Gardenffpn. On the W. the 
boundary is the river Dovern,on which 
is a falmon fiihing, the property of the 
Earl of Fife, which lets at ioool. fter- 
ling of annual rent. The furface is 
uneven, and the foil varies from a fer- 
tile loam to a barren benty heath, part., 
of which is now improved ; and that 
which appeared incapable of improve- 
ment, has been planted with various 
trees. In the villages on the coaft, the 
inhabitants are chiefly fifhers ; and a 
variety of fifh are caught, which, after 
fupplying the furrounding country, 
are cured and carried to the Frith of 
Forth, where they meet a ready mar- 
ket. There are feveral caves and na- 
tural curiolities in the rocks, which 
are vifited by ftrangers. The well of 
Farlair near Macduff, is a mineral 
fpring, ftrongly impregnated with fome 
neutral fait, and efteemed ufeful in 
gravellifh complaints. There is a good 
(late quarry on the eftate of the Earl 
of Fife, nearly fimilar in colour and 
quality to the Eafdale flate, Lord 
Fife, and Mr. Garden of Troup, are 
the only heritors ; the latter of which 
refides at his feat in the parifh. Pp~ 
pulatjon in 1790, about ^000. 

GARDENSTON; a fmall town in 
the parifh of Gamrie, in Banfffhire, 
the property of Mr. Garden of Troup r 
It poilelfes a tolerable harbour, from 
which a number pf ffning boats and 
fmall veffels are fitted opt, and con* 
tains about too inhabitants. 

GARGUNNOCK ; a parifh in the 
county of Stirling, lying on the S. 
bank of the river Forth, ex;e^ding in 
length about 6, and in breadth about 
3 miles. The ground rifes gradually 
from the river, forming a natural divi- 
fion into 3 kinds, of foil : ift^or car/r, 
where the foil is of a ftrong rich clay, 


er loam, intermixed with fand and 
fnells, indicating it has been formerly- 
covered with the waters of the river : 
2nd, the dry fields, occupying the mid- 
dle fpace, which, imtil cultivated, 
was covered with heath, furze, and 
broom : and, 3d, the muir, which is 
covered with heath, and only afford- 
ing a fcanty pafture for fheep : this 
laft occupies nearly 3000 acres of the 
higher diftrict. Great improvements 
have been made in agriculture in this 
parifh, chiefly by the exertions of Ge- 
neral Campbell, whofe beautiful feat 
of Boqukan is here fituated. The at- 
tention of the traveller is alfo at- 
tracted by the policies and plantations 
of Gargunnock-boufe, the property of 
Colonel Eidington ; and of Leckie, the 
residence of Dr. Moir. The village 
of Gargunnock is about 6 miles W. of 
Stirling, on the great road from thence 
to Dumbarton ; it is clean and neat 
in appearance, though almoft all the 
houfes are thatched ; and fituated on 
the fide of the hill, it commands a 
beautiful profpect of the windings of 
the Forth, and the fertile vale through 
which it glides, adorned on both fides 
with the feats of the proprietors ; and 
the range of the Ochil hills fheltering 
it on the N. completes a landfcape of 
the moft interefting kind. In 1794, 
the parifh contained 830 inhabitants, 
of which 400 refide in the village. 

GARIOCH ; a diftrict of Aberdeen- 
mire, bounded on the W. by Marr ; 
on the N. by Buchan ; on the E. and 
S. by Aberdeen Proper. On account 
of its fertility, it ufed formerly to be 
termed the. granary of Aberdeenfhire ; 
but, fince the introduction of lime as 
a manure, the farms on the coaft, 
though not naturally fo fertile, have 
been much improved ; while the Ga- 
riocb, being an inland diftricl, has not 
received equal benefit. The furface 
is mountainous, but the valleys are 
warm, and well fheltered ; and, from 
the falubrity of the air, it has been 
long famed as a place of rummer re- 
tirement for the valetudinarian. It 
gives name to prefbytery, which holds 
its feat at the Chapel of Garioch. 

GARIOCH (CHAPEL of) ; a pa- 
rifh in Aberdeenfhire. ' Vide Chapel 
of Garioch. 

GARLIESTON; a confiderable 
fea port? village in Wigtonfhire. It 
is of recent erection, being founded 


by the Earl of Galloway, when Lord 
Garlies ; it is pleafantly built, in the 
form of a crefcent, along the head of 
a bay which bears its name ; and af- 
fords fafe anchorage for veffels, and is 
air excellent fifhing flation. In 1792, 
the village contained 450 inhabitants ; 
fince which time their number has 
confiderably increafed. 

a village in the county of Moray. It 
is fituated at the mouth of the river 
Spey, which here forms a good har- 
bour. The houfes are moftly built of 
clay, but the ftreets are regularly laid 
out, and, upon the whole, the town 
has a neat appearance. It is a burgh 
of barony, of which the Duke of Gor- 
don is fuperior, containing nearly 700 - 
inhabitants. The immenfe quantities 
of wood, which are annually floated 
down the Spey from the forefts of 
Strathfpey and Badenoch, has rend- 
ered Garmouth a place of fome confe- 
quence. The Engliih merchants, who 
have rented the forefts, having here 
eftablifhed their great fales, of courfe 
a number of veffels have been built at 
this place from 30 to 500 tons burden, 
entirely of homegrown wiod. Two 
faw mills have been erect d for ma- 
nufacturing the timber, and about 30 
fliip carpenters are conftantly em- 
ployed. Befides thofe built by the 
company, feveral veffels have been 
built by private perfons. The falmon 
here is alfo a means of increafing the 
trade ; feveral floops being conftantly 
employed carrying falmon to London 
during the fifhing feafon. 

Garnock ; a river in Ayrfhire. It 
takes its rife in the parifh of Kilbirnie, 
from a lofty hill called the Mifty Law % 
and taking a courfe W. wafhing the 
towns of Kilwinning and Dairy in its 
progrefs, pours impetuoufly into the 
fea near the town of Irwin. Like all 
rivers which take their rife in high 
grounds, the Garnock is liable to Hid- 
den rifings, often occafioning a great 
deal of mifchief by its inundations. 

Garry ; a lake in Perthfhire, of 
confiderable extent, which difcharges 
itfelf by a river of the fame name, and 
taking a S. wefterly courfe, receives 
the Britar near Dalnacardoch inn, the 
Tilt near the caftle of Blair-Athol, 
and the Tummel feveral miles below 
the Pafs of Gillicrankie ; and, finally, 
lofes itfelf in the Taj near Logierait, 


7t is one of the moft turbulent and 
rapid rivers in Perthfhire ; every part 
of its courfe being over a rocky bed, 
and in many places producing feve- 
ral high waterfalls. 

Garry is alio the name of a lake 
and river in Invernefsfhire, which dis- 
charges its waters into Loch Oich, and 
gives name to the diftridt of Glengarry, 
foftened in pronunciation into Glen- 
gar y. 

GARTLY ; a parifh in Banfffnire, 
of an irregular oval form, extending 
about 12 miles in length, and 6 in 
breadth at the middle. It lies in the 
diftricT: termed Strathbogie, having the 
river Bogie running through it in a 
Terpentine courfe. The hills, which 
lie on the border of the parifh, are 
moftly covered with heath, and afford 
plenty of mofs to the neighbouring 
pariflies, and the town of Huntly : 
from thefe hills feveral brooks run into 
the Bogie; and the valleys-, watered by 
thefe ftreams, are exceedingly fertile, 
and tolerably cultivated. There is an 
ancient ruin, called the Place ofGartly, 
the property of the Duke of Gordon, 
who is indeed fole proprietor of the 
parifh. There is an excellent flate 
quarry of a bluifh colour, much e- 
fteemed, and a limeftone quarry of 
rather inferior quality. In 1793, the 
number of inhabitants was about 1 800. 
GARVALD and BARO; an united 
parifh in Haddingtonfhire. It is of 
an irregular figure, extending from E. 
to VV. about 9 miles, and about 5 
from N. to S. It takes in a confider- 
able extent of the Lammermuir hills ; 
the foil of which is thin and gravellyj 
covered with heath, and abounding 
withfwamps and; the grounds 
which lie to the N. are of a deep rich 
clay foil, capable of railing any kind 
of crop. The village of Garvald is 
finely fituated on the fmall river Hopes, 
and contains upwards of 200 inhabit- 
ants. Nuitratv, the property of the 
Marquis of Tweedale, was formerly a 
nunnery, belonging to the priory of 
Haddington, and exhibits marks of 
great antiquity s Hopes, the feat of 
Mr. Hay, is a beautiful houfe, fur- 
rounded with extenfive plantations 
A great part of the policies of Tefter- 
houfe, the relidence of the Marquis of 
Tweedale, is within the bounds of this 
parifh. The ruins of White-cajik, and 
©f the caftie of fejier, are exceedingly 


gr.ind and magnificent. There is 
plenty of excellent freeftone, but no 
other mineral of value has yet been 
diicovered. Population in 1793, 730. 
Garvie ; a confiderable river in 
Rofsfhire. It has its fource in the 
neighbourhood of Loch Broom, on the 
W. coaft of the county ; and, travell- 
ing it in a S. E. direction, falls into the 
river Connon, feveral miles before it 
falls into the Cromarty Frith. 

GARVOCK ; a parifh in the coun- 
ty of Kincardine, of an irregular figure * 
about 8 miles in length, and 4 in 
breadth, containing about 8000 acres, 
of which not more than 2600 are ara- 
ble. The uncultivated ground lies 
high, and is in general covered with 
heath, whins, 6r broom. There is an 
annual fair held in the month of Au- 
guft, near the church, called St. 
James's fair, which is one of the befc 
attended in the county. Population 
in 1791, 460. 

GASK ; a parifh in the county of 
Perth. It is nearly fquare, compre- 
hending a fuperficies of about 4J miles* 
A Roman caufeway runs directly 
through the middle of the parifh, 
pointing weftward to Ardoch, in the 
parifh of Muthil, where are the diftiniffc 
veftiges of an encampment, and eaft* 
ward to the part where the Romans 
are faid to have eroded the Tay into 
Strathmore. As this occupies the 
higheft ground of the parifh, the fur- 
face flopes gently down on both fides ; 
the N. tide being covered with a fine 
plantation, and the other laid out in 
fertile cultivated fields, down to the 
banks of the Erne, which bounds it 
on the S. Population in 1790, 486. 

lage in the parifh of Girthon, in the 
ftewartry of Kirkcudbright. It is 
quite of modern erection, the firlt 
houfe being built about 40 years ago, 
to ferve as an inn for the accommoda- 
tion of travellers from Dumfries to 
Portpatrick. The tituation is one of 
thofe feemingly intended by nature as 
a feat of a town ; in a beautiful and 
fertile vale ; by the fide of a fine river, 
fo near the Solway Frith as to be 
eafily rendered navigable to merchant 
veffels ; in a neighbourhood where 
every article of provifioa could he had 
at a cheap rate. With thefe advan- 
tages, it is no wonder that Mr. Mur- 
rav, the proprietor, mould have pre- 
1 A a 

G I 



moted the erection of a village. Ac- 
cordingly, he built his elegant manfion 
of Cally, and invited inhabitants to 
fettle and form a village, about a mile 
diftant, by offering very advantageous 
terms of feu. It. is built on a regular 
plan, confifting of 3 ftreets, running 
parallel to the river Fleet ; over which 
there is a handfome bridge, commu- 
nicating with a fuburb on the weftern 
fide of the river. In a fhort time the 
village rofe to confiderable fize, is 
flow more uniformly handfome in its 
buildings, and more pleafant in its 
fituation, than any other town in 
Galloway. Soon it became a place 
of confiderable trade, having a tan- 
nery, feveral cotton works, and 8 or 
30 velTels belonging to the port. In 
1795, it was erected into a burgh of 
barony, under the fupericrity of Mr. 
Murray, with power to hold a weekly 
market, and feveral fairs. It has a 
public library, eitaMifhed on a liberal 
plan, to which mofl of the inhabitants 
are contributors. In 1795, it contain- 
ed nearly 1200 inhabitants. 

Gauir ; a river in Perthfhire, which 
ifl'ues from Loch Rannoch, and, unit- 
ing with the Erricht, acquires the name 
of the Tummel, which afterwards falls 
into the Tay at Logierait. 

George (Fort) ; a Itrong and re- 
gular fortrefs, in the parifli of Arder- 
fier in Intrernefs, fituated on a penin- 
fula running into the Moray Frith, 
and completely commanding the en- 
trance of the harbour of Invernefs, 
which is 10 miles diftant. It has a 
governor, lieutenant-governor, and o- 
ther inferier officers ; and, befides two 
invalid companies," it is generally gar- 
lifoned with either one or two march- 
ing regiments. It has been lately oc- 
cupied as a Mate prifon ; feveral of 
the leaders of the Late Iriih rebellion 
being there in confinement. 

GIGHA ; one of the Hebrides, an- 
nexed to ArgyUfhire, and to that dif- 
trict of it named Kintyre, from which 
it is feparated by a channel 3% miles 
broad. It is of a pretty regular ob- 
long figure, being 7 miles in length, 
and i\ in breadth. The coaft on the 
W. fide is rocky and bold, except at 
each end, where the rocks gradually 
extend about half a mile out to fea : 
on the E. fide there are feveral points 
jutting out, and a few funk rocks, 
which renders the navigation danger- 

ous to flrangers: between thefe points 
are feveral bays or creeks, where final! 
veiFels can be fafely moored. One of 
the bays, called Airdmeanifh, near the 
church, has good anchorage in 6 or 7 
fathom water. The fmall ifland of 
Car a lies at 1^ miles diftance on the 
S. and in the middle of the found, be- 
twixt them, is the final! uninhabited 
ifland of Gigultcm, near which is good 
anchoring ground for the largeft vef- 
fels. The general appearance of Gi- 
gha is low and fiat, except towards 
the W. fide, -where the ground rifes 
into mountains of confiderable eleva- 
tion : except in this quarter, the whole 
ifland is arable, and the foil is a light 
loam, with a mixture in fome places 
of fand, mofs, or clay. There are fe- 
veral caves in the rocks, which are 
very great curiofities. There are fe- 
veral cairns, particularly the Carn-na- 
faire, and the Cam Ban, which are 
faid to point out the fcenes of the ex- 
ploits of Fingal's heroes, in their con- 
tefts with the fons of the King of 
Lochlin. There are no trees at pre- 
fect on the ifland, but many large 
roots of oak are found in the moffes, 
indicative of the former exiftence of 
woods. The ifland is well fupplied 
with fprings, which afford water fuffi- 
cient to turn two corn mills. The 
fand banks abound with excellent fdh. 
Much fea weed is thrown afhore, 
which is employed as a manure, and 
partly burned into kelp. The pro- 
perty of the ifland belongs to Mr. 
M'Neill of Gigha, Mr. M'Neill of 
Gallafhoillie, and Mr. Stevenfon of 
Airdglamie ; but the whole is a ba- 
rony, held in feu from the Duke of 
Argyll. Gigha and Cara form one 
parochial diitrid, of which the Buke 
of Argyll, and Mr. M'Niell of Gigha, 
are vice patrons. The number of in- 
habitants are about 600 ; and the va- 
lued rent of the ifland is 1271. 5 s. id. 


a noted pafs in the Highlands of A- 
thol. Vide Killicrankie. 

Gilt (Loch) ; a final! arm of the 
fea in Argyllshire, running off from 
Loch Fyne in a N. W. direction. It is 
only remarkable as being the point, 
from which the long projected Crhian 
Canal is intended to go off, to join 
the Atlantic ocean at the bay of Q •'•- 



GIRTHON ; a parifh in the ftew- 
?.i ty of Kirkcudbright. It extends from 
N. to S. about ao miles in length, 
and from 3 to 5 in breadth. The fur- 
face and foil are remarkably varied : 
the northern half, and all along the 
eaftern boundary being bleak, hilly, 
covered with heath, and .interfperfed 
with feveral lakes, which empty their 
waters into the river Fleet : of thefe 
Loch Fleet, from whence the river takes 
its rife, Loch Scero, Loch Grutmock, and 
Loeb Wbyanyan, are the chief. The 
•river Fleet bounds the parifh m the 
W. poifeffing a falmon h!hing of fmall 
value : on its banks is lately eftabiilh- 
ed the thriving village of Gatehouse, 
containing 1150 inhabitants. Near 
this village is Cally, the beautiful re- 
fidence _of James Murray, Efq. of 
Broughton, furro.unded with beautiful 
gardens and exteniive plantations. The 
parifh, including the village of Gate- 
boufe, contained in 1793, 1790 inhabit- 

GIRVAN; a confiderable village 
and parifh in Ayrfhire. The town is 
Situated at the mouth of the river Gir- 
van, and appears to have been a place 
of confiderable antiquity. It is a poft 
town, on the great road from Ayr to 
Portpatrick. It poflefies many advan- 
tages for trade and manufacture, hav- 
ing abundance of excellent coal and 
limeftone in the neighbourhood ; and 
the harbour, at the mouth of the river, 
being in its prefent Rate commodious, 
and ltill capable of much improvement. 
It is very .neatly built, and chiefly inha- 
bited by weavers of cotton and woollen 
cloths. The town is a burgh of ba- 
rony ; the charter of which was ori- 
ginally granted to Thomas Boyd, Efq. 
of Balloghtoul, on whole eftate it was 
built ; the charter was afterwards re- 
newed by King William in 1696; but, 
till the year 1785, the privileges of e- 
lectingmagiftrates was never exercifed. 
It is now governed by z bailies, and 
10 counfellors, annually elected : and 
the town enjoys all the privileges per- 
taining to other burghs of the fame 
kind. It contains about 1000 inhabit- 
ants. The parifh of Girt an extends 
about 9 miles in length along the Car- 
rick coaft of the Atlantic ocean, and 
the breadth varies from a to 6. To- 
wards the S. the furface is hilly, but 
the eminences are chiefly covered with 
ihort grafs, affording excellent flieep 

paflure : the low grounds are abund- 
antly fertile, and well cultivated. The 
coaft is generally flat and fandy, inter- 
fperfed with large whinftones, with 
which mod of the houfes are built. 
There is a confiderable bed of gyp/urn, 
or plafter of Paris, and feveral beds of 
rock marl. There are feveral remains 
Oi encampments on the hills, but none 
of them are of fuch importance as to 
deferve particular notice. Population 
in 1793, 1725. 

Girvan ; a river in Ayrfhire, takes 
its rife in the parifh of Muirkirk, near 
the fource of the Doon. It runs S. W. 
through the diftrict of Carrick, and 
pours its watersinto the Atlantic ocean 
at the town which bears its name. 
The vale through which it paffes is a- 
dorned with much beautiful fcenery, 
and with many elegant feats, anfwer- 
ing exactly to Buchannan's defcrip- 
tion, when he fays H, multis tnllis ama- 
nij cingitur." The landholders on its 
banks, have long applied with won- 
derful affiduity to adorn and enrich 
their lands with all the modern im- 
provements of hufbandry ; and none 
more fuccefsfully than Sir Adam Fer- 
gufon of Kilkerran, and Mr. Hamil- 
ton of Bargenny. The fcenery of the 
fine old Scottifh fong, entitled " The 
Earl of Cafftllh'' Lady" is laid on its 
banks ; and its beauties have been fui*- 
ther celebrated by the poet Kennedy? 
whofe poems, particularly his " Flyting 
zyi' Dunbar," are preferved in Banna- 
tyne's collection. At the mouth of the 
Girvan is a valuable falmon fifhing, 
and its seftuary forms a tolerable har- 

GLADSMUIR; a. parifh in the 
county of Haddington, lying on the 
S. bank of the Frith of Forth ; and 
bounded on the S. by the fmall river 
Tyne i containing in all about 6000 a- 
cres, of which one half may be under 
tillage; the ground rifes in the'middle 
to a ridge, which is a heathy barren 
muir ; but gradually on each fide to- 
wards the river and the Frith, it im- 
proves in fertility. The whole parifh 
abounds with coal, and feveral pits 
are wrought. This parifh gave birth 
to George Heriot, who founded the 
hofpital in Edinburgh, which bears 
his name ; and what is more to ths 
honour of the paiiih, it was the firft 
fettlement of the late Principal Robert- 
fon, who here compofed his invaluable 
A a 2 


G L 

" Hijtory of Scotland." Population in 
1791, 1380. 

. GLAMMISS ; a fmall town and pa- 
rifh in the county of Forfar. The pa- 
rifti is about 12 miles in length, and 
its greateft breadth is about 5 miles, 
but in fome places it is contracted to 
1. It occupies the middle of the fer- 
tile valley of Strathmore, and part of 
the ridge of Sidlaw hills, which are 
rocky, though of inconfiderable height. 
The foil of the lower parts is in gene- 
ral good, well cultivated, and produces 
plentiful crops. Improvements in a- 
griculture have been carried on with 
ardour, and the difcovery of marl in 
the neighbourhood has infured fuccefs. 
The loch of Forfar borders with the 
parifh, from which runs the river Dean 
through the whole extent, till it falls 
into the I/la. The town of Glammifs 
lies about 3 miles W. of Forfar, and 
contains about 500 inhabitants; and 
the adjoining fuburb, called the New- 
town of Glammifs contains about 150. 
The principal manufacture is of yarn 
and linen cloth, which, indeed, forms 
the ftaple manufacture of the whole 
county. Near the town is the caftle of 
Glammifs, the featof the Earlof Strath- 
more ; it is of very ancient date, and 
was at firft a royal refidence ; in 
1372, it was granted by Robert II. 
to the Comes de Lyon, his fpecial fa- 
vourite; who, not long after, received 
Robert's daughter in marriage. It is 
now a large edifice, fituated on the 
bank of the Dean, commanding an 
extenfive profpect of the beautiful vale 
from which its owner takes his title. 
There are feveral rude obelilks and 
cairns, which are faid to point out the 
place of the murder of King Malcolm 
II. Befides excellent freeftone, there 
are feveral fine gray flate quarries; and 
a lead mine was about 50 years ago 
attempted, but the vein was too incon- 
iiderabi'r to pay the expence of work- 
ing. Glammifs gives a fecond title of 
Baron to the family of Strathmore. 
Population in 1790, about 2040. 

l.-irge and populous 
city. fi1 iat< - Nether Ward of 

Lanarkfhire, on tne banks of the river 
Clyde, in 55 ° 51' 32' N. latitude, and 
4 15' W. longitude from London. 
11 is one of the molt ancient towns in 
Scotland its origin being generally 
attributed to St: Mungo or St. Kenti- 
eern, wno is faid to have founded a 

bifhdpric here in the year 560, which 
was afterwards erected into an archi- 
epifcopal fee in 1484. The principal 
part of the city occupies a plain, on 
the N. fide of the river, and confifts 
of many ftreets, laid out in a regular 
and elegant plan ; the houfes of which 
have alio a neat and regular appear- 
ance. It poffeffes many magnificent 
public buildings, of which the Ca- 
thedral or High Church is the chief. 
It is a large edifice, fituated on the 
high ground northward of the city, 
and is faid to be the only. Gothic 
church remaining entire in North Bri- 
tain ; it was begun by John Achaius 
Bifhop of Glalgow, in 1123, and was 
continued by fucceffive bifhops, until 
it was finifhed in the manner in which 
it ftands at prefent. Great as was the 
wealth of the fee of Glafgow, we find 
it infufficient for rearing and com- 
pleting fo large a building : they had 
therefore recourfe to all the churches 
of Scotland for affiftance, and indul- 
gences were liberally granted to thofe 
whoaffiftedtherearingof that building. 
It had been intended to be built in the 
form' of a crofs, though the tranfverie 
part has never been built; it is 284 feet 
long, 65 broad, and 90 feet high with- 
in walls, with 2 large towers, on one 
of which a fpire was built about the 
year 1420, making the whole 220 feet 
in height. The bold and lofty arches 
in the body of the church, formed by 
the concurrent ramifications of the 
oppofite columns and the maffive pil- 
lars, would exhibit a grand perfpective 
of the melancholy caft, were not the 
effect almoft deftroyed by the 2 par- 
titions which divide this church into 3 
places of worihip. Befides this church, 
there are 7 or 8 others, which are 
neat buildings, but are not of iufficient 
confequence to deferve notice. The 
College .is an extenfive and venerable 
building, fituated on the E. fide of the 
High-ftreet ; vide Glasgow (Uni- 
versity of.) The Town-houfc is a 
magnificent and truly elegant build- 
ing: the front is adorned with a range 
of Ionic pilaiters,' elevated on ftrong 
rufticated pillars with arches, forming 
a piazza below, and the top of the 
building is ornamented with a baluf- 
trade and vafes; it contains a large 
affembly-room and town-hall, with 
other chambers for the town's records, 
Sec. Oppofite to the front of this 

G L A 


building is the Exchange, a fquare 
building, with an equeftrian ftatue of 
King William III. in the center. On 
the E. fide of the Town-houfe is the 
Tolbooth, with a neat tower, furmount- 
ed by a fpire. In the ftreet called 
Bridge-gate, is the Guild-hall or Mer- 
chants' '-hoafe, which is alfo adorned 
with an elegant fpire 200 feet in height. 
The Tontine Coffee-room is one of the 
moft elegant and complete in Britain : 
the principal room is between 70 and 
80 feet in length, with correfpondent 
dimenfions of heighth and breadth, 
lighted by feveral large windows: the 
adjoining tavern is not inferior in ele- 
gance, being built by fubfcription, on 
the fyftem of furvivbrfhip. The Thea- 
tre, Guard-hoife, and Markets, are alfo 
deferving of notice. Of charitable in- 
ftitutions there are many in Glafgow, 
of which the chief are the Town's 
Hofpital, or Poor's-hoi/fe, with the an- 
nual income of about 2400I. per ami. 
for the maintenance and fupport of 
the aged poor and children ; Hutche- 
fon's Hofpital, for the fupport and e- 
ducation of 48 poor boys ; Merchants' 
Hofpital, with a revenue of above ioool. 
per annum, for the relief of decayed 
members, their widows, and depend- 
ents ; the Trades' Hofpital for the fame 
purpofe, with rather fmaller funds : a 
large Infirmary has alio been opened, 
on nearly the fame footing as the Royal 
Infirmary of Edinburgh. Befides thefe, 
there are numerous mortifications for 
Charity Schools ; theincorporationshave 
alio eftabliihed funds for the fupport of 
their decayed members and widows ; 
and, in like manner, the Faculty of 
Phyficians and Surgeons, eftabliihed 
by charter in 1599, and the Faculty 
of Procurators, have each considerable 
funds for the fame purpofes. Inde- 
pendent of thefe inftitutions, there are 
a great number of Friendly Societies, 
for fupporting their members in dif- 
trefs. On each fide of the town, the 
barony of Glafgow, containing the 
villages of Caltonvn, Graham' stown, 
Park-houfe, Camlachie, &'c. increafe 
the extent of the city ; and on the o- 
ther fide of the Clyde, the village of 
Gorbals extends towards the S. com- 
municating with the city by two hand- 
fome bridges. The Clyde is navigable 
for veffels of 7 or 8 feet water as 
far as the bridge ; but the large veffels 
belonging to the merchants of Glaf- 

gow, nop at New Port-Glafgow, ©r 
Greenock, to deliver their cargoes. 
Before the eftablifhment of the bifhop- 
ric, Glafgow feems fcarcely to have 
been ranked as a town ; but the con- 
courfe of people naturally gathered 
round, and connected with that eftab- 
lifhment, foon rendered it a place of 
fome importance ; houfes began to be 
erected in the neighbourhood of the 
cathedral, and thefe were gradually 
extended to the river, as the inhabit- 
ants turned their attention to com- 
merce. About the year 11 72, Glaf- 
gow was erected into a burgh by Wil- 
liam (firnamedtheLion,) King of Scot- 
land, in favour of St. Kentigern, and 
Jocelin Bifhop of Glafgow ; which 
deed and charter was confirmed and 
extended by fubfequent monarchs. In 
1450, James II. erected the city and. 
barony of Glafgow into a regality, in 
favour of the Bifhop, who, in order 
to fecure the greater obedience of his 
tenants, vaffals, and other inhabit- 
ants, appointed powerful nobles to 
be their bailies of regality. This office 
was long held by the Dukes of Len- 
nox, who, in 1621, acquired from the 
Bifhop the abfolute grant of the office 
In a ihort time, the Duke of Lennox 
refigned it to the crown, who, after 
the revolution, appointed bailie6 of 
the regality. In 1 611, James II. grant- 
ed the city a very ample charter, by 
which it was erected into a royal burgh, 
to be holden under his majefty in free 
burgage. In 1636, Charles I. granted 
further privileges to it, confirming 
its power of electing a bailie on the 
river Clyde, who, within his diftrict, 
was empowered to exercife a mari- 
time, civil, and criminal jurifdiction. 
This charter was ratified by parlia- 
ment in 1661 ; and, after the revolu- 
tion, confirmed with additional privi- 
leges, by an act in 1690. By this laft 
act the council have the power of no- 
minating and choofing their own ma- 
giftrates, and other officers of the 
burgh, as fully and freely as the city 
of Edinburgh, or any other royal 
burgh. The government is vefted in 
a provoft and 3 bailies, a dean of 
guild, deacon-convener, and a trea- 
furer, affifted with a common council 
of 13 merchants, and 12 trades, or 
mechanics. The provoft is, from cour- 
tefyand cuftom, ftyled Lord Provoft ; 
he is the lord of the police of the city, 



prcfident of the community, and, ex 
officio, one of the juftices of the peace. 
The bailies have the fame office as al- 
derman, and hold a court weekly, for 
deciding, in a fummary manner, all 
caufes under il. fterling. The reve- 
nue of the city, in the management of 
the town council, is about 7000I. per 
annum, and arifes from certain duties 
on imports and exports, from rents of 
lands, &c. &c. With thefe funds the 
expencesof paving, lighting, and clean- 
ing the ftreets, are defrayed, and all 
the neceffary expences of the civil go- 
vernment. The police of the city is 
very ftrict ; and a Bridewell was, in 
1789, eftablifhed for the confinement 
and punifhment of petty offenders. 
The firft branch of trade in which the 
citizens of Glafgow engaged, feems to 
have been the curing and exportation 
of the falmon caught in the river Clyde, 
fo early as the year 1420; but, the firft 
authentic document reflecting the 
trarle of the city, is in 1546, when it 
appears that they had veffels at fea, 
which made captures of the fhipping 
of the Englifh. About the year 1680, 
we find that the merchants of Glafgow 
continued to export confiderable quan- 
tities of cured falmon and herrings to 
France, and brought back brandy, 
wine, and fait in return,, The Union 
with England, in 1707, opened new 
views, and awakened the energies of 
trade amongft the inhabitants of Glaf- 
gow. Before this period, the ports of 
America were only open to the fhips 
of our fouthern neighbours ; and the 
only ports with which Glafgow could 
carry on commercial Iranfactions, lay 
to the eaftward, and the neceffary and 
dangerous circumnavigation of the 
ifland proved a very confiderable bar 
to the extenfion of their commerce. 
At the Union, they had the liberty of 
a free trade to America and the Weft 
Indies ; and taking advantage of this 
favourable circumftance, they began 
to profecute a trade with Virginia and 
Maryland, fending out goods for the 
ufe of the colonies, and returning with 
cargoes of tobacco. At the beginning 
of this trade they had no veffels of 
their own, but chartered veffels from 
Whitehaven, Briftol, Liverpool, and 
pther Englifh ports. The firft veffel, 
belonging to Glafgow, that crofTed the 
Atlantic, failed from the Clyde Vi the 
year 171 8. At this time alfo Dumbar- 

ton was the harbour for their fhip- 
ping ; and, afterwards, at Greenock 
and New Port-Glafgow, the ftorehoufes 
for their goods were built. Until the 
year 1750, the American trade gradu- 
ally advanced, when a new fyftem of 
commeixebegantobe adopted: crowds 
of young men, from every quarter of 
Scotland, failed for America ; and, in- 
ftead of their former method of barter, 
moft of the merchants of Glafgow had 
warehoufes in the new world, managed 
by a brother, a fon, or a partner. This 
plan confiderably increafed the extent 
of their dealings ; and, before the un- 
fortunate war broke out, which termi- 
nated in a feparation of the colonies 
from their mother country, the trade 
of Glafgow had attained its greateft 
height. Some idea may be conceived 
of its extent from this fact, that out 
of 90,000 hogfheads of tobacco im- 
ported into Britain, Glafgow alone 
engroffed 49,000. The American war 
was a dreadful ftroke to Glafgow. 
Long credits had been ufually given 
to America, and, when the war broke 
out, many of the debts were unpaid ; 
and, as the fortunes of almoft all the 
merchants were embarked in the trade, 
it proved the ruin of many, who had 
before reckoned themfelves poffeffed 
of independent fortunes. But, though 
the commerce of the city was thus 
inteiTupted, the fpirit which had been 
raifed was not extinguifhed ; the mer- 
chants began to look for new fources, 
and extended their commerce to the 
Weft Indies, and the continent of Eu- 
rope ; and, though their {hipping, at 
the time of their greateft extent of A-* 
merican trade, was more than it is at 
prefent, being upwards of 60,000 tons, 
yet it appears to be confiderably on the 
increafe, as the fhips belonging to 
Clyde in 1783, were only 386, and 
their tonnage 22,896 ; whereas, in 
1790, their number was 476, and their 
tonnage 46,581 ; and they have fo 
much increafed of late, that the vef- 
fels employed in the trade of Clyde 
in 1797, outnumbered thofe of the 
preceding year by 252. The lofs, 
however, of the foreign trade, was 
fully compenfated by the great increafe 
of the manufactures, which had been 
carried on to a confiderable ' extent 
long before. The linen trade began 
in 1725, and was for a long time the 
ftaple manufacture of Glafgow \ but, 


•f late, that has yielded to the cotton, 
the value of which, by a calculation 
in 1791, amounted to upwards of 
1,500, oooh per annum. The manu- 
factures of pottery and delft ware, of 
glafs, of ropes and cordage, and the 
tanning of leather, are carried on to 
great extent ; and the art of type- 
founding has been long practifed, and 
brought to greater perfection than in 
any other part of the world. The in- 
creafe of the commerce and manufac- 
tures of the city gave rife, in the year 
1783, to a fociety, known by the name 
of The Chamber of Commerce and Ma- 
nufaclures ; the intention of which 
was, to unite the influence of the mer- 
chants and manufacturers, and thus 
to render them more ufeful to the 
communities to which they belonged ; 
and, by eftabliihing a public fund, to 
give ftrength and efficacy to thofe 
meafures which might tend to the 
public good. Many gentlemen in 
Glafgow, and the neighbouring towns, 
forefeeing the benefit likely to accrue 
from the fcheme, fubfcribed to it, and 
obtained a royal charter, incorporating 
them into a body politic, managed by 
30 directors; and they have fince been 
of effential fervice, in the protection 
of the trade. Glafgow has feveral 
banking companies; two cf which 
iffue their own notes. The parifii of 
the Barony of Glafgow and the city, 
were formerly comprehended under 
one parochial diftrict. ; but the popu- 
lation having fo much increafed, it 
was found more convenient to have 
them disjoined ; and the landward 
part of the parifh, as diftinguiihed 
from the town, was denominated the 
Barony. This parifh is both large 
and populous; extending from a to 5 
or 6 miles around the city, except on 
the S. fide, where the Clyde forms the 
boundary. There are no confiderable 
eminences, but the furface rifes into 
many beautiful fvvells, which greatly 
diverfify the appearance, and add 
much to the beauty of the country. 
On the banks of the Clyde the land- 
fcape is rich, various, and delightful ; 
the river winding through highly cul- 
tivated fields, and is frequently loft a- 
mongft the trees ; its banks interfperfed 
with many gentlemen s houfes; the large 
and populous city of Glafgow, fcarce- 
ly diftinguiihed from the numerous 
villages which furround it ; the vene- 


rable cathedral, and the numerous 
fpires ; pi efent to the eye many ftriking 
views, and fill the mind with the plea» 
fing ideas of induftry, wealth, fecurity, 
and happinels. The foil is in general 
fertile ; partly a rich clay, and partly 
a light fand ; but by far the greater 
part is covered with the extenfive and 
populous villages, which form a part 
rather than the fuburbs of the city. 
The manufactures of thefe villages are 
fo intimately connected with thofe of 
the city, that they have already been 
treated of under that fection. But 
there is alfo carried on an extenfive 
manufacture cf cudbear* a dye fluff 
prepared from the corcur, or liechen 
ompkaloidcs, a fpecies of rock mofs, 
which is found in the Highlands of 
Scotland, Sweden, andLapland. There: 
are alfo feveral printfields and exten- 
five bleachfields within the diftrict. 
The villages within the barony are 
named the Calton and Bridgeto7i, Gra- 
bamjlon, Anderjlon, Fhmiefton, Clayjlap* 
Nortb-zuoodjide, Coivcaddins, Park-houfe, 
Camlacbie, Parkbead, Wejhnuh; Sbet- 
tlefton, Ligbtburn, Sec. which contain 
in all nearly 19,000 inhabitants. The 
fide cut from the great canal and the 
Monkland cnnal, interfect the parifii, 
and are of the greateft confequence in 
promoting the manufactures. There 
is great plenty of freeftone, of differ- 
ent qualities, and ofivbin, in the neigh- 
bourhood ; but no marble, limeftone, 
fiate, or granite, are found within fe- 
veral miles. Many of the mountains 
exhibit marks of volcanic origin, and 
bafaltic columns' are diftinctly to be 
feen near the village of Calton.. Coal 
is found in great abundance ; and, it 
is calculated, that the annual value of 
what is raifed, is upwards of 30,0001. 
fterling. In fprne of the pits there is 
a vein of ironftone, of very good qua- 
lity, of a whitiih colour, which is ufed 
in the fmelting furnaces in the neigh- 
bourhood. There are alfo in the till 
found in thefe pits, impreflions of fern 
and other' plants, and ihells of differ- 
ent kinds, and there are many foffi! 
marine bodies ; particularly, different 
fpecies of fhells and entrocbi. The 'wa- 
ter with which the city and fuburbs 
are fupplied is not in general of the 
beft quality, containing fmall quanti- 
ties of felenite in folution ; there are 
many chalybeate fprings, and fome of 
which contain calcareous earth, giving- 


them a petrifying quality. At Ander- 
Jlon, a fpring contains a fmall quantity 
oifoda, or mineral alkali. On the S. 
fide of the Clyde, lies the village of 
Gorbals of Glasgow, which was 
disjoined from the parifh of Govern, 
and erected into a feparate parifh in 
1 791. It is a barony, of which the 
magiftrates of the city are fuperior; 
and the inhabitants are generally oc- 
cupied in the fame manufactures" as 
the inhabitants of the other fide of the 
Clyde. It poffefles ieveral coalleries, 
one of which employs. 200 perfons. 
The foil is partly a deep rich loam, 
partly clay, and a great part is of fand, 
many fathoms deep. It contained in 
1793, about 5800 inhabitants ; and the 
new ftreets, which have begun to be 
feued, are advancing with great rapid- 
ity, and, when finiflied, are calculated 
to contain upwards of 50,000 inhabit- 
ants. The population, therefore, in 
1793, of this extenlive commercial 
eity, with thofe of its fuburbs, which 
are fcarcely to be diftinguifhed from 
it, may be ftated thus : 
Within the royalty of the 

city, ------- 415777 

In the villages of the barony 

parifh, 18,451 

In the village and barony of 

Gorbals, ------ 5,800 

Total, 66,028 
Glasgow (Univep.sityof.) This 
celebrated feminary of education was 
founded in 1450, by William Turn- 
bull Biihop of Glafgow; and, the fame 
year, at the requeft of James II. Pope 
Nicholas V. granted a bull, conftitut- 
ing it a " Jtudium generate, tarn in 
tbeologia, etin jure canonum ct civiti, 
quam in arhbus et in quacunque licita 
jaculiate" to continue in all times 
coming in the city of Glafgow ; and, 
by his apoftolical authority, ordained 
that its doctors, matters, readers, and 
ftudents, ihould enjoy all the privi- 
leges, &c. granted to the Jtudium ge- 
nerate, eftablifhed in the city of Bono- 
ilia ; and that the Biihop and his fuc- 
celfors in the fee, fhould, ex officio, be 
chancellors of the faid univerlity. The 
founder endowed it with an ample 
revenue, and King James II. granted 
it many immunities and privileges. 
At its eftabliihment, the inftitution 
confifted of the chancellpr, rector, 
dean of faculty, a principal who 


taught theology, and 3 regents or 1 
profeffors of philofophy. The reform- 
ation in religion, eftablifhed by act of 
parliament in 1560, brought the uni- 
verlity alm'oft to annihilation ; its 
members, who were eccleiiaftics, dif- 
perfed themfelves to avoid the popu- 
lar fury ; and the chancellor, James 
Beaton, carried with him all the char- 
ters, &c. to France, and depofited 
them in the Scots college of Paris, to- 
be reftored when popery was re-efta- 
bliihed. The univerfity continued in 
that reduced ftate for fome time, un- 
til James VI. granted it a new char- 
ter of erection, and beftowed on it 
fome valuable property ; fince which 
period, its reputation has been con- 
ftantly increafmg. The prefent ftate 
of the univerfity is a chancellor, ge- 
nerally a nobleman of high rank, a 
rector, dean of faculty, a principal, 
and 16 profeffors, of which one is for 
law, 4 for theology, j for the ftudy of* 
medicine, and thofe fubjects connected 
with it, and the remainder for the fa- 
culty of arts. The degrees of mafter 
of arts, and doctors of divinity and me- 
dicine, are conferred as in other uni- 
verfities, after the ufual private and 
public trials. The univerfity library, 
to which all the foudents have accefs, 
is a large and valuable collection of 
books ; it has lately been greatly en- 
riched in the mathematical depart- 
ment, by the library of the late cele- 
brated Dr. Robert Simpfon, author of 
the tranflation of Euclid ; and will 
fbon receive aa important addition, 
by a collection of rare books and MSS. 
in every department of fcience, but 
particularly in medicine, bequeathed 
by the late Dr. William Hunter ; who 
has alfo left his extenfive mufeum to 
the univerfity of Glafgow. Befides 
the anatomical preparations, the mu- 
feum contains the collection of ihells, 
corals, infects, and foifils, made by the 
late Dr. Fothergill, and a cabinet of 
medals and coins, ancient and modern, 
the moft complete of the kind in Eu- 
rope. This laft article alone, coft Dr. 
Hunter upwards of 25,0001. The Ob- 
fervatory is well fitted up, and fup- 
plied with the moft improved inftru- 
ments, for the life of the profeffor of 
practical aftronomy. The college 
buildings, though not fplendid, are 
neat and commodious. The princi- 
pal and all the piofeilors poflefs cou- 

G L A 


Veuient houfes contiguous to the pub- 
lic buildings, and the whole is fur- 
rounded with a garden of to acres, 
appropriated to the ufe of the mem- 
bers of the univerfity. The average 
number of fcudents, of all denomina- 
tions, attending the different clafles, is 
conliderably above 6od. 

Glasgow (Anderson's Acade- 
mical Institution), fimilai with 
the univerfity, deferves alio to be no- 
ticed. This inftitution was founded 
in 1796, by the late Mr. Anderfon, 
profeffor of natural philofophy in the 
univerfity of Glafgow, who left to the 
truftees, appointed to conduct it, his 
valuable apparatus, his library, and 
mufeum, as well as his property of 
every kind. From his funds, affifted 
with liberal fubferiptions from other 
public fpirited perfons, a handfome 
and commodious building, containing 
an elegant leclure room, and other 
apartments for the inftruments and 
mufeum, -has been erected. The in- 
tention of this inftitution was to afford 
a regular courfe of instruction to thole 
perfons who do not intend to enter 
any of the univerfities, and to admit 
the ladies to the fame benefits of 
knowledge, which other feminaries 
do not allow : accordingly, courles of 
popular lectures are given, on natural 
and experimental philofophy, or ma- 
thematics, or chemiftry, botany, and 
natural hiftory. 

monlycalled Port-Glasgow; acon- 
fiderable town in Renfrewihire. Vide 

GLASS ; a parifh fituated on both 
fides of the Deveron, partly in the 
county of Aberdeen, and partly in 
that of Banff. Its extent from N. E. 
to S. W. is about 5 miles, and from 
N. W. to S. E. fomewhat more than 4. 
The furface is varied, with a number 
of green hills, which afford pafture for 
black cattle and fheep ; of each of 
which, numbers are reared in the pa- 
rifh. The fori is in general a deep 
loam, tolerably early on the river fide; 
but, in thofe parts which lie at a dif- 
tance, the harveft is very precarious, 
efpecially in cold and wet feafons. 
Population in 1791, .970. 

Glass (Loch) ; a lake in the pa- 
rifh of Kiltearn, in Rofsfhire, about 
5 miles in length, and 1 in breadth. It 
difgharges itfelf by a river of the fame 

name, which, uniting near Erklefs- 
caftle, with the ftreams of Farrar aivi 
Cannlcb, forms the Beauly. 

GLASSARY ; a parifh in Argyll- 
shire. It extends 22 miles in length, 
and is for the moft part 12 in breadth ; 
Its form is nearly rectangular, riling 
gently from both fides to the middle, 
which is occupied by a confiderable 
extent of muir land, covered with 
heath. On the banks of the river Ad 
the foil is a deep rich loam, and on 
the fhores of Loch Fyne, which bounds 
it on the E. it is generally a black 
loam, lying on limeftone rock. Mr. 
Campbell of Knockbuy has his elegant 
refidence in the parifh. There are the 
remains of 3 watch towers on the tops 
of the higheft hills, and feveral cairns 
and upright ftones, which ferve to note 
the place of interment of the fallen 
heroes of former ages. The intended 
canal from Loch Gilp to Loch Crinari, 
would, if carried into execution, in- 
terfecl the fouthern boundary of this 
parifh. Population in 1793, 2568. 

GLASSERTON; a parifh in the 
county of Wigton, fituated oh the 
eaftern coaft of the bay of Luce. It 
extends about -,\ miles in length, and 
its breadth varies from 1 to a| ; its 
natural afpect is rugged, unequal, and 
hilly ; and, towards the N. rocky, 
and only covered with heath : the 
lower tracts are loam, gravel, clay, or 
mofs ; generally of a wet and marfby 
nature. The fea coaft is bold, and the 
rocks afford abundance of fea ware 
for manure, or burning into kelp. In 
the rural economy of the farmers, the 
firft object is the breeding and feeding 
of black cattle, which are commonly 
of the old Galloway breed, with an 
intermixture of the Irifh and Engliih. 
Sheep are alfo reared, and twine are 
fed in confiderable numbers for the 
Englifli markets. Granite and fchiftus 
compote, for the moft part, the ftrata 
of the rocks, with final! interpofed 
ftrata of limeftone and rock marl. 
Phyfgill, the feat of R. Hawthorn Stew- 
art, Eiq. is a fpacious and elegant 
manfion ; Cajlk-Stezvart, the feat of 
Stewart, Efq. is alfo much ad- 
mired ; and the manfion-houfe of Glafs- 
ertou was repaired and modernized in 
the moft elegant manner, when pof- 
feffed by the late Admiral Keith Stew- 
art of Glafferton. Population in 1794, 
about 9CQ. 


GLASSFORD; a parjfh in the 
county of Lanark. It is about 8 miles 
in length, and its average breadth may 
be eftimated at about a. The furfae'e 
is level ; and, in general, the foil is 
productive of good crops, being partly 
a rich ftrong clay, and partly a light 
loam, much encumbered with ftones : 
the eaftern part of the parifh is well 
enclofed with hedgerows and ditches, 
but, in the weftern diftrict, where the 
foil is light and mofiy, no trees will 
thrive, and the hedges foon become 
difeafed, and covered with a thick 
coat of mofs. There is a fmall village, 
containing about 200 inhabitants, who 
are chiefly employed in the cotton 
manufacture. Though there is no 
coal in the parifh, yet it is well fup- 
plied with fuel from, the neighbouring 
coal pits, and from an extenfive mofs, 
on the weftern border. Population in 
1791, 78S. 

GLEN is a name applied to innu- 
merable diftricts in Scotland, iignifying 
a narrow inland valley, of no great 
extent, anddifiinguiihed from a Strath, 
which denotes a long, wide, low lying 
valley, with a chain of lofty mountains 
on each fide. Glens receive the di- 
ftinguifhing appellation, either from 
the names of the rivers which run 
through them: as, Glen Almond, 
*' the vale of the river Almond; Glen 
Esk, " the -vale of the river EJk," &c. 
or from fome peculiar chara&eriftic 
of the place: as, Glen More, i( the 
great vale ;" Glen Gorm, " the blue 
vale," from its heath-clad fides; Glen 
Cairn, " the ft any vale," &c. The 
number of glens in Scotland is fo great, 
that only a few of the moft remark- 
able are given in the following articles. 

GLENBERVIE ; a parifh in the 
county of Kincardine; takes its name 
from its local fituation, being a vale 
or glen through which the water of 
Bervie runs. It is about (>\ miles in 
length, and 5 in breadth, containing, as 
appears by a map of the county, pub- 
lished by Mr. Garden, 13,963 Engliih 
acres : the foil in the upper part of 
the parifh is a bluifli clay, and in the 
lower a light dry loam, abundantly 
fertile : much has lately been done in 
the way of agricultural improvement, 
particularly on the eftates of Mr. Ear- 
clay of Urie, and the late Lord Mon- 
boddo. The village of Drumlithic lies 
*)T. the title of road from Laurencekirk 


to Stonehaven, chiefly inhabited hj 
weavers, and other trade } people. The' 
fmall Kirktoxvn, or village of Glenber* 
vie, has lately been created a barony 
in the family of Douglas. In 1793, 
the parifh contained 1307 inhabitants. 

GLENBUCKET ; a parim in the 
county of Aberdeen ; is about 4 miles 
long, and r broad, lying on the banks 
of a fmall tributary ftream of the Don, 
called the Bucket. The foil is moftly 
a light loam ; on fome farms mixed 
with clay. The whole parim belongs 
to the Earl of Fife. The remains of 
a houfe are ftill to be feen, called Bad- 
enyon, which gives name to that excel- 
lent fong, " John of Badenyon." po- 
pulation in 1795, 4/, 9. 

GLENCAIRN; an extenfive parifh 
in Dumfriesfhire ; its length is about 
11 miles, but its breadth varies from 
3 to 5. Befides the Cairn river, from 
which it receives its name, it is wa- 
tered by feveral fmall rivulets, of which 
the chief are Cajllefern, Craigdarroch, 
and Dal-jjhat; which rife from diftincT 
fources amongft the hills, and unite 
near the village of Minniehive, which 
is the only one in the diflrict. The 
land in general is good ; the holms 
and meadows on the fides of the ri- 
vers are fertile; and next to thefe, the 
rifing grounds are of a light, warm, 
and kindly foil ; and, in the higher 
parts, there is excellent pafture for all 
kinds of cattle, but particularly for 
iheep. At the S. E. fide of the parifh, 
there is a lake called Loch Orr or Urr r 
from which the river of that name 
takes its rife. Mr. Fergufon of Craig- 
darroch, has a fine feat in this neigh- 
bourhood. Population in 1791, about 

GLENCOE ; a vale in Argyllfhire, 
near the head of Loch Etive, noted for 
the cruel maffacre of its unfufpecting 
inhabitants, in 1 691. King William had 
publiihed a proclamation, inviting the 
Highlanders who had been in arms for 
James II. to accept of a general am- 
nefty before the firft of January, on 
pain of military execution after that 
period. Alexander M'Donald, Laird 
of Glencoe, went accordingly to Fort 
William, on the very laft day of De- 
cember, and offered to furrender to 
the governor, who informed him, that 
he muft apply to the civil magiftrate, 
Upon this he repaired with all poffible 
haft'e to Inveraray, the county town, 



aftrd furrendered hitnfelf to the filenfF, 
the time prcferibed having expired one 
day. The fheriff, in confluence of his 
offer to the governor of Fort William, 
before the time had expired, accepted 
his fubmifiion ; and M'Donald having 
taken the oaths, returned to Glencoe, 
with full confidence of fecurity and 
protection. Early, however, in the 
month of February, a party of mili- 
tary, under the command of Captain 
■Campbell of Gleniyon, entered the 
vale, on pretence of levying the taxes 
and hearth money ; and, when inquir- 
ed at by M'Donald if his intention 
was friendly, alPared him on his honour 
that it was. Accordingly, for two 
weeks, the unfufpe&ing inhabitants 
treated their vifiters with every mark 
of attention and friendfliip; but, at 
length, the fatal period arrived ; and, 
on the 13th of February, after M'Don- 
ald and Campbell had fpent the night 
at cards, and departed with mutual 
promifes of the warmeft affection, the 
fignal for execution was given, and 
■the maffacre began : 3.8 perfons were 
murdered in their beds; and, amongft 
thefe, M'Donald Laird of Achtricha- 
tain, the gueft of Glencoe, who had 
fubmitted three months before, and 
had the royal protection in his pocket. 
The defign was, to murder all the 
males in the valley ; but, fortunately, 
forhe of the detachments did not arrive 
in time to fecare the paries, and about 
150 made their efcape. The houfes 
were demolifhed, and the cattle be- 
came a prey to the murderers. The 
women and children were indeed fpared 
the ftroke of death, as if to render 
their fate more cruel ; for, fuch as had 
not died from the fright, were turned 
out naked, at the dead of night, in a 
keen froft, into a wa-fte covered with 
fnow, 6 long miles from any inhabited 
place. Many of them were found dead 
or dying under the rocks and hedges. 
According to Smollet {Continuation, 
vol. i. page 156'}, the Earl of Braidal- 
bin, from perioral enmity to M'Don- 
ald, had concealed the circumflance 
of the furrender from the miniftry ; 
and an order for military execution, 
figned by King William, was tranf- 
mitted to the fecretary of ftate in 
Scotland, and but too fatally executed. 
But the horrid bufinefs was never 
fufficiently examined ; and, notwith- 
standing all the cafuiftry adopted to 

mitigate it, the authors and perpetra- 
tors of the deed are certainly in the 
higheft degree blameable. Glencoe is 
alio famous as the birth-place of Gf- 
fian, as appears from many paffages 
in the poems of that bard ; and many 
of the places are accurately named 
and defcribed. In the middle of the 
vale runs the ftream of Conn. The 
mountain of Maimer rifes on the S, 
and the celebrated Con Fion, the hill 
of Fingal, is fituated on the N. fide of 
the fame vale. 

Glkncroe ; a vale in Argyllshire.: 
one of the paffes to the Highlands, 
near the N. E. extremity of Loch Long. 
The fcenery is wild and fublime in the 
higher! degree: on each fide are moun- 
tains, the mo-ft fteep and rugged ima- 
ginable, with rocks of every fhape 
hanging on their fides ; many of which 
have fallen to the bottom of the glen, 
while others threaten the traveller 
with inftant defer ucbion. In fome 
parts the craggy fummits appear to 
meet over the road ; in others, the 
valley opens, and the fides of it exhi- 
bit patches of vegetation, covered 
with fheep. In the middle of the 
glen runs a considerable brook, near 
which the road is carried, and hun- 
dreds of rills that pour from the 
mountains, form in their defcent in- 
numerable cafcades. There are a few 
miferable .cottages on the iides of the 
road, inhabited by the fhepherds. The 
rocks connft almoft entirely of mica- 
ceousfchijtus, lhining like filver, beau- 
tifully undulated, and in many parts 
imbedded in quartz. In the bed of 
the rivulet are confiderable numbers 
of granitic pebbles, with pebbles of 
fchifius, full of er/ftals dfcheorl. The 
length of Glencroc is between 5 and 6 
miles; the road afcends gently through 
the whole of it, excepting the laft 
mile, where it is very fteep, and car- 
ried in a zig-zag form to the top of 
the hill : here is a feat, and a ftone in- 
fcribed, " Reft and be thankful," placed 
by the twenty-fecond regt. who made 
the road. From this the road turns 
into Gienkbilafs, a vale watered by the 
rivulet Kinlafs, and abounding with the 
fame fcenery as Glencoe, though lefs 
wild and romantic. This laft valley 
1 is terminated by the houfe and poli- 
cies of Ardkinlafs, the feat of Sir Alex- 
; ander Campbell, on the borders of 
I Loch Fvne. 
1 Bb 5 


GLENCROSS; a parifh in Mid- 
Lothian, fituated about 7 miles W 
from Edinburgh. It forms a fquare of 
about 3 miles. The greater part of the 
pariih is adapted for pafturage, being 
part of the Pentland hills ; and in th 
low grounds, the foil is aifo better 
adapted for pafture than tillage. The 
part of the Pentland hills which is in 
this parifh, like the reft of that elevated 
ridge, conlifts of different kinds of 
whinftone, and other primitive ftrata 
while the lower grounds, which form 
part of the valley of Mid -Lothian, 
contain minerals of different kinds, 
termed fecondary ftrata, which are 
commonly fandftone, limeftone, coal, 
and its concomitant foflils. By the 
fide of Glencrofs water, there is a 
vein feveral feet wide, of barytes pr 
heavy fpnr, which is fo frequent an 
attendant on metallic veins, both in 
Scotland and foreign countries, that 
it always affords a probable indication 
. of metals, efpecially of lead. There 
are fome extenfive and beautiful plan- 
tations of larix and other trees, mix- 
ed with laburnums. There are fome 
yefliges of camps at Caftle-Law ; and 
a rude ftone, erected on the fpot, com- 
memorates the battle of Pentland- 
hill, fought on the *8th November, 
1666. Near Wqodhoujdec, the pro- 
perty of A. Erazer Tytler, Efq. judge 
advocate of Scotland, on the borders 
of this pariih, with that of Pennycuik, 
lies the fcene of that favourite Scots 
paftoral, the Gentle Shepherd : at leaft 
there is a ftrict coincidence between 
the actual fcenery, and the local cir- 
cumftances mentioned in that poem. 
The general defcription of the fcene 
is " A Jheph'erd l s village and fields, 
fome few miles from Edinburgh."- The 
Wejl Port is alfo mentioned as the road 
from the village to market. The fcenery 
in the neighbourhood of Woodhoufeke, 
is exactly characterized : 

Scene I. 
" Beneath the fouth fide of a craigy bicld, 
Where cryftal fpfings, the nalefom'e waters 

Scene II. 
" A flowery howm, between twa verdant 

Where laffes ufe to wafli, and fpread their 

claiths ; 
A trotting burnie, wimpling through the 

Its channel pebbles, fhin.'ng, fmooth, and 



A romantic fall, near the head of 
Glencrofs water, is ftill named Habbie's 
How, of which Ramfay's defcription 
is exceedingly accurate. 

Peccy. " Gae farer up the burn, to Hab- 
bie's liotu, 
Where a' the fweets o' fpring and funnier 

Between twa birks, out o'er a little lin, 
The water fa's, and mak's a fingan din : 
A pool, breafl-deep, beneath as clear as. 

g la fs, 
Kiffes wi' eafy whirles the bord'ring grafs. 
We'll end our wafhing wliile the morning's 

And when the day grows het, we'll to the 

And wafh ourfells," &c. 

What adds more to the refemblance 
is, that this pool is ftill a favourite 
bathing-place. The ancient tower of 
Fulford, the refidence of Sir David 
Purves, was repaired after the civil 
wars, and its name changed to Wood- 
houfelee, which it ftill retains ; yet far- 
ther countenances the fuppofition of 
Ramfay's having here fixed the ima- 
ginary refidence of his Sir William 
Worthy. William Tytler, Efq. of 
Woodhoufelee, father of the prefent pro- 
prietor, was a native of this parifh. 
He is well known as the author of 
" An Inquiry into the Evidence dgaihM 
Mary Queen of Scots" and of a Differ- 
tation on Scottifh Mufic, annexed to 
Arnot's hiftory of Edinburgh. He alfo 
refcued from oblivion the " King's 
Quair," a poem written by James I. 
of Scotland, during his captivity in 
England ; and proved, on incontefti- 
ble evidence, that Allan Ramfay was 
the true author of the beautiful paf- 
torals, " The Eagle and Robin Red- 
breaft„", and « The Vifwn." Popula- 
tion in 1794, 385. 

GLENDOVAN; a parifh in the 
county of Perth. It takes its name 
from the river Dovan, which winds 
through it ; it extends in length a- 
bout 6 miles, and &,\ in breadth. The 
general afpect is hilly, but the hills are 
green and fmooth, feldom incumbered 
with rocks, and only a few fpots are 
covered with heath : the tract of the 
river is very confined, being fcarcely 
ever more than two furlongs wide, 
and in many places the hills rife per- 
pendicular immediately above the 
ftream. The windings of the river, 
the plantations with which it is fltirt- 



cd r and the furrounding fcenery, form 
a highly piclurefque profpeift. The 
foil of the arable land is in general 
very fertile ; but by far the greater 
part of the diftricl is appropriated to 
fheep pafture. Population in 1793, 
about 240. 

GLENELG; a parifh in Inver- 
nefs-ihire, which alfo gives name to 
a divifion of the fame county. It 
comprehends 3 diftricts, viz. Glenelg, 
the property of Colonel Macleod of 
Macleod ; Kno-rvdort, feparated from 
the former by an arm of the fea, 
called Lochurn, the property of the 
Macdonalds of Glengary and Scot- 
houfe ; and Nortb-morror, feparated 
from KnbKudort by another am v £ the 
fea, called Loclmeavis, the property of 
the family of Lovat. The whole ex- 
tent may be about 20 miles in every 
direction. The two former diftricts 
have a light fertile foil, but Morror is 
rocky and mountainous, fit only for 
pafture. The great road from Fort Au- 
gustus to the Ifie of Sky paffes through 
the parifh ; and, at the termination of 
the road, the ancient barracks of Ber- 
nera are fituated, formerly a confider- 
able military ftation, but now occu- 
pied only as a ferjeants' guard. There 
have been many caftles and, round 
towers in this diftriet, two of which 
are very entire : there are alfo feveral 
tumuli and barrows. Population in 
17913, 1286. 

GLENGARY ; a diftriet of Inver- 
ncfs-fhire, occupying the central part 
of the great valley which extends 
from Invernefs on the E, coaft, to 
Fort William on the W. Glengary 
is the peculiar property of the chief 
of the clan of Macdonnel, who here 
poffeffes an elegant feat at Invergary- 

GLENHOLM; a parifh in the 
county of Peebles, which takes its 
name from the fmall rivulet Holm, 
which paffes through it, and here falls 
into the T-.i-eed. The parifh is about 
3 or 4 miles in length, and nearly 2 in 
breadth. The furface is hilly, and by- 
far the greater part is fheep pafture : 
the arable foil in the valleys is loofe 
and fharp, and when well cultivated 
affords a great return. There are 6 
old caftles or towers, which are now 
in ruins, but appear to have been built 
in a very ftrong manner for fhelter and 
defence, againfi the incurfions of the 

Englifh in the border wars. There 
are alfo the remains of feveral military 
ftation6, both circular and rectangular. 
Population in 1791, about ,300. 

GLENISLA ; a parifh in the county 
of Forfar. It takes its name from its 
local fituation, being placed in a val- 
ley through which the JJla runs. Its 
length, in a direct line, is about 18 
miles, and its breadth on an average 
is nearly 2. The foil is in general of 
a light nature, full of ftones : in fome 
places it appears to be a ftrong loam, 
capable of receiving great improve- 
ment ; and many of the farmers take 
advantage of the limeftone, which is 
found in great abundance in the north- 
ern part of the parifh. Lying at the 
foot of the Grampian mountains, how- 
ever, confiderable attention is paid to 
the rearing of fheep and black cattle. 
There are the ruins of 2 caftles, viz. 
Forter and Newton, both of which 
belonged to the Ogiivies of Airly, and 
in 1641 were demolifhed by the Mar- 
quis of Argyll. Population in 1791, 

GLENKENS; the northern dif- 
tricl: of Kircudbrightfhire ; compre- 
hending the valley watered by the ri- 
ver Ken, and part of the high lands 
which divide Galloway from Carrick. 
It is divided into 4 parifhes, Keils, 
Balmaclellan, Dairy, and Carfphairn ; 
and contains the royal burgh of New 
Galloway. The Glenkms breed of 
fheep and black cattle is much famed, 
and the farmers are reputed to excel 
in the management of their pafture 

Glen kin lass, in Argyllshire. Vide 

GLENLUCE ; a diftricl of Wig- 
tonfhire, watered by the river Luce. 
It is now divided into two parifhes, 
called Old and New Luce. Glen- 
luce is ftill the name of a confider- 
able village in that diftricl, fituated at 
the difcharge of the river Luce into the 
bay of the fame name, where it forms 
a tolerable harbour for fmall veffels. 
The village contains upwards of 200 
inhabitants, and is daily increafing. 
Balcail, the feat of Major Rofs, is fi- 
tuated immediately N. of the village, 
and the furrounding policies increafe 
the beauty of the fcenery. The ruins 
of a priory are alfo to be feen in the 

GLENLYON ; a long narrow vale 



in Braidalbin, in Perthfhire, watered 
by the river Lyon ; it is a part of the 
parifh of Fortingal, under which ar- 
ticle a defcription is given of its ro- 
mantic appearance. 

Glen-more-na-h'alabin, " the 
great glen of Caledonia" is a term 
applied to that valley, which runs in 
a direction from N. E. to S. W. the 
whole breadth of the kingdom, from 
the Moray Frith at Invernefs, to the 
Sound of Mull below Fort William, 
and which is aim oft filled with exten- 
five lakes. Mr. Knox, in his View of 
of the Britifh Empire, points out this 
vale as the proper direction of a canal 
acrofs the kingdom: indeed, this feems 
almoft completed by nature ; for, the 
diftance in a direct line is little more 
than 50 miles, and of this the navi- 
gable lakes, Loch Nefs, Loch Olch, and 
Loch Locky, make near 40. The whole 
length is thus ftated by Mr. Knox : 

Loch JSTefs, 




River Nefs, { 

Oich, 5 

Lochy, 5 

Land, 1 

So that 36 miles are navigable on a 
grand fcale ; 20 miles confift of rivers, 
which might be rendered navigable by- 
means of cuts, and a miles of land. 
The expence of making it is eftimated 
at 164,000!. ; no great fum, when 
compared with the advantages which 
would remit from it. Were this line 
of navigation opened to the great 
weftern finieries, a new fpecies of traf- 
fic and commercial intercourfe would 
arife ; markets of reciprocal benefit 
would be opened on both fhores, and 
give employment to all thcfe who pre- 
fer induftry to indigence and idlenefs, 
of which there are many thoufands in 
this remote diftricl. 

GLENMUICK ; a large and popu- 
lous parifh in Aberdeenfhire, formed 
by the union of the parishes of Glen- 
muick, Tulloch, and Gleng airn. 
It lies near the middle of the borders 
of the county, being about 40 miles 
W. from Aberdeen, the county town ; 
it is of an irregular figure, about 18 
miles in length, and 15 in breadth, in- 
terfecled by the Dee, and feveral of 
its tributary dreams, of which the 
Muick, and the Gairn are the chief. 
The foil is in general mallow and ear- 

ly, producing good grain, but, pro- 
portionably, very little fodder. Agri- 
culture has been lately much improv- 
ed, from the exertions and example 
of Mr. Gordon of Abergeldie, one of 
the principal heritors, who has his 
elegant refidence in the parifh. The 
hills are of confiderable elevation, and 
many of them are covered with wood 
to the very fummit. The fmall lake 
of Kannor or Cannor, is about 3 miles 
in circumference, in which are fevera} 
ifiands, with the ruins of caftles upon, 
them. There are feveral other ruin- 
ous caftles in the parifh, particularly 
the caflle of Cnoe, the property of Mr. 
Gordon ; Dee-cafile, the property of 
the E^tfl of Aboyne ; and the c'aftle 
of Glengainiy belonging to the fame 
nobleman. In this diftricl: are the ce* 
lebrated mineral wells of Pannanach, 
lituated on the banks of the Dee; (vide 
Pannanach.) There is a vein of lead 
ore near the caftle of Glengairn, but 
it has never been wrought to advan- 
tage : there is plenty of limeftone over 
the whole diftricl: ; which, near Pan- 
nanach, affumes the appearance of 
fine marble. In 1794, the parifh con- 
tained 21 1 7 inhabitants. 

Thefe united parifhes are lituated in 
the county of Argyll, or. the borders 
of Perthfhire, and extend of unequal 
breadth upwards of 24 miles in length, 
excepting the vale of Glenorchay, 
which forms a beautiful plain of 3 
miles in length, and half a mile in 
breadth. The whole diftricl: is moun- 
tainous and hilly. The river Urchay 
or Orchay glides through the middle, 
dividing it into two parts, till it falls 
into the beautiful expanfe of water, 
called Loch Awe or Loch 0<iu : on the 
fides of the river the foil is a mixture 
of light earth and fand : on the banks 
of the loch it is generally deeper, and 
very fertile. The church and manfe 
of the parifh are fituated on a beauti- 
ful oblong iflet, formed in the bed of 
the river Urchay ; it is in the center 
of the valley, and is upwards of a 
mile in circumference, and everywhere 
bordered with coppices and natural 
woods to the very edge of the river. 
The hills and muirs, which fome 
years ago were covered with heath 
and coarfe herbage, are, fince the in- 
troduction of Iheep into the country, 
gradually getting a richer fward, of £ 


greener hue, and afford excellent paf- 
ture : every where are fprings of pure 
and falubrioils water. In former times, 
it was fuppofed that no dotneftic ani- 
mal could ftand the feverities of a 
winter in the high and ftormy grounds ; 
and even the goats and (mall fheep 
were regularly houfed, and fed in 
pens during the rigour of the feafon : 
now, the hills are covered with large 
fheep throughout the whole year. The 
higher parts abounded once with fo- 
reils of the largeft and belt pines, but 
thefe were cut down about 80 years 
ago : there are ftill fome tracts of na- 
tural woods in Glenorchay, chiefly of 
firs and oak, intermixed with afh, 
birch, and alder. The banks of Loch 
Ow are covered with plantations of 
various kinds of wood, of which the 
horfe-chefnut, the mountain afh, and 
the lime, and the plane, are molt con- 
fpicuous, and grow with great luxuri- 
ance and beauty. The chief hills are 
Beindoran, Beinlaol, and Cruachan, of 
which the laft is the higheft. Belides 
Loch Ow, there are feveral lakes, and 
many rivulets which abound with 
trout, and contain a few falmon. The 
military road from Stirling to Inver- 
aray and Tayndrom, and from Tayn- 
drom to Fort William, pafs through 
the parifh : and one part of this beau- 
tiful line, from the bridge of Aw to 
Dalmally, winds through the woods 
and dells, prefenting fuch varied and 
agreeable views of water, of iflands, 
of towering mountains, and Hoping 
hills, as give an uncommon grandeur 
and fublimity to the profpect : part of 
the road lies through a narrow defile, 
amidft fuch irregularities of nature, 
fuch deep chafms, fuch dreadful im- 
pending rocks, as indicate fome vaft 
convulsions of the earth to have hap- 
pened at fome remote period of time. 
On fome of the iflands of Loch Ow 
are the remains of old caftles ; vide 
Ow (Loch.) Hayfield, the feat of 
Mr. M'Dougald, is an elegant houfe, on 
the banks of the lake. Mr. Campbell 
of Lochnell, Mr. Campbell of Monie, 
and Mr. Lindfay of Boccaird, have 
alfo elegant refidences. On the con- 
fines of the parifh a lead mine has 
been wrought for many years : in fe- 
veral hills are appearances of lead ore. 
Cobalt, talc, afbejiine filaments, and a 
beautiful green jafper, have been found 
in the fragments of the mountains, 


Which are moltly of granite, with 
■porphyry and a mixture of foldt /par : 
limeftone is quarried in feveral parts 
of the parifh. Population in 1792, 

Glenshee (Spital of); a cele- 
brated pafs into the Highlands, near 
the head of the Black water or Shee, 
and a few miles S. of the point where 
the counties of Aberdeen, Perth, and 
Angus meet. In 17 18, a fmall body 
of Highlanders, with 300 Spaniards, 
took pofleffion of this pafs ; but, at 
the approach of the king's forces, they 
retired to the pafs of Strachell. They 
were driven from one eminence to 
another till night, when the Highland- 
ers difperfed, and the next day the 
Spaniards furrendered themfelves pri- 
foners of war. 

GLENSHEIL; a parifh inRofsfhire. 
It is a Highland diftridt, extending 
from the N. W. fide of the arm of the 
fea called Loch Dutch, 16 miles in 
length, and from i| to 4 miles in 
breadth. The furface coniifts chiefly 
of two valleys, on the fides of which 
the hills rife to a prodigious height, 
almoft by a perpendicular afcent. In 
many places thefe mountains arerocky, 
and covered with heath and bent to 
the very fummits ; but the interjacent 
valleys are pleafant, being covered 
with grafs, and fome natural wood ; 
but the proportion of arable ground 
is very inconfiderable. The fhores 
abound with fifh, and Loch Dutch re- 
ceives an annual vifit from the fhoals 
of herring. The great military road 
from Fort Auguilus to Bernera paffes 
through the parifh, but has been ne- 
glected, and allowed to fall into dif- 
repair lince the year 1776. In the 
heights of the parifh, is the narrow 
pafs of GlenJBeil, famous for the battle 
between the Englifh troops and the 
Highland adherents of King James, 
led by the Earl of Seaforth, in which 
the latter were defeated. Population 
in 1791, 721. 

GLENTILT ; a pafs in the High- 
lands of Athol, famous for the war- 
riors which it anciently produced, 
and the dangerous road which runs 
through it. Mr. Pennant fays, " it is 
a narrow glen, feveral miles in length, 
bounded on each lide by mountains 
of- an amazing height : on the S. is 
the great hill of B'-^-y-glo (BeingJo), 
whole bafe is %s mile? in circumfer-- 


unce, and whofe fummit towers far a- 
bove the others. The fides of many 
of thefe mountains are covered with 
fine verdure, and are excellent fheep- 
walks, but entirely woodlefs. The 
road is the mod dangerous and hor- 
rible I ever travelled : a narrow path, 
fo rugged, that our horfes were often 
obliged to crofs their legs, in order to 
pick a fecure place for their feet; 
while, at a confiderable and precipi- 
tous depth beneath, roared a black 
torrent, rolling through a bed of rock, 
iblid in every part but where the Tilt 
had worn its ancient way." 

THEN; aparifh in the county of For- 
far ; extends about 8 miles in length, 
and 4 in breadth, elevated on the fkirts 
of the Grampian mountains. It has a 
bleak and barren afpect; the furface is 
compofed of hills, valleys, and moun- 
tains, and poffeffes few fpots which 
admit of culture; and even thefe fpots 
are of a thin muirifh foil, yielding an 
inferior quality of grain. The greater 
part is laid out in pafturage, neither 
the foil nor climate being favourable 
for plantations^ It is watered by the 
'lila, and one of its tributary ftreams, 
called Melgam. There are feveral 
cairns, and the ruins of a caftle, faid 
to have been built feveral centuries 
ago, by Sir Allan Domet, one of the 
anceftors of the family of Airly. 
There is a lake about a mile in dia- 
meter, which gives rife to o-ne of the 
principal ftreams of the Melgam. In 
1793, the pariih contained about 900 

Goatfikld, or Gaoilbhein ; a 
lofty mountain in the center of the 
ifland of Arran. It is elevated 2840 
feet perpendicular above the level of 
rhe fea ; and, perhaps, no mountain in 
Britain affords a more extenfive prof- 
peel. Many topazes, and other preci- 
ous ftones are found, fimilar to thole 
of the Cairngorm, of the fame figure 
and colour. A few thin feams of 
coal are alfo to be feen near the N. 
end of the mountain. 

Goil (Loch) ; a fmall arm of the 
fea in Argyllfhire, which ftrikes off 
from Loch Long in a N. W. direction. 

GOLSPY ; a pariih in the county 
of Sutherland. It extends along the S. 
E. coaft of the county about 10 miles 
in length, and from 1 to % miles in 
breadth ; divided by the burn of Gol- 


fpy, at the mouth of which the village* 
of the fame name is fituated, contain- 
ing neatly 300 inhabitants. The ara- 
ble foil is in general light, but of 
good quality, and tolerably fertile ; in 
fome parts it is a deep ftrong clay ; 
but the greater part of the pariih is 
hilly, and covered with heath. The 
fnores abound with all forts of fifh ; 
and every third year, from the fea 
ware on the rocks, about 30 or 40 
tons of kelp are made. Population 
in 1702, 1700. 

GOMETRA; a fmall bafaltic ifland . 
of the Hebrides, fituated between the' 
ifiands of Mull and Staffa. 

lage and pariih in Lanarkfhire, lying 
oppohte to Glafgow, on the S. bank 
of the Clyde. Vide Glasgow. 

GORDON ; a pariih in the coun- 
ty of Berwick, in the diftrict of Lau- 
derdale. It extends about- 7 miles in 
length, and its breadth varies from a 
to 4. The furface is uneven, but 
moft of' the hills are under cultiva- 
tion : there are many pieces of good 
arable land, fome of it of a clay foil, 
but in general light and fandy ; there 
are feveral extenlive bogs and modes, 
which fupply fuel to the inhabitants. . 
The pariih is watered by the Eden 
and Blackadder, on which are erected 
feveral corn mills. It would appear 
that this diftrict was once the pro- 
perty of the Dukes of Gordon, from 
which they took their title, as they ftill 
retain the fuperiority of many of the 
farms ; and two places are yet named 
Gordon and Huntly, the two titles of 
that family. Population in 1790, 912. 

GOURDON ; a hilling village in 
Kincardinefhire. It lies about 2 miles 
S. of the burgh of Inverbervie, and 
pofTeffes a fmall harbour, which is nei- 
ther commodious, nor fheltered from 
the S. and E. winds. It contains 200 

GOUROCK; a fmall town and 
harbour in Renfrewlhire, almoft unit- 
ed by a row of houfes to the town of 
Greenock, of which it is confidered 
as a part ; it is, however, a burgh of 
barony, erected by Charles I. in fa- 
vours of the family of Shaw, who are 

GOVAN ; a parifli fituated chiefly 
in Lanarkfhire ; but a fmall part of it 
lies in the county of Renfrew. It ex- 
tends about 5 miles in lengthy and 


from 3 to 4 in breadth. The river 
Clyde, which is here navigable to vef- 
fels drawing 7 feet water, runs through 
its whole extent, and divides nearly 
into two equal parts. On each fide 
of the river a fine plain extends, a- 
bout a mile and an half in breadth, 
adorned with beautiful plantations 
and elegant villas, forming, with the 
Shipping in the river, a moll delight- 
ful landfcape. The foil varies from a 
light loam to a tilly clay, which, though 
not naturally fertile, is, from the im- 
provement of agriculture, tolerably 
productive. The village of Govern is 
long and ftraggling, containing about 
230 families. There is a ferry over 
the Clyde, about %\ miles below Glaf- 
gow, where the Kelvin empties itfelf 
into that river. The Kelvin, in pairing 
through this parifh, is of great fervice 
in the working of machinery, and wa- 
ters 5 or 6 very extenfive bleachfields; 
and, in the immediate vicinity of the 
village, a large one has been laid out, 
watered by the Clyde. There is 
plenty of freeftone and brick clay, 
and coal has been wrought for many 
years. About % miles S, of the church, 
are the remains of an old caftle, of 
Gothic architecture, built in 1585 ; 
and, near the Kelvin, are the ruins of 
an edifice, erected in ion, for the 
country refidence of the Bifhops of 
Glafgow, and ftill named the Bifhops 
caftle. Population in 1794) 2518. 

GOWR1E ; a diftrict in Perthfhire, 
comprehending the carfe lands on the 
N. bank of the Tay, betwixt Dundee 
and Perth, and extending northward 
over the Sidlanv hills as far as Blair- 
Gowrie, near to the Spital of Glenjhee. 
Vide Carse of Gowrie, and Blair- 

GRiEMSAY ; one of the Orkney 
ifiands. It extends about a mile and 
an half in length, and one in breadth; 
it is rented by 36 families, in very 
fmall farms ; a great part is arable, 
and only a few fheep are reared in the 
•hilly diftrict ; its coafts afford great 
quantities of kelp ; it is united to- the 
ifland of Hoy, in forming a parochial 
diftrict. Population in 1794, about 

GRAHAMSTON ; a village in the 
barony of Glafgow, in Lanarkshire, 
containing in 1791, 896 inhabitants. 
It may be counted almoft a fuburb of 
the city of Glafgow, being connected 
to it by feveral ftreets* 


GRAITNEY; a parifh and village! 
in Dumfriesfhire. The parifh is of an 
oblong figure, extending 6 miles in 
length along the Solway Frith, and 3 
in breadth. It is in general level, having 
few rifing grounds, and thefe of fmall 
elevation ; Graitney hill, the higheft 
eminence, being only 252 feet above 
the level of the fea: except fome tracts 
of mofs and boggy grounds, the foil 
is generally fertile and well cultivated. 
There are feveral harbours on the Sol- 
way Frith, where veffels of confider- 
able burden can unload in fafety, par- 
ticularly at the fmall village of Sark- 
foot, Hiedkirkpoint, Breiufe, &C. The 
Sark and Kirtle rivulets interfect the 
parifh for feveral miles. Lately, the 
new village of Springfield arofe on the 
eftate of Sir William Maxwell, and. 
promifes to be a thriving manufactur- 
ing ftation. The village of Graitney 
is the firft ftage in Scotland, on the 
road from England by Moffat to E- 
drnburgh, and has been long famous 
in the annals of matrimonial adven- 
ture, for the clandeftine marriages of 
fugitive lovers from England, which 
have been celebrated here. Thefe are 
performed by feveral perfons, none of 
whom are clergymen ; but the greateft 
part of the trade is monopolized by a 
tobacconift, and not a blackfmith, as 
is generally believed; a fellow without 
literature, without principles, with- 
out religion, and without manners ; 
whofe life is a continued fcene of de- 
bauchery, asid whofe irregular conduct 
has rendered him an object of detefta- 
tion to the fober and virtuous part of 
the neighbourhood. It is truly a dif~ 
grace to permit fuch irregularities to 
be practifed with impunity, and re- 
flects not a little on the good fenle of 
thofe of the nobility and gentry of 
England, to fuffer themfelves to be 
duped by fuch an impoftor. It is 
nearly 60 years fince thefe marriages 
began to be folemnized here; and, on 
the loweft computation, 60 or 65 
couple are. annually joined, which, ef- 
timated at 15 guineas each, bring in a- 
bout 950I. per annum!!! The cere- 
mony, when any form is ufed, is that 
of the church of England ; and the 
certificate is figned by the par/on! ! 
and two witneffes, under fictitious 
names. It may be amufing to infert 
a copy of one of thefe certificates in 
the original fpelling. — " This is tofart- 


fay lill pel fins that my be confernid, that \ 
A. 3. from the fiari/h of C. in the county 
of _D. and E. F. of the parijh of G. in 
the county of H. and both conies before 
me, and declayred themfelefs both to be 
jingle perfons, and noxu mayried by the 
form of the kirk of Scotland, and agre- 
ible to the church of England, and git-en 
ondre my hand this 6th day of March 
.1802." Eheu/J Graitney-haFl has been 
lately fitted op as a commodious ftage 
inn by the Earl of Hopeton, the pro- 
prietor. In the neighbourhood of the 
village is Springkell, the elegant refi- 
dence of Sir William Maxwell. At 
Graitney Mains, are the remains of 
an oval druidical temple, enclofmg a- 
bout half an acre of ground. The pa- 
ri fh contained in 1794, 1 810 inhabit- 

Grampian Mountains; that 
chain of hills' which extends acrofs the 
ifland, from the diftrict of Covval in 
Argyllshire on the Atlantic, to Aber- 
deen on the German ocean, and there 
forming another ridge in a north weft- 
erly direction, extends through Aber- 
deenfhire to Moray, and the borders 
■of Invernefs. They are named fo from 
the Gaelic words Grant and Bhein, 
which are i'aid to fignify huge or ugly 
mountains, or from the Mons Grampi- 
us of Tacitus, where Galgacus waited 
the approach of Agricola, and where 
the Caledonians are faid to hate - re- 
ceived their almoft total overthrow. 
The fouthern front of the firft ridge 
has, in many places, a gradual and 
pleafant dope, into a campaign coun- 
try of great extent and fertility ; and, 
notwithstanding the forbidding afpeet, 
at firft fight, of the mountains them- 
felves, with their covering of heath 
and rugged rocks, they are interfered 
in a thoufand directions by the wind- 
ing valleys, watered by rivers and 
brooks of the moft limpid water, clad 
with the richeft paftures, Sheltered by 
thriving woods that fringe the lakes, 
and run on each fide of the ftreams, 
and are acceffible in moft places by 
excellent roads. Thefe valleys, which 
exhibit fuch a variety of natural beau- 
ty, alfo form a contraft with the rug- 
gednefs of the furrounding mountains, 
and prefent to the eye the moft ro- 
mantic fcenery. The rivers inthe deep 
defiles ftruggle to find a paffage ; and 
often the oppofite hills approach fo 
sear, that the waters rufii with incre- 


dible force and deafening noife, in pro- 
portion to the height of the fall, and: 
the width of the opening. Thefe are' 
commonly called Paffes, owing to the 
difficulty of theii paffage,before bridges 
were erected ; and Ave may mention 
as examples, the Pafs of Leney, of A- 
bsrfoil, and the famous paffes of Gil- 
licrankie, and the Spital of Glenfhee. 
Beyond thefe, plains of various extent 
appear filled with villages and culti- 
vated fields : in the interftices are 
numerous expanfes of water, connect- 
ed with rivulets, ftored with a variety 
of fifii, and covered with wood down 
to the water edge. The craggy tops 
are covered with flocks of iheep ; ancl 
numerous herds of black cattle are 
feen browfing on the paftures in the 
valleys. On the banks of the lakes or 
rivers is generally the feat of fome 
nobleman or gentleman. The N. fide 
of the Grampians is more rugged in 
its appearance, and the huge maffes arc 
feen piled on one another in the moft 
awful magnificence, The height of the 
Grampian mountains varies from 1400 
feet to 3500 feet above the level of 
the fea, and feveral of them are ele~ 
vated ftill higher. The Cairngorm 
in Morayfhire, the Bin-na-bazrd in A- 
berdeenihire, the lofty mountains in 
Angus and Perthfhires, and the moun- 
tain of Benlomond in Dumbartonshire, 
are elevated confiderably above that 
height. Along the S. bafe of the Gram- 
pians lies the vale of Strathmore, or 
" great vale," a term which is often 
given to the ftrath from Dumbarton 
to Aberdeen ; but in a reftricted fenfe, 
it is generally applied to that fertile 
diftrict of Perth, Angus, and Mearns, 
which extends from- Meth-ven-caftle 
to the village of Laurence-kirk ; (vide 
Strathmore.) The minerals of 
which thefe mountains are compofed, 
are too various for enumeration : many 
of the hills are evidently volcanic, and 
compofed of bafaltes and lava: pre- 
cious ftones abound in the Aberdeen- 
fhire mountains, and the Cairngorm 
topazes are well